Borghese, the name of a patrician family of Siena, Tuscany, which came into prominence about the middle of the 15th century. Marco Antonio Borghese settled in Rome in the early part of the 16th century, and became an advocate of the papal court. His third son, Camil-lo, became Pope Paul V. in 1605, and did much for the advancement of his relatives. For Marco Antonio, a son of his elder brother, he procured the princedom of Sulmona and a grandeeship in Spain. His own brother Francesco he made commander of the troops which he sent against Venice in 1607. Scipione Caffarelli, a nephew, he created cardinal. Paolo, the son of Marco Antonio, married Olimpia Aldobrandini, the only child of the prince of Rossano, and grand-niece of Clement VIII., who brought the wealth of the Aldobrandini into the Borghese family. The son of Paolo, Giovanni Battista, was the ambassador of Philip V. to the court of Rome, where he died in 1717. His son, Marco Antonio, was viceroy of Naples in 1721, and another of the same name, descended from him, became a noted collector of works of art, with which he adorned his sumptuous villa near the Pincian hill. - Camillo Filippo Ludovico, son of the art collector, born in Rome, July 19, 1775, died at Florence, April 10, 1832. He joined the French on their invasion of Italy and went to Paris, where in 1803 he married Marie Pauline, sister of Napoleon and widow of Gen. Leclerc. (See Bonaparte.) In 1804 he was made a prince of the empire and received the grand cross of the legion of honor.
He served in the Austrian war of 1805, and at its close received the title of duke of Guastalla, the duchy itself being bestowed on his wife. He took part also in the campaign of 1806-"7 against the Prussians and Russians; but not long after, becoming jealous of his wife, he separated from her and retired to Florence. He was, nevertheless, after the peace of Tilsit in 1807, appointed by the emperor governor general of the provinces beyond the Alps, which included the former states of Piedmont and Genoa. At the request of Napoleon he sold to the French nation, for the sum of 8,000,000 francs, over 300 of the works of art which ornamented the palace of his ancestors at Rome. After the abdication of the emperor he broke off all connection with the Bonapartes, and fixed his residence in Florence, where he lived in great splendor till his death. He was reconciled to his wife shortly before her death in 1825. Besides the famous villa near the Pincian hill, his family had large estates in Tuscany, Naples, and the papal territories.