Bavaria (Ger. Bayern or Baiern), a kingdom of central Europe, next after Prussia the most important member of the German empire. Capital, Munich. Bavaria consists of two parts, separated by Hesse-Darmstadt, Baden, and Wurtemberg, the shortest distance between the divisions being 30 m. The larger or eastern division, lying between lat. 47° 15' and 50° 35' N., and lon. 9° and 13° 50' E., is bounded N. by Saxony, Reuss, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Weimar, and the Prussian province of Hesse (Cassel); E. by the Austrian empire; S. by Switzerland and the Austrian empire; and W. by Hesse-Darmstadt, Baden, and Wurtemberg. The smaller division, known as the Palatinate (Ger. Pfalz) or Rhenish Bavaria, lies on the W. bank of the Rhine, between lat. 48° 57' and 49° 50' N., and Ion. 7° 5' and 8° 30' E. It is bounded N. by Hesse-Darmstadt and Rhenish Prussia; E. by the Rhine, which separates it from Baden; S. by Alsace-Lorraine; and W. by Rhenish Prussia. Area since the peace of 1866, in which 213 sq. m. were ceded to Prussia, 29,292 sq. m.

The population according to the census of 1871 was 4,861,402. The increase during the last 50 years has been nearly 25 per cent., as the total population in 1818 numbered 3,707,966. In 1867, in a total population of 4,824,421, there were 3,441,029 Roman Catholics, 1,328,-713 Protestants, 4,839 other Christian sects, and 49,840 Jews. The Protestants were divided into 989,343 Lutherans, 3,267 Reformed, and 336,103 United Evangelicals. In 1871 the Roman Catholic population embraced several thousand Old Catholics. The number of persons who emigrated from Bavaria amounted from 1830 to 1869 to about 288,000. The kingdom and population are distributed in eight Begierungs-Bezirke (administrative districts), as follows:

DISTRICTS.

Area in sq. m.

Pop., Dec. 31, 1846.

Pop., Dec. 31, 1855.

Pop., Dec. 31, 1871.

1. Upper Bavaria (Ober-bayern) .............

6,582

705,544

744,151

841,579

2. Lower Bavaria (Nieder-bayern)..............

4.157

543,709

554,013

602,005

3. Palatinate (Pfalz)......

2,293

608,470

587,334

615,104

4. Upper Palatinate and Ratisbon (Oberpfalz und Regensburg).....

3,731

467,606

471,906

497,960

5. Upper Franconia (Ober-franken).............

2,702

501,163

493,913

540,963

6. Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken).......

2,918

527,866

533,587

583,417

7. Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg (Unterfranken und A.).....

3.243

592.080

589.076

586,122

8. Swabia and Neuburg...

3,666

558,436

561,576

582,888

Army of Occupation in

France....

11.864

Total..............

29,292

4,504,874

4,541,556

4,861.402

The population is almost exclusively of Germanic origin. A few hundred thousand inhabitants of the Fichtel mountains, who are of Slavic descent, have long since been fully Germanized; only in the Palatinate there are about 3,500 Frenchmen. Three original Germanic tribes constitute the population: the Boioarians or Bavarians, between the Allgau Alps and the so-called Franconian Jura, and the rivers Lech, Inn, and Salzach; the Franconians or Franks, between the Franconian Alps, the Thnringian and Bohemian mountains, and in the Palatinate; and a branch of .the Swabians bordering on Wiirtemberg. The Franconians number about 2,500,000, the Swabians 500,-000; the rest are Bavarians. - Bavaria is an elevated country, hilly rather than mountainous, on the borders of which are the Bavarian Alps, in the south; the Bohemian Forest, in the east; the Fichtelgebirge and the Franconian Forest, in the northeast; and the Rhon and Spessart, in the northwest. The Bavarian Forest, the Franconian Jura, and other minor ranges, traverse the interior, N. of the Danube. The Palatinate is traversed by the Hardt mountains, a branch of the Vosges. The highest point is the Zugspitz, about 10,000 ft., in the Bavarian Alps; in the Bohemian Forest, the highest points are the Arber, 4,800 ft., and Rachelberg, 4,750 ft.; in the Fichtelgebirge, the Schneeberg is 3,480 ft.; in the Rhon the highest point is about 3,000 ft,; Donnersberg, the culminating point of the Hardt mountains, is about 2,200 ft. - The rivers of the Palatinate belong to the basin of the Rhine; the principal ones are the Lauter, Queieh, Blies, and Nahe. The rivers of Bavaria proper are the Main and Danube and their affluents.

The principal tributaries of the Main are the Regnitz and Saale. The Danube flows for 270 m. through the centre of the kingdom, until at Passau it enters Austria, being navigable throughout this distance. It receives in Bavaria more than 30 considerable affluents, the chief of which are the Iller, Lech, Isar, and Inn from the right; from the left the Wornitz; Altmuhl, Kocher, Naab, Regen, and Hz. Bavaria has several small hikes, the principal of which are the Chiem, Wurm, and Ammer, all situated at the foot of the Bavarian Alps. The circuit of none of these exceeds 40 m. A corner of the lake of Constance also belongs to Bavaria. - The climate is for the most part healthy, although the temperature is variable. It is colder in the winter and warmer in the summer than that of the neighboring countries. In the mountains there are heavy falls of snow, and the Alps, the Fichtelgebirge, and the Bohemian Forest are distinguished from the lower land by the length and severity of their winters. There are extensive forests, especially upon the hills and mountain sides. Great quantities of wood are obtained from these, and distributed through all the surrounding countries. About one third of the forest land is the property of the state; the rest is in private hands.

The soil is generally fertile, producing wheat, rye, oats, and barley; buckwheat, maize, and rice are also cultivated, and potatoes are an important crop. The hop thrives, and the vine flourishes in some parts, especially near Lake Constance and upon the lower course of the Main. Fruits, tobacco, hemp, flax, and licorice are cultivated. But upon the whole agriculture is in a backward condition. Cattle-raising is the most important industry on the slopes of the Alps; but, with the exception of sheep, little has been done to improve the breed of the domestic animals. The total area of the productive soil is 27,532 sq. m., of which 12,352 sq. m. are arable and garden land, 5,804 meadows and pastures, and 9,376 woodland. The latest agricultural statistics (1863) showed 368,528 horses, 3,185,882 horned cattle, 2,058,638 sheep, 926,-522 swine, and 150,855 goats. The annual produce of wine is estimated at 16,218,000 gallons; that of raw tobacco at 114,676 cwt. - The mineral wealth of the country is very considerable. Coal and iron are found almost everywhere. In the Palatinate are mines of copper, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and plumbago.

There are numerous choice varieties of marble, as also gypsum, alabaster, and some of the finest porcelain clay in Europe. Salt, which is a government monopoly, is produced by evaporation from the saline springs in the S. E. corner of the kingdom. Still the mineral wealth is to a great extent undeveloped. The production of salt in 1869 was 977,572 cwt.; of coal, 7,347,247 cwt.; and of iron in 1868, 961,382 tons. The most important article of industry is Bavarian beer, brewed to the highest perfection in Munich, Nuremberg, and Bamberg, and consumed in vast quantities in the country itself. The kingdom had in 1871 about 5,500 breweries, which brewed about 135,000,000 gallons. The mathematical and optical instruments manufactured at Munich are not surpassed by any in the world. Nuremberg is the great emporium for toys; Augsburg is noted for the production of gold, silver, and plated ware; the plumbago crucibles of Passau are exported to all parts of the world; and the ornamental glass of Bavaria rivals that of Bohemia. Coarse linen is the most important branch of textile manufactures, the production of cotton, woollen, and worsted goods not being equal to the home consumption. There are considerable manufactures of leather, straw goods, glass, nails, needles, and porcelain.

The principal articles of export are timber, grain, wine, butter, cheese, and glass, the annual value being about $6,000,000. The principal imports are sugar, coffee, woollens, silks, cotton goods, drugs, hemp, and flax. - The central position of Bavaria gives it the transit trade between North Germany and Austria, Switzerland, and Italy. There are several canals, the principal of which, the Ludwig's canal, constructed by the government at a cost of $4,000,000, unites the Rhine and the Danube, and through, them the German ocean with the Black sea, and is one of the most important works of the kind in Europe. About the middle of 1871 Bavaria had 1,801 m. of railway in operation, a comparatively larger number than Prussia; 1,208 m. were state property or administered by the state, and 593 m. belonged to private companies. The aggregate length of telegraph lines in 1870 was 3,547 m., and that of telegraph wires 11,182 m.; the number of despatches was 858,705; the revenue derived from them, 447,690 fl., and the cost of administration 302,590 fl. The navigation on the Danube in 1871 employed 15 steamers and more than 2,000 sailing vessels, that on the Inn about 2,000 vessels, that on the Rhine 12 steamers and 236 sailing vessels.

In 1869 Bavaria had 262 savings banks with an aggregate capital of 26,410,840 fl.; the number of depositors was 249,-362. - The direction of education is under the control of the minister of public instruction, with inspectors who report to him on the condition of the schools. All children whose parents have not received permission to have them educated at home must attend the public school until they are 14 years old, and must also attend Sunday school two years longer. Every parish has at least one elementary school; besides which there are lyceums and other schools of a higher grade, and trade schools, supported by the communes, in which are taught mathematics, mechanics, chemistry, drawing, architecture, and other branches. The course in these schools occupies three years, from the age of 12 to 15, after which the pupil may enter one of the three polytechnic schools, the course of which occupies three more years, with another year for engineers. There are three universities, of which,Munich and Wurz-burg are Roman Catholic, the latter celebrated for its medical faculty, and Erlangen is Protestant. The university of Munich had in 1870, next to Berlin and Leipsic, the largest number of professors (118) and students (1,321) of any German university.

Of other higher institutions of learning, Bavaria in 1870 had 8 lyceums (schools of theology and philosophy), 28 Gym-nasien, 6 Real-Gymnasien, 84 Latin schools, 33 Gewerbsehulen, 10 normal schools, and 1 Reahchule. The number of elementary schools in 1866 was 8,197, with 604,916 pupils. The polytechnic school of Munich, which was reorganized in 1868, and which had in 1871, in five special departments, 47 professors and 805 students, is the first in all Germany as regards the number of students. At Munich an academy of painting, a school of sculpture, and an architectural academy owe their establishment to King Louis I. The number of newspapers in 1866 in Bavaria was 339, of which 99 were strictly devoted to politics. At the head of them stands the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung, which enjoys a world-wide reputation. - Rather more than seven tenths of the population are Roman Catholics, but religion is entirely free, Protestants and Catholics having the same rights, and the sovereign may be either; civil rights have not, however, been extended to the Jews, or to one or two small Christian sects. The Catholics have 2 archbishoprics, Munich and Bamberg, 6 bishoprics, 171 deaneries, and 2,756 parishes, there being one clergyman to 464 souls.

The Protestant church is under a general consistory and 4 provincial consistories; there are 920 parishes, and one clergyman to 1,013 souls. - Bavaria is a constitutional monarchy, the present constitution having been framed in 1818, but somewhat modified in 1848-'9. The crown is hereditary in the male line. The executive power is vested in the king, but is exercised through ministers who are responsible for all his acts. The diet consists of two houses. The Reichs-rath or upper house is composed of the princes of the royal family, the crown dignitaries, the archbishops, and the heads of certain noble families; to these are added a Catholic bishop, the president of the Protestant consistory, and a number of other members appointed by the crown at pleasure; in 1871 it numbered 72. The lower house is composed of deputies from towns and universities and various religious corporations. The representation (154 members in 1871) is calculated at one deputy to 31,500 persons. The deputies are selected by electors who are chosen by popular vote. To be on the electoral lists, a person must be 25 years of age, and pay taxes to the amount of 10 florins. A deputy must be 30 years of age, and have an assured income from the funds, a trade, or a profession.

According to the treaty of Versailles (Nov. 23, 1870), which regulated the entrance of Bavaria; into the German empire, the Bavarian troops constitute two army corps of the German imperial army. In time of war the two Bavarian corps number 136,617 men. The military organization is in all essential points to be conformed to that of Prussia, hut in the appointment of officers and the management of the army in time of peace greater rights have been accorded to the king of Bavaria than to any other German prince. The public debt amounted in 1870 to 343,000,000 fl. The towns, boroughs, and rural communities had in 1870 an aggregate debt of 27,269,235 fl. The budget of expenditures for each of the two years 1872 and 1873 was 58,629,558 fl. - The name Bayern is derived from the Boii, supposed by some to be of Celtic origin, who inhabited the country before the Christian era. Others, however, deny the Celtic origin, mainly on the ground that the Bavarian dialect bears no trace of it., Southern Bavaria formed a part of the Roman provinces of Rhsetia, Vindelicia, and No-ricum. After the fall of the Roman power the people were governed by their own dukes, from about 530 to 630, when the country became incorporated into the Frankish kingdom, and embraced Christianity. The Bavarians were still under the immediate government of their own dukes, several of whom revolted ' against their Frankish sovereigns.

The last revolt, under Thassilo II., in 777, was effectually suppressed by Charlemagne, whose descendants ruled Bavaria as kings till 911, when the Carlo-vingian line became extinct. From this time for a century and a half the country was convulsed with troubles, partly arising from internal dissensions, and partly from contests with the Magyars, and later from the crusades. In 1180 the count palatine Otto von Wittelsbach became duke, and his descendants have governed the country to the present time. One of these, Louis the Bavarian, was emperor of Germany from 1314 to 1347. Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, the head of the Catholic league in the 30 years' war, was made an elector in 1023, in lieu of the proscribed elector palatine Frederick. During the middle ages the Franconian part of Bavaria had become a centre of trade, industry, and art. Augsburg and Nuremberg rivalled Venice, Genoa, and Milan as mercantile entrepots. The Swa-bians raised Gothic architecture to its highest perfection, and excelled in poetry.

In painting the Franconian school produced Albert Durer, Lucas Cranach, and Hans Holbein. The minnesingers and mastersingers had their original homes in Franconia and Swabia. There originated the idea of a confederation of the free cities of Germany. The reformation found both stanch adherents and violent enemies in Bavaria, and within its limits Gustavus Adolphus fought both Tilly and Wallcnstein. The discovery of America transferred the seat of the world's commerce to the Atlantic shore, and resulted in the decay of the free cities of Franconia and Swabia. Nuremberg, which in the 10th century had a population of 100,000, declined to a quarter of that number. It still, however, retained much of its old industry, and within the last 30 years has greatly prospered. In 1702 the elector of Bavaria took sides with Louis XIV. of France against Austria, England, and Holland, in the war of the Spanish succession. The French and Bavarian forces were defeated at Blenheim by the duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene in 1704; the elector was put under the ban of the empire, and Bavaria was for ten years governed by imperial commissioners.

In 1742 the elector Charles Albert was chosen emperor by a majority of the electors, and commenced hostilities against Austria; but the empress Maria Theresa, aided by England, defeated him and seized the electorate. Maximilian Joseph, the son and successor of Charles Albert, was restored to his possessions upon renouncing all claims to the imperial dignity. In December, 1777, the direct reigning line became extinct, and the succession devolved upon a collateral branch, governing the Palatinate. But the succession was claimed by the house of Austria, which took military possession of a part of Bavaria. Frederick "the Great of Prussia supported the elector, and Austria resigned her pretensions upon receiving a small strip of disputed territory. In the early part of the wars growing out of the French revolution Bavaria furnished her contingent of troops to the Austrian army. In 1790 Moreau at the head of a French army entered Bavaria and took possession of the capital; a separate peace was concluded, the elector withdrew his contingent from the Austrian army and fell more and more under French influence; and when the war of 1805 broke out between France and Austria, Bavaria was a firm ally of the former. The victories of Ulm and Austerlitz enabled Napoleon to dictate terms of peace.

He rewarded his ally by giving him considerable additional territory, and raising the elector to the royal dignity under the title of Maximilian Joseph I. The king, now the leading member of the Rhenish confederation, took part with France in the war against Prussia, which was decided by the battle of Jena (1800), and at the peace of Tilsit, 1807, Bavaria gained still more territory. In 1809 Austria, emboldened by the absence in Spain of a great part of the French army, declared war against France. The Bavarian troops formed the main body of the army with which Napoleon won the battles of Eckmiihl and Wagram, and the king was rewarded by still further acquisitions of territory. The Bavarian troops formed part of tho force with which Napoleon in 1812 invaded •Russia. By this time Bavaria, like all the other German states, had become weary of the French domination. In 1813, when Napoleon fell back from Leipsic toward the Rhine, Maximilian declared war against him, and endeavored to cut off the retreat of the French; but the Bavarian army, under Wrede, was defeated at Hanau. From this time Bavaria acted vigorously with the allies against Napoleon, and by the treaties of 1814-'15 was confirmed in most of her acquired territories; receding, however, her possessions in Tyrol to Austria, but receiving equivalents in Franconia and on the Rhine. "When the Germanic confederation was formed in 1815, Bavaria occupied the third place.

Louis I. ascended the throne in 1825. Bavaria was little affected by the liberal movements of the next 20 years, but by 1848 general disaffection had arisen, which reached its culmination when the king fell under the influence of Lola Montez, and he was forced to abdicate in favor of his son Maximilian II., whose reign lasted till 1804. Maximilian's chief political aim was to hold the balance of power between Austria and Prussia. The present king, Louis II. (born Aug. 25,1845), succeeded to the throne March 10, 1804. Until recently he followed the general policy of his predecessor. When in 1800 the war broke out between Prussia and Austria, Bavaria took part with the latter, suffered severe defeats, and was obliged to conclude a separate peace, ceding to Prussia a small tract of territory, 213 sq. m., with a population of about 34,000. In 1867 Bavaria joined the North German Zollverein. When the emperor Napoleon declared war against Prussia in 1870, he counted upon the aid or at least the neutrality of the southern states of Germany; but Bavaria speedily entered into a close alliance with North Germany, placing her whole military force at the disposal of the Prussian king, and the Bavarian corps bore a distinguished part in the whole campaign.

King Louis took the initiative in the measures which led to the establishment of the German empire. Toward the close of the year he wrote to the king of Saxony and several other princes, urging the consolidation of Germany under the king of Prussia as emperor. In becoming a part of the empire, January, 1871, Bavaria reserved some special rights as to her domestic autonomy, the control of her army, and representation abroad. The opposition among the Catholic clergy to the decision of the oecumenical council found in 1870 its foremost exponent in Dr. Dollinger, now rector of the university of Munich, and Bavaria has since been the principal battle ground of Old Catholicism.