This section is from "The American Cyclopaedia", by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana. Also available from Amazon: The New American Cyclopędia. 16 volumes complete..
Bishop (Sax. biscop, from Gr. a superintendent), in the Greek, Latin, and Anglican churches, the title given to those who are of the highest order of the priesthood, to the successors of the 12 apostles, in distinction from the priests, who are the successors of the 70 disciples. In the Methodist Episcopal and Moravian churches, and in the Protestant churches of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, it is the title given to the highest officers in the ministry, who are not, however, regarded as a distinct order. The name was borrowed by the first Christians from the languages of Greece and Rome, in which it designated a civil magistrate. Thus, Cicero was at one time episcopus orm Campanice. In the New Testament the words bishop and presbyter, or priest, are sometimes interchanged, as in Acts xx. 17, 28; and St. John, in his last two epistles, adopts the title of priest. Yet, as maintained by Roman Catholic writers, it does not follow because the names priest and bishop were then applied indifferently, that there existed no distinction between the episcopate and the priesthood. "There might have been confusion in the names," says St. Thomas, "but not in the character." Bishops in the Roman Catholic church are regarded as officers appointed by the Holy Spirit to govern the church.
The authority which they exercise belongs to their character, and comes from God himself, while the jurisdiction of the priests emanates only from a bishop, and can be exercised only under his direction. At first the bishops were elected by the clergy and people of the diocese, but on account of the tumults inseparable from popular assemblies, various councils, from that of Laodicea in the 4th century to that of the Lateran in 1215, restrained and suppressed the electoral rights of the laity. Charlemagne and other of the northern kings appointed the bishops of their own kingdoms by their own authority. The pope, unwilling that bishops should be dependent upon princes, brought it about that the canons in cathedral churches should have the election of their bishops, which elections were usually confirmed at Rome. At present the mode of choosing bishops varies in different countries. They are elected in some countries by cathedral canons; in others they are nominated by the crown or governments. In all cases the names designated are sent to Rome for confirmation, and the person chosen is appointed to his see by letters apostolic.
According to the decrees of the council of Trent, the candidate for this order must be of legitimate birth, 30 years old, well reputed for learning and morality, usually a native of the country in which his bishopric lies, and acceptable to the political government thereof. Within three months from his confirmation he receives the rite of consecration, which is performed in the cathedral of the new bishop, according to the directions of the pontifical, by three bishops appointed for that purpose. The candidate takes the ancient oath of allegiance to the pope and the oatli of civil allegiance, subscribes to the confession of faith, receives the insignia of his office, is anointed and solemnly enthroned, and concludes the ceremony with pronouncing the benediction. His insignia are a mitre, the symbol of power; a crosier, in allusion to his shepherd's duties; a finger ring (annulus pasto-ralis), a sign of his marriage with the church; a cross on the breast, distinctive gloves and sandals, and an official robe. The functions of the bishop embrace all the rites and offices of the Christian religion. He administers five sacraments in common with priests, and two others, those of confirmation and ordination, are his peculiar prerogatives.
He examines and approves or condemns the works published in his diocese concerning religion, and takes part in the general councils convoked by the pope for deciding questions of faith. The guardian of discipline, he makes statutes and ordinances which he judges necessary to the maintenance of it, dispenses with canons according to the canons themselves, judges the offences of ecclesiastics, and has power of suspension, excommunication, and absolution. There are Catholic bishops who have no dio-eeses, and who perform duties within limits assigned by the holy see as vicars apostolic. They bear the title of bishops inpartibm injidelium, because they are assigned to sees which are in the possession of infidels, and are specially delegated to ecclesiastical duties elsewhere. These arc considered successors of the bishops expelled by Mohammedan conquests from their dioceses in the East, and are appointed by the pope as an expression of a perpetual hope and a protest with respect to those conquered sees. - The Protestant movement introduced new conceptions of the church, and changed the form of church government.
In the different branches of Protestantism there was substituted for bishops either the presbytery or ecclesiastical autonomy, or the office of bishop was retained with diminished powers. Only in England and the Protestant Episcopal church of the United States has episcopacy been defended by Protestants as a divine institution. Other Protestants affirm its post-apostolic and therefore human origin. The functions of the Anglican bishops are confirmation, ordination of deacons and priests, consecration of other bishops, dedication or consecration of religious edifices and grounds, administration of the effects of deceased persons till some one has proved a right of executorship, institution or collation to vacant churches in their diocese, superintendence of the conduct of the priests in the same, and power of suspension, deprivation, deposition, degradation, and excommunication. Formerly they had also the right of adjudication in questions respecting matrimony and divorce; but in 1857 this episcopal jurisdiction was abolished, and a matrimonial court, consisting of three civil judges, was established. They are peers of the realm and members of the house of lords.
Some years ago the revenue of the different sees was reduced more nearly to an equality, the income of the archbishop of Canterbury being fixed at £15,000, that of the archbishop of York at £10,000, those of London, Durham, and Winchester at £8,000 each, and the others at from £5,500 to £4,500. The Anglican bishops are nominated by the crown, and then formally elected by the chap-tors. The ecclesiastical powers of bishops in the Protestant Episcopal church of America resemble those of the Anglican bishops, but they have no political functions. They are elected by the clerical and lay deputies of the vacant diocese assembled in convention, and before consecration are required to produce certificates before the house of bishops and the house of clerical and lay deputies in general convention. The rights of this office are so restricted in Germany that even Roman Catholic rulers have sometimes been made bishops in the Lu-theran church. In Prussia and Nassau this title is ordinarily given to the general superintendents of the Evangelical church. Attempts have been made without success to give this church an episcopal organization. - The bishops of the Greek church are appointed by the archbishops, and must be selected from the monks, and are therefore always unmarried.
They have much less authority than the Roman Catholic bishops. - The bishopric is the district or diocese over which a bishop has spiritual jurisdiction. Of the Anglican church, there are in England (1873) 2 archbishops and 26 bishops; in Ireland, 2 archbishops and 10 bishops; in the colonies, 45 bishops; there are, besides these, in union with the church of England 6 missionary bishops, and the bishop of Jerusalem. In the Episcopal church of Scotland there are 8 bishops. The Roman Catholic church in England has 1 archbishop and 14 bishops; in Ireland, 4 archbishops and 25 bishops. In the United States there are 36 bishoprics of the Protestant Episcopal church, and 37 of the Roman Catholic church. There are 10 bishops in the northern division of the Methodist Episcopal church, and 6 in the southern. In 1871 there were in the whole world 660 bishops of the Latin and 63 of Greek and oriental rites. (See Archbishop).
Bishop. I. Sir Henry Rowley, an English composer, born in London in 1780, died April 30, 1855. In 1806 he composed the music of a ballet entitled "Tamerlane and Bajazet," which was performed at the Italian opera house, and in 1808 that of "Caractacus," a pantomime ballet, at Drury Lane. At this theatre in the following year was successfully produced his first opera, "The Circassian Bride," but on the following evening (Feb. 24, 1809) the theatre was burned to the ground, and with it the score of the opera. Between that time and 1826 his dramatic engagements of all sorts were numerous, including (to use his own words) "operas, burlettas, melodramas, incidental music to Shakespeare's plays, patchings and adaptations of foreign operas, with glees, ballads, canzonets, and cantatas." During this time he was director of music at Covent Garden theatre, and among over 50 operas which he wrote, the most successful were "Guy Mannering," "The Maniac," "The Miller and his Men," "Maid Marion," "The Slave," "Clari," and " The Englishman in India" In 1826 his " Aladdin" was produced at Drury Lane, but was not successful. He adapted Rossini's "Barber of Seville," Mozart's "Marriage of Figaro," and some other operas, to the English stage.
He was director of the concerts of ancient music for several years, also one of the first directors of the philharmonic concerts, and composed some sacred pieces which were performed at different musical festivals. He succeeded Sir John Stevenson as arranger of the music of Moore's "Irish Melodies." In 1842 he was knighted by Queen Victoria. He had in 1841 been elected professor of music in the university of Edinburgh, but he resigned in 1843, about which time he received the degree of doctor of music from Oxford, and on the death of Dr. Crotch in 1848 was elected to the chair of music in that university, which appointment he held till his death. Toward the close of his life he arranged for the "Illustrated London News" a large number of old English airs, to which Dr. Charles Mackay wrote the words. His style was devoid of affectation, free, flowing, and harmonious. II. Anna Riviere, an English vocalist, wife of the preceding, born in London in 1814. She was married in 1831, and her career as a vocalist began in 1837. Her first success was gained as a singer of classical and oratorio music. Later she turned her attention to the opera.
Her professional career has been followed in every quarter of the world, and her presence is as familiar in the concert rooms of Australia as in those of England and America. In 1858 she was married to Mr. Schultz of New York, where she resides.