Bolivia, a republic of South America, lying between lat. 12° and 24° S., and Ion. 57° 25' and 70° 30' W., bounded K and E. by Brazil, from which it is partly separated S. E. by the river Paraguay, S. by the Argentine Republic and Chili, and W. by the Pacific ocean and Peru. Bolivia, however, claims that portion of the Gran Chaco comprised between the rivers Paraguay and Bermejo, which would extend its southern limits to lat. 26° 53' S. The republic is divided into nine departments, which, with their areas, capitals, and population in 1865, are as follows:
The departments are subdivided into 37 districts, and these into 45 provinces. No official survey of the country has ever been made, but the above areas are, with the exception of the department of Beni, according to a map of Bolivia published in 1859 by Lieut. Col. J. Ondarza. Behm gives only 535,747 sq. m. as the total area; but the former is probably more correct. The population'consists of native whites, for the most part descendants of the Spanish settlers, mestizoes or Cholos (mixed white and Indian), mulattoes, zambos (mixed Indian and negro), Indians in a domesticated state, and savage Indians. Of the last there are about 250,000, which added to the figures of the table gives a total population of 2,081,585, rather more than one fourth of whom are whites. The aboriginal is by far the most numerous element in the republic; it forms in the province of La Paz nine tenths of the population; in that of Tarija it is five times as numerous as the white. Of the many aboriginal tribes still existing in Bolivia, the most noteworthy are the Aymaras or Ay-marus, Quichuas, Moxos, and Chiquitos. The first two, once united under the dominion of the incas, speak languages of kindred origin, while in their customs and manners little dissimilarity is noticeable.
The Aymaras dwell chiefly in La Paz, although some are met with in Oruro; and the Quichuas inhabit the coast, the valley of the Desaguadero, and the N. and E. portions of the republic. Various monuments, such as obelisks, burial places, and other ruins, attest the proficiency in art and the high degree of civilization attained by the Aymara nation at an epoch far anterior to that of the incas. The Moxos (or Mojos) are remarkable for their ingenuity. The language of the Chiquitos is copious and flexible, and has a special vocabulary for females. The hair of this people does not whiten in extreme old age, but grows yellow. Most of these tribes have embraced Christianity and fairly entered upon the career of civilization. The Guarayos and Siriones are evidently descendants of a mixed race from the early Spanish settlers. In the tracts chosen by the Jesuits for their missions there linger the remnants of numerous indigenous nations, differing in language, customs, and dress. The Bolivian Indians are usually squat in figure, robust and muscular, and capable of enduring the greatest hardship and fatigue; and they are especially remarkable for the rapidity with which they perform long journeys, travelling on foot, at a sort of trot, for days in succession, with no other sustenance than coca leaves chewed with lime or ashes, and occasionally a small quantity of pounded maize.
Though usually mild and passive, they sometimes yield to fearful outbursts of temper. All the tribes above mentioned dwell in houses or huts constructed of sun-dried bricks, rushes, or maize stalks thatched with grass. The uncivilized tribes, on the banks of the lower Beni and elsewhere, go naked, preserve the savage customs of their ancestors, lead a roving life, and subsist chiefly on game, wild roots, and fruits. The Spanish Creoles are most numerous in the mining districts and in Cochabamba; and immigrants into the country since the separation from Spain have chiefly settled in these places and in La Paz. Pure negroes are rarely met with. - On the Pacific Bolivia has a coast line of 250 m. at most, including the sinuosities, which are numerous and of considerable extent. The shore is high and rugged, and in parts interrupted by lofty hills; while to the interior stretches an arid sandy desert, only habitable in narrow strips along the banks of the rivers. The passage across this desert and over the Andes is attended with many hardships; and transportation can only be effected on the backs of mules. In the time of the incas this wilderness was traversed from Peru to Chili by a paved road or path wide enough for a single person to walk on.
There is at present but one road leading from the coast to the interior, from Cobija to Oruro. Until 1872 there were but two seaport towns of any importance on the coast. These were Oobija or Lamar, lat. 22° 32' 50", a free port on the bay of Santa Maria Magdalena or Endymion, affording good anchorage for ships of any size, and shelter from the S. winds which prevail here; and Tocopilla, on the bay of Algodonales. But in that year the small town of Mejillones, on the bay of the same name, about lat. 23° S., was very considerably extended, owing to the recent discovery of rich silver mines in the district of Caracoles, equally divided between Chili and Bolivia. By the middle of the year referred to, 24 blocks of 300 feet square had been laid out, and a number of new buildings completed, these having been for the most part constructed on sites given by the government to families moving thither from Cobija, which town, it is supposed, will soon fall into decay after the railway now in process of construction from Caracoles to Mejillones is finished. Poor families received pecuniary assistance to enable them to move.
The water at Mejillones is plentiful and excellent; an exception to the rule that on that part of the Pacific coast extending from Paita in the north of Peru to Valdivia in the south of Chili, water is neither abundant nor good. The bay of Mejillones, or Bahia de la Herradura (Horseshoe bay), S. of Cobija, has eight fathoms of water, and is sheltered by the Morro de Mejillones. North of Cobija bay are several shallow sandy bays with rocky points or promontories; but the most extensive inlet along the coast is Moreno bay (named from Mt. Moreno beside it, about 7,000 ft. high), lat. 23° 29', 17 m. wide, but frequented only by coasters. Between Manina creek and the river Loa are several guano beds, still worked, but showing signs of exhaustion. - The most striking feature of Bolivia is its gigantic mountains. These separate in the southwest portion of the republic, between lat. 21° and 22° S., into two systems, the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental or Cordillera Real, the latter consisting of many lofty ridges.
These two great chains unite again to the north in the ridge cluster of Apolobamba, lat. 14° 35' S. In the W. Cordillera, the following peaks rise beyond the limit of perpetual snow: Tacora, Tatasavaya, Pomarapi (21,700 ft. above the sea level), Parinacocha or Parina-cota (22,030 ft.), Guallatiri or Gualatieri (21,960 ft.), Iquimo, Toroni, Yabricoya, and the volcanoes Isluya and Sajama or Sahama (22,350 ft.), this last being, with the exception of Aconcagua, the highest point in the new world. In lat. 21° S. this same chain widens in an easterly direction, presenting a number of snow-covered mountains, especially in Ion. 68° 20' and 68° 50'; and still further E., the volcanoes Ollagua, Olca, and Tica. The Cordillera de Lipez, the uniting link between the E. and W. Cordilleras, is mainly composed of snow-capped peaks terminating in slender needle-shaped points. In lat. 22° S. the Cordillera Oriental forms a nudo, or ridge cluster, having for its nucleus the Cerro de Chorolque; from which point the Chocaya and the Tasna and Ubina ranges stretch northward in two parallel ridges to lat. 20° S., where they unite at the portillo of Guasaco, one of the most elevated passes on the globe.
A single chain, Frailes, continues thence to lat. 19° S. Here it takes the name of Cordillera de los Azanaques de Condo, and again breaking off into five distinct branches, terminates in the Nevado de Illimani, the loftiest of whose three summits rises 21,145 ft. above the sea. East of the Cordillera de los Frailes, and in the line of the Tasna and Ubina ridge (also named the Cordillera de Chichas), the great eastern chain forms the Nudo de Potosi y Porco, which is likewise the central point of the nevados of the same names. Beyond the limits of the hill country, which extends into the valley of the Rio Grande or Guapey to a distance of nearly 400 m. from the coast, lies the great Moxos plain, in which not even a pebble is to be found. During the wet season this region is flooded, and transit by boats is practicable in almost every direction through its dense forests. The country of the Chiquitos is rocky and elevated above the reach of inundation. Between the two great Cordilleras lies the valley of the Desaguadero, a vast inter-alpine plain, with an estimated area of 30,000 sq. m., which from its great elevation - 13,340 ft. on an average - and the height of the mountains which surround it, might be called the Thibet of South America. In this table land, which is intersected by isolated hills and low mountain ranges, are Lake Titicaca, and the rich silver and copper mines of Corocoro to the north, while the S. part is mainly covered by a vast, solid, and almost uninterrupted crust of salt many inches thick, and nearly 5,000 sq. m. in extent.
Between the mountain ranges stretching eastward toward the great wooded plain are numerous fertile valleys, principal among which is the Valle Grande. - Lake Titicaca, whose waters are divided between Peru and Bolivia, and whose shores were the chief seat of power of the incas, is situated in the table land just referred to. It is the largest inland lake in South America, its length being variously estimated at from 80 to 120 m., and its average breadth being 40 m. Its surface is dotted with small islands, containing curious ruins. It was on one of these islands, also called Titicaca, that according to the legend Manco Capac and his consort, Mama Oello Huaco, the founders of the inca dynasty, descended to spread civilization through the surrounding nations. Into the lake flow a number of rivers, which during the rainy season are of considerable volume; and much of the water is drained off by the De-saguadero, its only outlet, a navigable river, varying in width from 25 to 60 yards, which, after a southerly course of nearly 200 m., flows into the swampy lake of Aullagas or Paria, whose surface is perhaps 490 ft. lower than that of Titicaca, and which has no visible issue. In Lake Aullagas are two islands, Panza and Filomena, the latter recently discovered.
In the department of Beni is Lake Roguaguado, 1,100 ft. above the sea, with an area of about 900 sq. m.; and in a cultivated valley near Potosi is the remarkable Laguna de Tara-paya, situated in a circular basin on a sort of elevated lawn. While the water in the centre is constantly in a state of violent ebullition, the temperature at the brink is only about 93° F. It is said that in 1825, when an inundation rolled over Oallao on the Pacific coast, the water disappeared for a time from this lagoon. There are numerous other lakes and marshes in the south and east, from which latter the Chi-quito Indians extract copious quantities of salt; but little is yet known of their precise situation and extent. Bolivia is the centre of the watershed between the feeders of the Amazon and the Plata. The river Beni, whose head waters descend from the mountains near Co-chabamba, receives among other tributaries the Mapiri and Coroico, holds first a N. W. and afterward a N. E. course, and joins the Ma-more, which takes its rise in the centre of the country, and flows in a generally N. course to lat. 10° 20' S., where with the Beni it forms the Madeira. Among its tributaries are the Rio Grande, which descends from the S. declivity of the lofty mountains near Cocha-bamba, and after an immense semicircular sweep falls into the Mamore near Trinidad; and the Itenez or Guapore, which, leaving Brazil about lat. 13° 20' S., forms part of the boundary between that empire and the republic until it unites with the Mamore about lat. 11° 12' S. The Pilcomayo, formed by the united waters of the Cachimayo, Pilaya, and others, flows first E. and then S. E. to the Paraguay. The Bermejo rises in the province of Tarija, leaves the republic parallel with the Pilcomayo, and also joins the Paraguay. The Paraguay enters at the S. E., and, after forming for a distance of about 60 in. the S. E. boundary, leaves the republic in lat. 20° 25' S. All the large Bolivian rivers send their waters to the Atlantic, while the Pacific receives only the Loa, separating the republic from Peru, and a few mountain streams which force their way through the desert of Atacama. - Tra-chytic conglomerates in various stages of decomposition are the dominant element in the formation of the maritime Cordillera, and also in that of the more elevated portion of the great plateau of Oruro, as the valley of the Desaguadero is frequently called; the trachyte of the latter region exhibiting, however, great quantities of quartz crystals and saline effloresence, and being hence unfavorable to vegetation.
Although it has been supposed that some of the conical summits of the Cordillera Occidental are extinct volcanoes, no volcanic production is anywhere exhibited in the table land, nor is this region ever visited by earthquakes. In the E. Cordillera granite appears to prevail from the Nevado de Illimani N. W.; its general direction is N. W. and S. E., but it is confined to the more elevated peaks. In its vicinity the trachytic formations invariably become micaceous. Overlooking Cobija is a mass of basaltic porphyry; and E. of the Cordillera Real a few spots of kindred origin mark the eastern limit of plutonic rocks in the lowlands. The Chiquito mountains are formed of gneiss with overlying foliated Silurian strata, the depressions in which formations are filled with sedimentary deposits, containing the fossil remains of colossal mammalia. Overlying this stratum is another of more recent formation, holding shells of existing species. - The mineral wealth of Bolivia consists chiefly in its almost inexhaustible silver mines, principal among which are those of the Cerro de Potosi, in whose conical summit there are over 5,000 openings.
It is computed that the mines of this mountain yielded from 1545 to 1789 silver amounting in value to $1,000,000,000; or with the government fifths or royal dues, and the amount smuggled, a total of $2,000,-000,000 in 245 years. This celebrated mountain still continues to give an annual yield of $2,250,000. The name Potosi signifies an " eruption of silver." The Indians have at all times been the almost exclusive workers in the mines. Rich silver mines have been discovered in the Sierra del Limon Verde near Calamar, which are said to be greater than any hitherto found in Bolivia, and to yield ore equal to that of Potosi. Silver is also found in many other parts of the republic. Gold occurs in numerous parts of the mountain system. A huge mass of native gold detached by lightning from the base of Illimani was purchased at an enormous price, and sent to the museum of natural history in Madrid. In the sands of all the rivers descending from the Cordillera Real to the Beni or its affluents gold is found in abundance.
The tin mines of Oruro are among the richest in the world; and copper is said to be as abundant in the mountains adjacent to Corocoro as was silver in the Potosi. Lead, salt, sulphur, nitre, and other volcanic products are found in large quantities; but these, in common with the other sources of wealth in Bolivia, are of comparatively little value to the country, owing to the difficulty of transportation. There are innumerable thermal springs in the republic; those of Caiza in the district of Porco, and Urimiri and Machacamarca near Lake Aulla-gas, are the most generally known. - Not more than half of Bolivia has a tropical climate, although nearly the whole republic is within the tropics. In the valley of the Desaguadero extremes of heat and cold are unknown. The year is divided into two seasons: the wet or summer, from November to April, when rain falls almost every day, and the nights are cold with occasional frost; and the winter, from May to October, when snow and rain are never seen. The summer is preceded and followed by snow storms. Tliis valley is in general salubrious. The cold in the higher mountain regions is extreme; hail and thunder storms are frequent and terrific; and several maladies of a peculiar nature render abode in these parts exceedingly disagreeable.
The su-rumpe, a violent inflammation of the eyes caused by the reflection of the sun's rays on the snow, is attended by severe pain, and sometimes delirium, while the veta or mareo (seasickness), called by the Indians puna or soroche, attacks travellers with weariness, blood-spitting, vertigo, fainting fits, etc, and sometimes terminates fatally. In the lowlands S. of the Cordillera Real the heat is oppressive in many of the valleys, and intermittent fevers are common. Goitre is prevalent in the Yungas valleys, but is not accompanied by cretinism as in some parts of Europe. Among the vegetable productions are the potato, which grows wild in many parts; quinoa (chenopodium quinoa), sometimes used as a substitute for the potato; the various cereals; and nearly all the fruits of the tropical and temperate zones. Cotton grows wild, and is of two kinds, yellow and white, both of a fine, long staple; the sugar cane is raised to a considerable extent; the coffee of the Yungas valley is of excellent quality; cacao is abundant on the Beni, and considered to be superior to that of Guayaquil; and the same province and Santa Cruz produce tobacco reputed equal to that of Havana. But perhaps the most important product of Bolivia is the coca, the annual sales of which in the market of La Paz amount to $4,000,000. It grows extensively along the E. slope of the Andes, between 5,000 and 6,000 ft. above the sea.
It is used by the Indians as betel is by the Asiatics and kava by the South sea islanders; and a refreshing tea is also made from it. The country produces in abundance copaiba, sarsa-parilla, jalap, valerian, ipecacuanha, and other medicinal drugs; the canela de clavo, a species of cinnamon; and many varieties of gums, caoutchouc being abundant and of excellent quality. The.fertile strips toward the coast, besides many of the inter-tropical products already mentioned, yield yuca, maize, and algar-robas; and the arundo donax is cultivated.
There are vast indigo fields; cochineal is produced; and flax, once prohibited by Spain, is now largely raised. Dye woods are numerous; and the dense forests afford timber of great beauty, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany, cedar, Brazil, and a variety of woods not commonly known. The slopes of the Andes are to an immense elevation covered with magnificent trees; here, and in the valleys and the ravines of the mountains, abound cinchona trees, and especially the valuable C. Calisaya, from lat. 19° S., following the almost semicircular curve of the Andes, and at an elevation varying from 2,500 to 9,000 ft. above the ocean. Their usual companions, the ferns, melastomacea, arborescent passion flowers, and allied genera of cinchonaceous plants, are likewise found in rich profusion. The various species of cacti, acacias, and palms are found in their respective zones; as also the mate, or Paraguay tea, and a kind of mulberry, from the fibres of which the Indians prepare a beautiful yarn for shirts. A plant called sapaonane is used by the Indians to cure headache, and another called zajmtilla as a laxative; and the leaf of the matico is applied to fresh wounds to draw out any foreign substance which might impede the cure.
The cereals are sown on the table land, but do not ripen, and are cut green for forage. There are no trees here; the lower districts are clothed with a beautiful green turf, and the valleys with a coarse grass very good for pasture. The banks of Lake Titicaca are characterized by a luxuriant growth of rushes, used by the Indians to make huts, mats, boatls, and for a multiplicity of uses. - The llama, vicufia, alpaca, and guanaco roam in great numbers in the elevated regions; horses, asses, and mules are plenty; and numerous herds of horned cattle find pasture on the banks of the rivers in the plains. The forests are infested with pumas or cougars, jaguars, ocelots, wild cats, and bears. There are several species of monkeys. Peccaries are destructive to the crops; the chinchilla is hunted for its fur; and the burrowings of the bizcacha (lagostomus trichodactylus) render travel dangerous on the plains. The flesh of the tapir, carpincho (river hog), sloth, glutton, armadillo, and of two species of wild boar is used for food by the natives. There are the condor, gallinazo, and several species of hawks, also a species of ostrich; and the multitude of birds in and about forest, lake, and river is incredible.
Of reptiles there are the anaconda and the rattlesnake; and the rivers are infested by caymans. Lake Titicaca abounds in fish of peculiar forms; and in the rivers flowing to the Amazon is the bufeo, a variety of dolphin peculiar to these and the Brazilian waters. The vampire is troublesome in the plains, sucking cattle till death ensues; and there is a hornet called the alcalde, of enormous dimensions. - Determined measures have of late been taken to construct roads. Several lines of railway have been planned and sanctioned by the government: one from Co-bija to Potosi, and another to form a branch of the Peruvian railway from Arequipa to Puno. A line to connect La Paz with Acha-cache on Lake Titicaca was in progress in 1871, and to be opened in 1872. Work commenced in November, 1872, on a railway to connect Mejillones and the celebrated silver mines of Caracoles. The aggregate length of the affluents of the Madeira, with their tributaries, is 5,500 m., perhaps 3,000 m. of which navigated by steamers would afford an easy outlet for the productions of the country.
Some steps have been taken in this direction, and the government, to facilitate their execution, has decreed that the rivers of the republic shall henceforth be open for free navigation by vessels of all nations; and in 1868 a New York engineer. Col. George E. Church, contracted for the establishment of a " National Bolivian Navigation Company " on the Madeira, the rapids of which will be avoided by a railway. - A coarse cotton cloth, tocuyo, is made in Cocha-bamba, Santa Cruz, La Paz, and other places, over 600 looms being constantly occupied in the first named city. Santa Cruz produces excellent cordage from vegetable fibres, leather, furs, glass, and other commodities. Fabrics of a fine quality are made with the hair of the llama, alpaca, etc, at La Paz; hats (from the wool of the vicufla) at San Francisco do Atacama; vessels of silver wire in the mining districts; and there are besides various common cloths made by the Indian women. All the Indians are acquainted with the manufacture of gunpowder. - The commerce of Bolivia is limited to the importation of cotton goods, hardware, furniture, jewelry, and silks, in exchange for Peruvian bark, guano, copper ore, tin, borax, hides, furs, woollens, and wool hats.
To facilitate the development of trade, the port of Cobija has been declared free. The total imports in 1871 amounted to $6,000,000, and the total exports to $5,000,000. In 1859 the export of calisaya bark through the Peruvian ports of Arica and Islay amounted to $153,970, and from January to November, 1860, to $223,850. The internal trade reached in 1868 about $50,000,000. The state mint at Potosi coins annually about 2,250,000 pesos in silver. The national assembly in October, 1872, adopted a law permitting the exportation of silver in bars from June 1, 1873, subject, however, to an export duty of 50c. per mark, and 20c. per oz. for gold. An export duty of 4 per cent, is still paid on good money. - By the provisions of the constitution of Bolivia, drawn up by Simon Bolivar in 1826, and considerably modified in 1828, 1831, and 1863, the whole executive power is vested in a president elected for a term of four years. The legislative authority rests with a congress of two chambers, the senate and the house of representatives, both elected by universal suffrage. The president appoints a vice president to assist him in his functions, and also a ministry divided into the departments of the interior and justice, finance, war, and education and public worship.
The ministers are liable to impeachment before congress. The seat of the executive government, formerly at La Paz, was transferred to Oruro in 1869. The standing army consists of 31 generals, 359 superior and 654 subaltern officers, 3,034 men, and 522 horses. The annual cost of the army is about $2,000,000. The revenue in 1867 amounted to $4,529,345, and the expenditures to $5,957,-275; deficit, $1,427,930. The revenue is derived partly from a land tax levied upon the Indian population, and partly from the import and export duties, and the proceeds of mines and other state property. Peru pays annually to the Bolivian government $506,250 for duties collected at the port of Arica on goods in transitu for Bolivia. The internal debt of the republic amounted on July 31, 1868, to $2,181-215, and it was estimated that the interest then past due amounted to a like sum. The country has no foreign public debt, and no paper currency, although the notes of the bank of La Paz have been declared legal tenders. - There are in Bolivia three universities and 348 schools (primary, intermediate, and superior), 294 of which are for males and 54 for females. The annual expenditure for public instruction amounts to about 260,000 pesos.
A school of architecture is to be established in La Paz. The religion of the country is Roman Catholic; and though no hindrance is offered to the exercises of other denominations, free and unrestricted toleration cannot be said to exist in Bolivia. - Bolivia was formerly called the presidency of Charcas, and afterward Upper Peru, and formed from 1767 a part of the vice-royalty of Buenos Ayres. It was erected into an independent state in August, 1825, and called Bolivia, in honor of Simon Bolivar. A constitutional assembly decreed, Aug. 11, a republican form of government, appointed Gen. Sucre president, and requested Bolivar to prepare a constitution. Sucre's administration continued till 1828, when he was forced to quit Bolivia by Gen. Gamarra, and was shortly afterward assassinated. His successor, Gen. Blanco, fell a victim to a revolution, headed by Balibian, two months after his inauguration. Mariscal Santa Cruz, then in Chili as minister plenipotentiary from Peru, was elected to the presidency in 1829, and remained in power till February, 1839. He was at the same time president of Peru, with the double character of protector of the Bolivio-Peruvian confederation.
Velasco, aided by Balibian, raised a revolution, and having secured the overthrow of Santa Cruz usurped the executive functions, but was himself overthrown by Balibian. The country again pronounced in favor of Santa Cruz, which produced an invasion by Gen. Gamarra, for the purpose of reestablishing Peruvian influence. Balibian accompanied him for a while, but afterward took sides with the Bolivians, and defeated the Peruvian army at Ingavi, where Gamarra was killed. President Balibian after five years was driven out bv" another revolution, and succeeded in power for a short time by Velasco, and subsequently by Gen. Belzti (1849). In 1855 Gen. Cordoba was elected president, but was forced to yield to Dr. Linares, who, after nine revolutionary attempts, succeeded in 1858, and exercised power more as a dictator than as president till 1860, in which year he was cast into prison by three of his own officers, one of whom, Acha, had already failed in an endeavor to stir up a revolution against Belzii. Congress, which had been silent for four years, named Acha provisional president in 1861. In December, 1864, Gen. Melgarejo rose against the government of Acha, who was defeated near Potosi in February, 1865. Melgarejo was recognized as president by almost the entire country; but during his absence Gen. Belzii arrived at the capital of the republic, and caused himself to be proclaimed president.
Melgarejo soon returned, and took the city by storm. Belzti was killed by one of his own soldiers. An unsuccessful rising against the Melgarejo government took place May 25, led by one Castro Urquedas, whose forces were finally defeated at Viacha, near La Paz, in January, 1866. Bolivia joined in the same year the alliance between Peru, Ecuador, and Chili against Spain, which had just declared war against the last named republic; and one result of that step was a treaty between Chili and Bolivia settling the 24th parallel of S. latitude as the boundary line between the two republics. In 1867 Melgarejo ordered an election for president to take place, and declared that he would not himself be a candidate. In March 10,000 square leagues of fertile territory, watered by the Purus, Jurua, and Jutay, were ceded to Brazil. A revolution broke out in December for the restoration of Acha, who had been until then kept a close prisoner by Melgarejo, and who issued a proclamation enjoining the people to assist him in reestablishing the constitution of 1861, and promising to hold elections for a president irrespective of party or persons.
The rebellion was terminated early in 1868, the insurgent leaders emigrating to the Argentine Republic. Melgarejo caused his cousin, one of the bravest officers in the army, to be shot for having attempted to raise a counterrevolution. In September Melgarejo issued a decree extending the rights of citizenship to all Americans. In spite of the continued dissatisfaction with his government, Melgarejo, with the unanimous consent of congress, proclaimed himself again dictator in February, 1869. In May he issued a decree restoring the constitution; but he nevertheless continued to exercise supreme control. The Bolivian government recognized the belligerent rights of Cuba in June of the same year. A new revolutionary movement was set on foot toward the close of October by A. Morales, who but a few ^years previous had attempted the overthrow of President Belzti. This movement was speedily crushed, and was renewed with a like result in July, 1870. The following year witnessed a third attempt, which terminated in the complete overthrow of Melgarejo, who escaped to Peru, and was succeeded by Morales, elected for one year.
Melgarejo was killed in Lima by his son-in-law, Nov. 23, 1871; and Morales was killed by his own nephew, Nov. 27, 1872.