Boulogne. I. Boulogne-Sur-Mer (anc. Ge-soriacum, subsequently Bolonia), a town of France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, situated on the English channel, at the mouth of the Liane, 19 m. S. S. W. of Calais, and 130 m. N. by W. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 40,251, including nearly 7,000 English. The upper town, irregularly laid out, but well built, contains two squares with fountains, and an old castle where Louis Napoleon was confined after landing here in 1840. Among other public buildings is a cathedral built in the modern Italian style between 1827 and 1867, on the site of the Gothic building which was destroyed during the revolution. The citadel was razed in 1690. The ramparts have been transformed into promenades, and E. of them are the grounds which were used as a military camp in1854-'5, and on many previous occasions. The lower or new town, lying close to the harbor, and containing the chief commercial establishments, is better laid out and built than the old town. It has a fine bathing establishment opened in 1863, with a ball room and reading room, and contains also a famous museum, and a library with over 30,000 volumes. The harbor, though still deficient in depth, has been much improved, and consists of two large basins connected by a quay, ships anchoring some distance off in from six to nine fathoms.
A great deal of the prosperity of the town is due to its situation on one of the main routes between London and Paris, being less than six hours'journey from London via Folkestone and Dover, and about 4 1/2 hours from Paris by the new railway through Amiens, opened in 1867. About 300 vessels belong to the town, a large proportion of them engaged in the Newfoundland cod fishery. The fishermen generally marry only among themselves, live in a separate part of the town, have a peculiar dress, and speak a distinct patois. Before going to sea they make votive offerings in the neighboring chapel of Jesus Flagelle. The foreign trade is chiefly in herring, mackerel, oysters, wine, brandy, coals, butter, and linen, wool,- and silk goods. Over 3,000 vessels enter and leave the port annually, with an aggregate tonnage exceeding 500,000. The population has nearly doubled since 1815, chiefly owing to the influx of English residents; and the town looks now more English than French. There are two British chapels and many English boarding schools.
Le Sage and the English poets Churchill and Campbell died in Boulogne, and Sainte-Beuve was born here. - Under the Romans the place was the port most frequented by travellers crossing to Britain. During the middle ages it was possessed by various princely houses, until it fell to that of Burgundy. In 1477 it was united to the French crown by Louis XL In 1544 it was taken by Henry VIII. of England, but restored to France in 1550 on payment of 2,000,000 francs. It has been at various times the starting point of naval expeditions against England, and it was the centre of the great armament prepared by Napoleon for the invasion of that country. II. Bonlogne-sur-Seine, a village of France, in the department of the Seine and arrondissement of St. Denis, on the right bank of the Seine, opposite St. Cloud, about 1 m. W. of the S. W. extremity of Paris; pop. in 1866, 17,843. It is famous for its bleacheries. Between Boulogne and the Porte Maillot of Paris is the Bois de Boulogne, originally a royal hunting ground. In the 13th century it contained the monastery of Longchamps, and subsequently was a celebrated forest till 1852, when it was converted into one of the finest pleasure grounds of Europe, covering nearly 2,500 acres.
Among the most renowned features of the park were the deer park; the rond des cascades; the lakes; the butte Morte-mart, an artificial mound; the mare d'Auteuil, a natural pond; the immense artificial rock-work called cascade de Longchamps, with the race course; the pre Catalan, with its concerts; the villa Haussmann, on the site of the old abbey of Longchamps; the zoological garden of acclimation; and the restaurant chateau de Madrid, called after the famous palace demolished under Louis XVIII. During the Franco-German war the trees were cut down by order of the military authorities of Paris, and the pleasure grounds otherwise devastated.