A province of Italy, bordering on Ferrara, Ravenna, Florence, and Modena; area, 1,391 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 439,166. Its S. boundary is formed by the range of the Apennines, from which descend many streams flowing across the province. Of these the principal is the river Reno, which enters the Po di Primaro near Ferrara. The river lands of the northeast are marshy and subject to floods. The plain of Bologna, in the middle of the province, is very productive, and the valleys and lower slopes of the Apennines are well cultivated. It produces grain, oil, wine, figs, hemp, flax, almonds, and chestnuts, and is celebrated for its silk. The chief minerals are marble, gypsum, chalk, and a sulphate of baryta called Bologna stone, which becomes strongly phosphorescent on being heated with charcoal. The peasants are seldom land owners, but hold their farms from father to son, for a yearly rent of one half the product and taxes. The province is divided into the districts of Bologna, Imola, and Vergato. II. A city (anc. Bononia), capital of the province, beautifully situated at the foot of the Apennines, between the rivers Savena and Reno, 185 m.N by W. of Rome; pop. in 1872, 115,957. It is surrounded by walls ahout 6 m. in circuit, is 2 m. long and l 1/4 m. broad, has 12 gates, and is divided into four quarters.

The covered porticos or arcades, which afford protection in warm and rainy weather, present an animated appearance, especially in the modern part of the city; while many of the larger thoroughfares look comparatively deserted. The Montagnuola is the only public promenade within the walls. The finest square is the market place, or piazza Vittorio Emmanuele (formerly piazza Maggiore or del Gigante), with a famous fountain. The portico de' Banchi on one side of this square, and continued under the name of Paraglione, forms a continuous arcade 300 ft. long, with some of the finest stores. In this neighborhood are many palaces, prominent among which are the palazzo pubblico or del governo, and the palazzo del podestd, containing the archives, and having a lofty tower rising upon arcades. Many of the private palaces are hardly less remarkable for antiquity and works of art. Near the exchange is a large space, from which four streets branch off to the principal gates, and containing two famous leaning towers (torre degli Asinelli and torre Garisen-da or Mozza), respectively about 300 and 150 ft. high, and built in the 12th century. Remains of similar towers exist in various parts of the city.

Conspicuous among the houses are the casa Rossini, in the via Maggiore, built in 1825 by that composer, who long resided here; the casa Lambertini, in the via della Campana, the birthplace of Pope Benedict XIV.; that of the electrician Galvani, in the borgo delle Casse; and the residences once occupied by the painters Guercino and Guido. There are about 130 churches, including the ancient cathedral, restored in the 17th and 18th centuries, with famous relics and pictures; the elegant church of San Bartolommeo di Ravegnana, of the 17th century, on the site of one built by St. Petronius; San Bartolommeo di Reno, with paintings by the Carracci; and San Domenico, with the tombs of St. Dominic, King Enzio, Taddeo Pepoli, and Guido. The church of San Francesco, behind the post office, which was one of the most extensive of all, was converted in 1798 into the custom house, but has lately been restored. Its bell tower is one of the finest in Bologna. The monument of Pope Alexander V., who was buried in this church, has been removed to the Campo Santo. The basilica of San Petronio, founded in 1390, is the largest church of Bologna, and, though unfinished, one of the most imposing, especially in the interior; over the great door stood the colossal bronze statue of Pope Julius II., by Michel Angelo, which was destroyed in 1511. The emperor Charles V. was crowned here by Clement VII. (1530), and the meridian line by Cassini was traced on its floor in 1653. Especially noticeable for its great antiquity and extent among the other churches is that of San Stefano, formed by the union of seven chapels, and presenting a labyrinth-like and strikingly mediaeval appearance. - The university, which is said to have been founded by Theodosius II. in 425, and is celebrated as the oldest in Italy and as the first to confer academical degrees, was the principal seat of learning in the middle ages, and acquired special renown in jurisprudence in the 12th century by the influence of Irnerius. Many thousand students gathered there in that period from all parts of Europe. Medicine, the arts, and theology were taught subsequently, in addition to civil and canon law.

In the 14th century dissection was practised there for the first time, and at a later period its renown was increased by the discovery of galvanism. Many learned women acquired distinction here as teachers, and more recently in the chair of anatomy. The university is still attended by about 600 students annually, and retains a high reputation, chiefly in medicine. It was richly endowed by many of the German emperors, especially by Frederick I., by the princes of Italy, and by several popes; and the Bolognese were so proud of it that they had the academical motto, Bononia docet, engraved upon their coins. The library, in which Mezzofanti was employed for some time, contains about 200,000 volumes and 1,000 MSS. The institute of science was founded in 1690 by Count Marsigli, the friend of Newton, who also secured the establishment of an observatory, an anatomical museum, and a botanical garden, and presented the city with collections of natural history and scientific instruments. These various institutions are in the imposing palace of the university, in the strada San Donato, formerly the palazzo Cel-lesi. In the same street, in a former convent, is the academy of fine arts, or accademia Clementina, founded by Pope Clement XIII., with the celebrated pinacoteca or gallery of paintings by Bolognese masters.

The oploteca contains a collection of arms and a library, and on the ground floor are various schools of design. Among the great educational institutions and public buildings is the archiginnasio, with a public library, the gift of Magnani, a native of Bologna. The Venturoli college, founded in 1825 by the architect of that name, is in the locality formerly used as the Hungarian college, and is an architectural school for students below the age of 20. Among the various societies is one for agriculture, and a Socratic society for humanitarian purposes. Bologna boasts of being the most musical city of Italy, and in 1872 conferred the freedom of the city upon Richard Wagner. The accademia Jilar-monica has a wide reputation, as well as the li-ceo jilarmonico in the convent of San Giacomo, which is a musical school with a library of 17,000 volumes of printed music and the collections of Martini. The Zaproni theatre is the largest, and the Corso theatre, built in 1805, is the most popular. The Contavalli theatre was built in 1814, partly on the site of a former convent.

The public cemetery, or campo santo, about 1 m. from the gate of San Isaia, on the site of the ancient Carthusian monastery Cer-tosa, built in 1335 and suppressed in 1797, was consecrated in 1801 under the direction of Napoleon I., and is one of the finest and most extensive in Italy. It is approached by a covered portico of arches, and contains many large halls. The church of the monastery has been preserved, with its chapels and fine pictures. Among other interesting monuments, the cemetery contains a pantheon of university professors who are buried here, and whose busts are placed in the hall. A small separate space is reserved for the burial of Protestants. In the environs of the city there are many famous churches, including the nunnery and church of Madonna di San Luca, on the summit of tho monte della Guarda, with a magnificent view, and a miraculous relic of the Virgin, attributed to St. Luke. This is a great resort of pilgrims, whose annual visit is celebrated by a public festival. It is approached by a covered portico of columns with 654 arches. Conspicuous among relics of antiquity are the ruins of the so-called baths of Marcus and of a temple of I sis. - Bologna is famous for poodle dogs and sausages (mortadella), but the pure breed of the former has become very scarce.

There is an active trade in macaroni, salami, cervellato (a peculiar plum pudding, only made in winter), liqueurs, prepared fruits, artificial flowers, aromatic soaps, and particularly in silk. The wines of the vicinity are not bad, and among fruits the grape is the best. Bologna is regarded as the hottest city in Italy in summer, and as rather cold in winter, but the climate is healthy. The principal hotel occupies an ancient Roman palace, and there are many cafes. The local dialect, once admired by Dante as the purest of Italy, has become one of the most puzzling and least intelligible of all Italian jargons. The epithet grassa (fat) has been applied to Bologna on account of the epicurean habits of the inhabitants and the fertility of the environs. The Bolognese have been described by Tassoni as an uncontrollable people, in allusion to their sturdy spirit of independence. They rank at present among the most cultivated and public-spirited citizens of Italy. - Bologna was founded by the Etruscans under the name of Felsina. It was long held by the Boian Gauls, and in 189 B. C. became a Roman colony with Latin rights, under the name of Bononia. It was subsequently a place of much importance, figuring chiefly in the civil wars which followed the death of Caesar, and retained its prosperity after the fall of the Roman empire.

Charlemagne made it a free city. In the 12th century it attained the zenith of its greatness as a republic, which, however, fell in the subsequent century, owing to intestine strife among the nobles. After having been alternately under papal dominion and under that of the Geremei, Lambertazzi, Pepoli, Bentivoglio, and other local princely families, who successively contended for supremacy, the city voluntarily became in 1513 a papal province, though retaining many of its ancient privileges till 1796, when the French united it with the Cisalpine republic, afterward incorporating it with the kingdom of Italy. In 1815 it was restored to the Papal States. In 1821 it became the focus of republican agitation and the seat of a provisional government, and the papal governor was obliged to leave the city; but the insurrection was put down after the occupatio'n of the city by Austrian troops. The mismanagement of custom house officials in 1843 and other vexations became a new source of commotion, in consequence of which many Bolognese were arrested and others fled. On Aug. 14, 1848, an attempted Austrian occupation was gallantly prevented by the rising of the populace, and the invaders were expelled, leaving their dead and prisoners behind.

After the conclusion of the treaty of peace with Sardinia, however, the Austrians returned with the concurrence of Pius IX., and after a resistance of eight days and a repeated bombardment, Bologna had to surrender, May 16, 1849, and an Austrian garrison occupied the city till 1859. Bologna then seceded from the Papal States, and in 1860 became with the rest of the Romagna part of Victor Emanuel's dominions.

Leaning Towers, Bologna.

Leaning Towers, Bologna.