This section is from "The American Cyclopaedia", by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana. Also available from Amazon: The New American Cyclopędia. 16 volumes complete..
Bramble, the wild bush that bears raspberries and blackberries, belonging to the natural order rosacea, and constituting the genus Tubus. The essential characters of the genus are: calyx 5-parted, without bractlets; petals 5, deciduous; achenia usually many, collected on a spongy or succulent receptacle, becoming small drupes. Nearly 200 species of this genus have been described. They are perennial herbs, or somewhat shrubby plants, with white (rarely reddish) flower's, and edible fruit; and they are universally diffused over the mountainous and temperate regions of the old and new world. Among the European species are the R. fruticosus, or common blackberry, having digitate leaves, with from 3 to 5 leaflets, white panicled flowers, and black or purple fruit, common throughout Europe in hedges and thickets; the R. ccesius, or dewberry, a rougher and more prickly species than the preceding, with trailing stem, found in Europe and in N. E. Asia; the R. arcticus, a dwarf species, found in mountainous and northern regions, each stem producing a single highly esteemed fruit; and the R. idarns, or common raspberry, having minute leaves, with from 3 to 7 leaflets, villose, with upright and bristly stems, drooping flowers, and a light-red finely flavored fruit, common from the Himalayas to Ireland. Among the American species are the R. strigo-sus, or wild raspberry, closely resembling the last, but having longer petals, common on thickets and hills, especially throughout the northern states; the R. occidentalism black raspberry, or thimbleberry, glaucous, with recurved stems, armed with hooked prickles, with umbellate flowers and a purple-black fruit, found in thickets and fields from Canada to the West Indies; the R. odoratus, a sweet-scented raspberry, with fragrant foliage, large purple flowers, and a shrubby stem, found on rocky banks northward from the Allegha-nies; the R. yillosus, or high blackberry, shrubby, armed with stout prickles, having 3 or 5 ovate, unequally serrate leaflets, numerous racemed flowers, and a blackish fruit, common in the borders • of thickets, and varying much in size and aspect; the R. Canadensis, low blackberry, or dewberry, shrubby, trailing, prickly, common on rocky or gravelly hills, and having a large and sweet fruit; and the 12. trivialis, or low bush blackberry, with evergreen, nearly glabrous, ovate-oblong or lanceolate leaves, and large petals, growing chiefly in sandy soil southward.
Dewberry (Rubus caesius).
Blackberry (Rubus villosus).