Berchtesgaden. I. A principality of S. E. Bavaria, in the circle of Upper Bavaria, between the valleys of the Salzach and the Saalach, surrounded on all sides but the N. W. by the Austrian duchy of Salzburg; area, 155 sq. m.; pop. about 9,500. Only a small portion is lit for cultivation. Cattle are fed on the Alpine meadows, and the rest of the surface is all rock, forest, and mountain, comprising the W. half of the Sal/burg Alps, and in it Mount Watz-mann, above 9,000 ft. high. The mountain scenery and that of the Konigs or Bartholomews lake rival Switzerland in picturesqueness. The lake is walled on almost all sides by mountains, and on its shores is St. Bartholoma with a chapel for pilgrims and a royal hunting box. Chamois are sometimes driven by peas^ ants into the lake, when they are shot from boats. In this locality is an ice chapel, a drifted heap of snow which remains unmelted even in summer. Enormous fishes have been at times caught in the lake, which chiefly abounds in the char(salmo Alpinus). Besides salt, the products are marble, gypsum, lead, and other minerals. The inhabitants are noted for their quaint manners and costumes, and for their skill in manufacturing toys of wood, bone, and ivory, and other handiwork, known as Berchtesgaden ware.

The former ecclesiastical territory of Berchtesgaden was secularized in 1803 as a principality of the electorate of Salzburg. In 1805 it came into the possession of the Austrian crown, and in 1810 into that of Bavaria. II. A small town in the district of Traunstein, capital of the principality, 12 m. S. of Salzburg, on the Ache or Albe, an affluent of the Konigs or Bartholo-miius lake, which is 3 m. distant; pop. about 1,800. The former convent, a stately building on a rocky elevation, has become a royal chateau. The late King Maximilian had a hunting villa built here in 1852. Adjoining the town are the extensive Sudhauser or boiling houses, which produce annually over 150,-000 quintals of various kinds of salt. The salt mine is about 1 m. below Berchtesgaden, and the deposit is supposed to be a continuation of the celebrated Hallein mine near Salzbuig, though rock salt is here found in larger masses. Owing to the scarcity of wood, most of the brine is conveyed in pipes to Reichenhall, 11 m. distant. The superfluous brine is raised by an ingenious system of pumps over mountains nearly 2,000 ft. high. The total length of the brine conduit or aqueduct from Berchtesgaden and Reichenhall to Traunstein is nearly 60 m.

The salt manufacture has been in active operation since the end of the 12th century.