Baronhs, Or Raronio, Cesare, an Italian historian, born at Sora in 1538, died in Rome in 1007. He went to Rome in 1557, and became one of the first disciples of St. Philip of Neri, founder of the congregation of the Oratory, whom he succeeded as superior in 1593. Pope Clement VIII. soon after made him his confessor, in 1596 created him cardinal, and finally appointed him librarian of the Vati-can. He was twice a candidate for the papal chair, but was defeated by the Spanish party, to which he had given offence in his treatise De Monarchia Siciliae, by opposing the claim of Spain to Sicily. His principal work, a history of the church, entitled Annales Ecclesias-tici a Christo nato ad annum 1198 (12 vols., Home, 1588-1007), written to oppose the "Magdeburg Centuries," occupied him for 30 years. It abounds in errors of various kinds, and shows a lack of critical spirit; but it is esteemed one of the most valuable repositories of church history, and a work of great learning and research. It was continued by Rinaldi and Laderchi, and annotated by Pagi; and the whole work, with the continuations, etc, was republished at Lucca in 38 vols, fol., 1737-'57. A more recent continuation, embracing the years 1572-85, was composed by Theiner (Home, 1850-'57). Baronius also published an edition of the Martyrologium Roma-num, with notes (fol, Rome, 1580), but afterward endeavored to suppress it on account of errors discovered in it.