Barcelona. I. A province of Spain, in Catalonia, bordering on the Mediterranean; area, 2,983 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 749,143. It is less mountainous and better cultivated, more densely peopled, and in general more flourishing than any other Catalonian province. The Llobregat, its principal river, intersects it N. and S. It is traversed by several railways, and has good roads. Its chief products are grain, oil, wine, fruit, hemp, silk, iron, copper, and coal; there are several salt mines and numerous mineral springs. II. A city and seaport, capital of the above described province, situated in lat. 41° 21' N, lon. 2° 10' E., on the Mediterranean, 315 m. E. N. E. of Madrid, in a beautiful plain between the rivers Besos and Llobregat, at the foot of Mount Monjuich (the Mons Jovis of the Romans, the Mons Judaicus of the middle ages, so named because it was then inhabited by the Jews); pop. in 1864, 190,000; in 1868, including the large suburb of Barceloneta, 167,095. The diminution is ascribed to the mortality caused by the cholera of 1865, and the removal of much of the manufacturing industry beyond the municipal boundary. It is the most flourishing, and after Madrid the most populous city in Spain, the great manufacturing and commercial emporium, and one of the finest cities of the peninsula.
The harbor is formed by a huge mole, running southward for a considerable distance from the shore; the depth of water within the mole is 20 ft. The fort of Monjuich, south of the town, stands upon the isolated hill of that name, 752 ft. above the level of the sea. It commands the city, the citadel, and the port, and is considered by the Spaniards to be impregnable. The citadel, N. E. of the town, is a regular fortress built on the system of Vau-ban. There are also walls, ditches, and batteries. Barcelona is the see of a bishop and the seat of an audiencia. It has a university opened in 1868, several commercial academies, and many civil, military, art, and benevolent institutions, prominent among which is the junta de comercio, or board of trade, which supports professorships of navigation, architecture, chemistry, experimental philosophy, agriculture, commerce, mechanics, and foreign languages. The city is generally well built; the houses in the newer part are mostly of brick four or five stories high, with ornamented balconies. The principal streets are long, wide, well paved, and lighted. In the older portion the streets are narrower, and crooked, but picturesque.
Foremost among its numerous promenades is the Rambla (so called from the Arabic rami, sand, applied to a dry river bed, used as a road). There is also a fine promenade around the ramparts, with pleasant views toward the sea. Among the churches are the cathedral, a fine structure, which the Moors converted into a mosque; the church of Santa Maria del Mar, erected on the site of a chapel of the Goths, the rebuilding of which was begun in 1328, and completed in 1483; and the church of San Cucufat, erected on the spot where its patron saint was martyred. Other public buildings are the casa consistorial and casa de la deputation, the casa lonja or exchange, and the palace of the captain general. There are many Roman antiquities, but mostly in fragments. - The commerce and manufactures of Barcelona have received a great impulse since 1860. Many large manufacturing establishments, especially of silk and cotton, have sprung up. In 1865 there were 7 banking companies, 10 marine insurance companies, 5 railway companies, 4 steam navigation companies, 3 canal companies, and 3 gas companies. The bank of Barcelona, founded in 1844, has a capital of 80,000,000 reals ($10,000,000), of which 20,-000,000 has been paid up. Railways are being gradually extended from Barcelona into the interior.
The principal exports are silks and cotton goods, paper, hats, laces, ribbons, soap, steel, and firearms. The principal imports are raw cotton, sugar, coffee, cocoa, and other colonial products, mainly from Cuba and Porto Rico; salted fish, hides, and horns. Iron and coal, machinery and hardware, have lately been largely imported from England. Most kinds of manufactured goods are prohibited, but they are smuggled in considerable quantities. The coastwise trade is also very considerable. In 1863 the imports at Barcelona were $50,734,079; the exports, $16,864,490; value of imports, $41,849,940; of exports, $72,-420,770. - Barcelona, according to tradition, was founded by Hercules 400 years before the building of Rome. It was reestablished or, according to more trustworthy accounts, founded by Hamilcar Barca, the father of Hannibal, who called it Baroino, whence comes its present name. After the expulsion of the Carthaginians, it fell into the hands of the Romans, who made it a colony, known also under the name of Faventia. In the 5th century it was taken by the Goths; in the 7th century by the Arabs, from whom it was reconquered about 800 by the Christians, aided by Charlemagne. It was then governed until the 12th century by counts, who were really independent, though nominally subject to the Carlovingian kings.
It subsequently became attached to the kingdom of Aragon, preserving however its most important municipal privileges. During this period the Barcelonians competed with the Italians for the commerce of the Levant, and were among the first to establish consuls and factories in distant parts for the protection of their trade. The famous code of maritime law known as the Consolato del Mar is said to have been compiled and promulgated at Barcelona. Marine insurance and the negotiation of bills of exchange were practised here at an early date. In 1640 Barcelona rose against the tyranny of Philip IV., and threw herself into the arms of France. It was retaken in 1652. In 1697 it was captured by the French, but restored to Spain in the same year. During the war of the succession, it espoused the cause of Austria. In 1706 it was captured by the Spaniards and English under the earl of Peterborough. In 1714 it was bombarded and taken by the French, under the command of the duke of Berwick. In 1808 it was taken by Napoleon, who held it till 1814. In 1842 it revolted against the queen of Spain, and was bombarded and taken by Espartero in December. Another insurrection, which broke out in June, 1843, was suppressed, after a bombardment, in November, and another, in July, 1856, after a few days, but with considerable bloodshed.
Several minor popular movements took place both before and after the fall of Queen Isabella.
Barcelona. I. A N. state of Venezuela, bounded N. by the Caribbean sea and S. by the river Orinoco; area, 13,800 sq. m.; pop. about 78,600. Except a belt of hills that border the coast, where there are excellent arable lands, and the best plantations in the state, the face of the country is composed of low plains and extensive plateaus, offering fine pasturage for cattle, horses, and mules. The chief rivers are the Neveri, Pao, and Unare. Cacao, coffee, sugar cane, cotton, maize, cocoanuts, and tropical fruits are largely produced. The state is divided into 8 cantons. II. A city, formerly called New Barcelona, capital of the state, situated near the mouth of the Neveri, which is here crossed by a wooden bridge, about 3 m. from the sea, and 160 m. E. of Caracas; pop. about 6,000 (in 1800, 16,000) half colored. It was founded in 1637 by Juan Ur-pin at the foot of the Cerro Santo, whence it was transferred to its present site in 1671 by Sancho Fernando de Agula. The city has been nearly ruined by war and revolution. There is a church and several schools. The houses are mostly of mud, ill constructed and poorly furnished; and the streets are unpaved and in rainy weather extremely filthy, while in dry weather the dust is intolerable.
The harbor and shipping are protected by a fortress, on a hill 400 feet above the level of the sea. The climate, owing to the excessive heat and moisture of the air, is exceedingly insalubrious, and the city is said by Humboldt to be one of the most unhealthy places on the globe. The surrounding country is very fertile. Barcelona exports horned cattle, jerked beef, hides, indigo, annotto, cotton, and cacao.