Brazil (Imperio do Brazil), a country of South America, and the only empire in the new world, extending from lat. 4° 30' N. to 33° S., and from Ion. 35° to 73° W. It is bounded N. by the United States of Colombia, Venezuela, British, Dutch, and French Guiana, and the Atlantic ocean; E. by the Atlantic-; S. by Uruguay, the Argentine Republic, and Paraguay; and W. by Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and the United States of Colombia. It thus borders upon all the South American republics except Chili. It occupies more than two fifths of the South American continent, and has, after Russia, the most extensive contiguous territory of any government on the globe. The line of demarcation at the extreme N. W. has not yet been definitively drawn; but, including the territory annexed to the empire by a recent treaty with Bolivia, it covers an area of about 3,200,-000 sq. m. Its greatest breadth is 2,470 m., and its greatest length 2,600. Paraguay in 1872 ceded to Brazil, as a war indemnity, a long disputed territory comprised between the Paraguay and Parana, N of the Apa and Iga-tim. This territory has an area of about 16,000 sq. m.
The empire is divided into 20 provinces and one neutral municipality (municipio neutro), which, with their areas, estimated population in 1871, and capitals, are as follows:
Rio de Janeiro......
Rio de Janeiro.
The population of Brazil has been variously estimated at different periods, since no facilities exist for computing it with absolute accuracy, and no regular census has been taken. Some authorities set it down as high as 12,000,000, while others admit no more than 7,000,000. The foregoing table, however, is believed to present the closest approximation to truth at the present time (1873), The population of the leading cities is as follows: Bahia, 150,-000; Belem or Para, 25,000 to 40,000; Portaleza, 16,000; Sao Luiz de Maranhao, 30,000; Parahyba, 13,000; Recife or Pernambuco, 70,000; Porto Alegre, 22,000; Rio de Janeiro, 450,000; Sao Paulo, 20,000. Brazil is inhabited by an agglomeration of many races. In the northern provinces the Indian element prevails, while in Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas, the negroes are numerous. In the seaports the chief part of the population is of European descent. The whites number probably one third of the entire population, the remaining two thirds being made up of mamalucos or mestizos, mulattos, cafuzos (from Indian and negro), civilized and savage Indians, and Africans, which last form the most numerous unmixed race in the empire.
The Brazilian character, with an admixture of mildness and generosity, has a disposition toward vindictiveness; and homicides from that motive are not uncommon, especially in the interior. The more educated classes, though somewhat ceremonious and proud, have remarkable suavity of manner; and as a nation the people are hospitable, gay, courteous, and communicative, quick at learning, and deeply inspired with the love of theoretical liberty. The aborigines of Brazil were a warlike, ferocious people, of the most revengeful character. Many of them were cannibals; some of them ate their enemies in grand ceremonial; others made war for the purpose of obtaining human food; and still others devoured their relatives and friends as a mark of honor and consideration. The Catauxis and other tribes on the river Purus kill and eat members of other tribes at the present day, and even preserve the flesh thus obtained by smoking and drying it. The number of aboriginal tribes found in Brazil at the time of its discovery was probably not far short of 100. They dwelt mostly in a narrow belt along the coast from N. to S., extending thence back to the Paraguay, and across the region drained by the head waters of the Plata and Amazon. Nearly all these people spoke the same language, which was however divided into numerous dialects and sub-dialects. They were called on the coast Tupi, or by some name having that word for its root; while in the interior they commonly received the name of Guarani, to which great family they all seem to have belonged, the differences in the tribes resulting from the different situations in which they were placed, and from other accidental circumstances.
They were not settled, neither were they wildly nomadic, each tribe having certain limits, where it remained until driven out by a superior force. The plantain, banana, cashew, yam, and above all the mandioca and more than 200 species of palm, furnished them food, drink, and raiment. With few exceptions the Indians of Brazil are of a bright yellowish copper color; they are robust and well made; their hair black, lank, and coarse, and the beard thin; the nose small, the lips not very thick, the face round, eyes small, and skin soft and shining. Nearly all the tribes paint their skin according to fantastical designs. Though usually grave and serious, they do not present the stolid apathy of the northern Indians; they are fond of feasts and pastimes, and are prone to excess in the use of stimulating liquors. Few of them have any definite idea of a Supreme Being, but all believe in the existence of malignant demons. Some tribes practise polygamy. The Botocudos, the most celebrated of all the tribes (see Botocudos), speak a language entirely distinct from the Tupi and from that of the other coast tribes; but all the Brazilian Indians may be communicated with through the lingoa geral, the basis of which is the Tupi-guarani, and which was formed by the priests, traders, and slave hunters.
The majority of the Indian tribes have altogether disappeared; and some of those still existing have been driven far back into the interior, where they remain in their primitive savagism. The anthropophagous tribes are chiefly confined to the banks of the Doce, Purus, and other tributaries of the Amazon. Many have, however, through the influence of the missionaries, embraced Christianity and become partially civilized, and are for the most part engaged in agriculture. The Indians being found unprofitable as slaves, recourse was had to the importation of negroes from Africa, who in earlier times were treated with unparalleled cruelty; but after the effectual suppression of the slave trade in 1850, the price of slaves became so enhanced that slave owners were impelled by self-interest to relax the severity of their treatment. The facilities for emancipation were nevertheless great; and a man's color does not in Brazil debar him from any civil or political privilege. Persons born in Brazil of African parents are called Creoles. A law for the gradual abolition of slavery, passed Sept. 28, 1871, enacts that children henceforth born of slave mothers shall be of free condition, though bound to serve the owners of their mothers for a term of 21 years, as apprentices.
Refusal to work for their hereditary taskmasters will be followed by severe penalties; but the apprentices, if cruelly treated, can appeal to a criminal court, which may declare them free. The same act emancipates the slaves that were the property of the government; but they are required to hire themselves out, in default of which, being under the inspection of the government for five years, they will, if found living in vagrancy, be compelled to labor in the public establishments. Large numbers of private individuals have followed the example of the crown and set their slaves at liberty; and others at their death have left them free, with portions of land for their maintenance. About 30,000 slaves were manumitted in this manner between the passing of the emancipation act and the month of December, 1872. Dom Pedro II. attempted to turn the tide of German emigration to Brazil, and a colony was formed on the Rio Grande do Sul; and after the abolition of the slave trade (1850), an act was passed offering liberal inducements to colonists, particularly as to the easy purchase of lands. Planters too entered into the colonization scheme, and by their abuses and bad faith threw discredit upon the attempts of the crown and paralyzed its efforts to people the interior.
To prevent these abuses, private associations were formed in Rio de Janeiro and other cities for the purpose of redressing the wrongs of immigrants, providing them with all necessary assistance and information on their arrival, and protecting their interests as colonists. Immigration from Europe, and chiefly from Germany and Switzerland, has of late years been still further encouraged by the imperial government, which pays a part of each immigrant's passage money. According to official reports, there were in the empire 50 colonies in 1869, with about 40,000 settlers. Many of these colonies, which are for the most part in the provinces south of Rio de Janeiro, have, in consequence of their flourishing condition, become independent of state direction. In 1871, 1,168 persons sailed from Hamburg for Brazil, over 1,000 of whom were Germans. From Jan. 1 to April, 1872,1,105 had left the same port for the same destination. - Brazil, in shape somewhat resembling a heart, has a coast line of nearly 4,000 miles, extremely varied in its aspect and formation.
From the mouth of the Oyapok to that of the Amazon, where it has an immense indentation, it is almost uniformly sandy and rather low; and from that point to the embouchure of the Parnahyba it is low, marshy, and interspersed with widely separated hills of inconsiderable elevation, and presents numerous indentations, the largest of which is that forming Sao Marcos bay. For about 800 m. S. of the Parnahyba the shores are at first somewhat higher, but afterward gradually sink until Cape S. Agos-tinhos is reached, where they are very low. Thence, save a long stretch of picturesque red cliffs, alternating with steep verdant slopes and occasional patches of sands or swampy ground, reaching from Porto Seguro to the Piruhype in the southern portion of Bahia, they are very even, and vary but little in elevation as far S. as the bay of Espirito Santo. From this point to Cape Santa Marta the coast is broken by rocks, which attain their greatest height between Cape Frio and Santos in Sao Paulo. In the W. portion of the province of Rio de Janeiro it is often high, bold, very irregular in outline, and bordered by numerous rocky islands.
The remainder of the coast, from Cape Santa Marta southward, is low, sandy, and intersected by numerous lakes, some of which communicate with the ocean through extensive openings. About midway between Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and nearly .40 m. to seaward, lie the Abrolhos, four rocky islets, the principal one of which, Santa Barbara, rises to a height of 108 ft., is about three quarters of a mile in length, and is composed of beds of sandstone, shales, and trap. The beaches of these islets consist largely, and in some parts entirely, of coral and shell sand. From the Abrolhos northward to the shore of Maranhao, at very irregular and often very long intervals, are scattered true coral reefs, lying in patches at a short distance from the coast, from which they are separated by navigable channels. - Much of the Brazilian territory, probably one half, is covered by highlands and mountains; but all of these are of insignificant proportions and elevation when compared to the giant ranges of the Andes. Indeed, many rising grounds mapped and described as serras have nothing of a mountainous character.
The Amazon and Paraguay watershed in the province of Matto Grosso, forming the W. limit of the Brazilian highlands, is simply a low swelling plateau on which the Tapa-jos, Xingu, Paraguay, and other rivers have their sources; and these are so near to each other, and the watershed is so low, that canoes ascend the Tapajos from Santarem near its confluence with the Amazon, cross over, and descend the Paraguay to Villa Maria. These great river sources might easily be connected by means of a canal. All the great Brazilian ranges N. of the parallel of Diamantina and having a N. and S. direction, though commonly described as mountain chains, are, with the exception of the Serra do Grao Mogor, ranges of chapadas or narrow plateaus resulting from denudation. There are in the east two great parallel chains. One of these, the Serra do Mar, runs nearly in a line with the coast, lowering considerably toward the Rio Doce, and losing itself almost entirely in Bahia, about lat. 13° S. The other, situated W. of the shore chain, is the Serra de Villarica or do Espinhaco. It extends from about lat. 25° to 16° S., where it loses itself some 240 m. from the coast; but between 22 and 23° it draws so near the Serra do Mar as to be confounded with it.
The Serra do Mar, much the most picturesque mountain range in the empire, follows the coast S. W. of Rio de Janeiro, traverses at variable distances from the shore the provinces of Sao Paulo, Santa Catharina, and Parana, and about midway on the W. limit of that of Santa Catharina separates into two branches, one of which, under the name of Serra Geral, stretches across that province to As Torres, lat. 29° 20' S., and there turns westward, forming an elbow that trends first W., then N. W., with many curves, till, by a succession of low hills, it ultimately joins the Montes Yerbales in the Argentine Republic. The coast chain frequently changes its name; from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro it is called Serra dos Aymbores or Aimores; in the latter province it takes the appellation of Serra dos Orgaos (Organ mountains), from a fancied resemblance to the tubes of an organ; it is next distinguished as the Serra de Paranapicaba, and lastly as the Serra Geral as above stated. The culminating point of the Serra do Mar occurs in the Organ mountains, and its height is estimated at from 7,500 to 7,800 ft. above the level of the sea. By far the loftiest mountains are W. of that chain.
The Itatiaiossti, with an elevation of 10,300 ft., is the highest summit in Brazil; it is situated in the N. W. corner of the province of Rio de Janeiro, in the Serra da Mantiqueira, which separates from the Serra do Mar near the city of Sao Paulo, and skirts the coast for a distance much further N. than that range. In the Serra do Espinhaco are Itacolumi, 6,400 ft. above the sea; Itabira, 5,170 ft.; the Serra da Piedade, 5,770 ft.; the Itambe, 5,903 ft.; and several others, all in Minas Geraes. On the frontiers of Minas Geraes and Goyaz is a mountain group called the Serra dos Vertentes (range of the watershed), which reaches its greatest height in the serras da Canastra, lat. 18° 30' S., and da Mar-cella, lat. 19° 10' S. This range consists of a series of spurs detached from that of the Es-pinhaco, stretching W. with numerous sinuosities nearly to the apex of the angle formed by the Grande and Parnahyba rivers, in Minas Geraes, lat. 19° 40' S. In the S. W. extremity of Matto Grosso, and almost in the same parallel as the Vertentes, originates a chain which, under the name of Serra de Santa Barbara, forms a considerable bend down to lat. 20° S. Thence it extends in a N. E. direction across the empire to the S. frontiers of Ceara; here it divides into two branches, one of which trends E. and loses itself between the provinces of Parahyba and Pernambuco before it reaches the coast, and the other, taking the name of Serra da Ibiapaba, forms to lat. 4° 30' S. the boundary between Piauhy and Ceara. The whole of the range just referred to sometimes receives the name of Pyreneos; but this appellation is more properly confined to the ridge reaching from the city of Goyaz to Meia Ponte, and the highest points of which are, according to a Brazilian authority, about 9,620 ft.
The Santa Marta, Santa Maria, and Tabatinga ridges, as the chain is successively called in its passage between the provinces of Minas Geraes and Goyaz, have no lofty peaks. The remainder of the chain, under the name of Serra da Bor-borema or dos Dous Irmaos, gradually dimin-ishes in height until it is finally lost in the northeast. The entire range forms the watershed of the Araguaya-Tocantins, Sao Francisco, and Parnahyba rivers, and those of the northern tributaries of the Paranahyba-Parana systems, and of the N. W. tributaries of the Paraguay. The Araguaya basin is studded in its entire length with low hills, whose elevation above the plain is never more than a few hundred feet. Hilly regions extend N. and W. from the great coast ranges, and traverse the provinces of Minas Geraes, Goyaz, and Matto Grosso; but they are all of inconsiderable height. The hills from which descend the Itenez-Madeira head waters are but a continuation of the low Amazon-Paraguay watershed, and terminate in elevated marshy lands on the Bolivian frontier.
It has been ascertained that the summit line in Brazil is close to the coast, and not in the interior, as has been erroneously presumed by most geographers and geologists; and this summit line is the E. edge of the Brazilian highlands, which descend by a gentle slope toward the west, and terminate in the great plains or flats of the Amazon basin, most of which are subject to periodical inundations. The N. boundary of the uplands is indicated by the cataracts in the large Amazon feeders, and forms a curve having for average latitude 5° S., and presenting its convex side to the north.
The S. boundary may be regarded as following the parallel of the Rio Iguazu or Iguacti. The surface of this extensive space is roughened by innumerable hills and some mountain ranges, whose elevation above the plain is, however, as has been seen, comparatively inconsiderable. There are no known volcanoes in the empire. Burton was informed that the Itatiaiossu in the Mantiqueira was of volcanic structure; but Hartt has strong doubts as to its being a volcano. - The territory of Brazil is watered by a large number of rivers, particularly in the north and south, the former constituting the basin of the Amazon, the latter that of the Plata, or more properly the Paraguay-Parana-Plata. The E. portion, between the basins of the Sao Francisco and Parnahyba, is least supplied with rivers. The Amazon enters the empire from Peru at Tabatinga under the name of Solimoens or Solimoes, holds an easterly course, takes the name of the Amazon or Lower Amazon at the junction of the Rio Negro, and falls into the Atlantic almost under the equator. The area drained by the Amazon and its tributaries in Brazil is 800,000 square miles.
That part of the Amazon which forms the dividing line between Ecuador and Peru varies from half a mile to a mile in width; from Tabatinga to the junction of the Madeira it gradually widens to 3 m.; after contracting to less than a mile at Obidos, where it is estimated that 550,000 cubic feet of water pass per second, it expands in the next 75 m. to over 10 m. at Santarem on the Tapajos; near the mouth of the Xingii it is 20 m. wide; and it falls into the ocean through a single mouth 180 m. wide, including the Para. Its depth is about 85 1/2 fathoms at its mouth, and at Sao Paulo de Olivenca near the Peruvian frontier; at the strait of Pauxis it reaches 254 fathoms; and the average depth is estimated at from 34 to 44 fathoms, so that vessels of any size may ascend to Sao Paulo throughout the year. The Solimoens in in all seasons navigable by large steamers 1,400 m. from the mouth of the Rio Negro; and its basin is covered with one uniform, lofty, and impervious forest. Among the tributaries to the main trunk, starting from the mouth, we find on the left bank the Anarapucti, Guru-patuba, and Trombetas descending from the mountains which separate the empire from the Guianas. The Rio Negro, by far the largest and most majestic of the Amazon feeders from the north, enters the empire in Ion. 67° 30' W., runs first S., then curves S. E., and, after a course of 1,200 m., pours its inky stream through two channels into the Amazon at Manaos, 1,000 m. from the ocean.
The Negro is linked to the Orinoco by the natural canal Cassiquiare, navigable throughout. The Ja-pura or Caqueta flows almost parallel with the Ucayari-Negro, and after a course of over 1,000 m. falls into the Amazon through four mouths at the town of Ega. The Putumayo is the last large river on the left bank between the Negro and the Peruvian frontier. The largest affluents of the Amazon come from the south. The first on the right bank, and which separates the empire from Peru, is the Javari, which it receives at Tabatinga. Next to the east is the Jutahi, which, with the Jurua, Teffe, Coary (supposed to communicate with the Jurua about lat. 9° S.), and Purus, has not yet been thoroughly explored. The Purus is believed by some to be the "Madre de Dios " of the old Spaniards, and navigable to the Bolivian frontier. The Madeira (so called from quantities of Wood often seen floating down its stream), 2,000 m. long, enters the empire about lat. 11° S., and flows N. E. to its confluence with the Amazon in Ion. 58 W. The Madeira rises and falls about two months earlier than the Amazon. The Tapajos rises in the Serra Diamantina, a few miles from the head waters of the Paraguay, and after a N. course of 1,100 m., navigable throughout for canoes, and for large vessels to a distance of 200 m. from its mouth, it blends its clear olive-green waters with the white turbid current of the Amazon just below the town of Santarem. The Xingu, some 800 m. longer than the Tapajos, rises in the same plateau, and runs parallel with it to the town of Boa Vista, where it joins the Amazon, here 25 m. wide.
The few geographers who make the Rio Para merely a mouth of the Amazon include in the number of the tributaries to the latter river the Tocantins, whose main branch has its head waters in the Serra de Sta. Maria, about lat. 15° S., and enters the Para 40 m. W. of the city of Belem. The Tocantins is joined, 300 m. from its mouth, by the Araguaya, which is also a great river; indeed, it is the greater of the two, and has the longer course, and hence ought to rank as the main stream. The preceding are all the Amazon tributaries of importance. These present an unparalleled extent of inland water communication, reaching to every country in South America save Chili and Patagonia. They are divided into two classes, distinguished by the color of the respective streams, those of one class being black, those of the other class white. This difference in color is attributed to the great quantity of resinous matter held in suspension in the black-water streams, received from the coniferous trees which they carry in great numbers to the Amazon. The black waters are infested by large numbers of insects, and intermittent fevers and leprosy are more prevalent on their banks than on those of the white waters; the latter, on the other hand, are the more favorite haunts of the various large saurians.
Descending the coast in a S. E. direction from the Amazon, the Par-nahyba is next encountered. It rises in the Serra de Tabatinga, and after a generally N. E. course of perhaps 1,000 m. falls into the Atlantic by six mouths, at the city of its own name, in lat. 3° S., Ion. 41° 45' W.; it has numerous small affluents, and is said to be navigable for a distance of 780 m. The Sao Francisco, occupying the third rank among the rivers of South America, and the sixteenth among those of the world, takes its rise in the Jiighlands between lat. 20° and 21° S., and flows almost due N. to lat. 12°, where it bends N. E., and falls into the ocean some 30 m. S. E. of Penedo. In lat. 17° 11' 54" it receives the Rio das Velhas; in lat. 19° 10', the Para; and about lat. 18° 49', the Paraopeba. The Rio das Velhas, the main branch, might by the removal of a few obstacles be made navigable by steam for 360 m. from its mouth. The bed of the Sao Francisco is much impeded by rapids and cataracts; otherwise the river would be navigable from the confluence of the Rio das Velhas to the sea.
Steamers ply already from the Porto das Piranhas to the ocean; and Burton says that $1,015,000 would be sufficient to open the two rivers, and construct a railway to avoid the cataracts at Paulo. Among the great southern arteries of the empire is the Parana, formed by the united streams of the Paranahyba and Grande (which receive their head waters from the mountains of Minas Geraes), and flowing S. W. by S., constituting the boundary line between the provinces of Matto Grosso and Sao Paulo, and Parana and the republic of Paraguay. The Tiete, Iguazti or Iguassti, and a host of other rivers fall into the Parana. The Paraguay flows almost due S., separating the province of Matto Grosso from Bolivia, from lat. 20° 20' S., and unites with the Parana at the S. "W. corner of the republic of Paraguay to form the principal feeder of the Rio de la Plata. The Paraguay is navigable from Villa Maria. The Mearim in Maranhao, the Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte, the Belmonte or Grande in Bahia, the Doce in Espirito Santo, the Paranapanema, separating the provinces of Sao Paulo and Parana, the Jacuhy and Ibicuy in Rio Grande do Sul, the Uruguay, which separates Parana from Rio Grande do Sul, and the latter province from the Argentine Republic, with many others, are all rivers of considerable magnitude.
The Amazon and some others of the Brazilian rivers a,re regularly visited at their mouths by the pororoca or bore. (See Amazon, and Belem.) Most of them are subject to periodical risings during the wet season, when they overflow their banks and inundate the surrounding plains over an extensive area. The flooding of the Amazon, however, offers no impediment to navigation, inasmuch as its affluents do not all swell simultaneously, but have their risings at intervals of six months on either bank of the trunk stream. The Amazon attains its maximum height in June, 55 ft., and its minimum in December, 32 1/2 ft. The lakes of Brazil are numerous, especially in the provinces of Para, Maranhao, Goyaz, and along the coast, from lat. 19° S. to the southern extremity of the empire, as also in Matto Grosso. The principal are the Lagoa dos Patos (lake of the Ducks), about 150 m. long and 40 m. wide, stretching N. to S. along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul; and the Lagoa Merim, lying S. of the former, and much smaller. Though these lakes communicate with each other and with the sea, the water of the Lagoa dos Patos is but slightly brackish, particularly in the N. portions, where its waters are constantly freshened by the influx of several large rivers.
The lakes of the coast region of Rio de Janeiro are very numerous, some being several leagues in diameter, but all exceedingly shallow. Lagoa Feia, the largest, is 20 m. long; and another, called Rio Iguassu, 15 m. Elsewhere on the coast similar lagoons are common. - For a length of at least 2,000 m. along the coast of Brazil, and certainly for a considerable space inland, solid rock, wherever it occurs, belongs to a granitic formation. The serras do Mar and da Mantiqueira are wholly composed of gneiss of an orthoclase species, varying from schistose to coarse-grained and porphyritic or homogeneous and granitic. As one proceeds westward from the coast, the gneiss becomes finer, and finally gives way to heavy beds of mica slate, or mica-schistose gneiss with bands of quartz; and this same succession is said to obtain in most other parts of the empire. Strong lithological resemblances are observed between the gneisses of Brazil, which De Beaumont affirms to be among the very oldest stratified rocks on the globe, and the Laurentian rocks of Europe and North America; and this resemblance is still more strongly marked by the absence of mica slate in both formations.
The exact succession of the different members of the metamorphic series in the gold-bearing region in Minas Geraes has not yet been thoroughly worked out. The clay and talcose schists, the itacolumite, itabi-rite, and other associated metamorphic rocks of this section are, in the opinion of Prof. Hartt, lower palaeozoic in age. Some of these rocks, which resemble the auriferous rocks of Nova Scotia, may be Devonian; they have been everywhere so metamorphosed that all trace of fossils has been obliterated. Great numbers of fossil plants of carboniferous genera occur in the empire; the coal basins lie just S. of the tropic, but within the range of the palm; they are of coast formation; and carboniferous rocks also occur in the Rio Itenez. There do not appear to be any carboniferous strata on the coast N. of Rio de Janeiro, the depression of the shore allowing the accumulation of coal beds not having extended beyond the southern provinces. A thick series of triassic red sandstone, unassociated with trap, underlies the cretaceous rocks in Sergipe, and extends over a large area.
Cretaceous rocks are found along the coast from Bahia to Piauhy, but none occur S. of the parallel of the Abrolhos; they are so largely covered by tertiary beds that it is difficult to estimate their extent; but it is quite probable that they underlie the tertiary deposits throughout the whole Amazon valley. They show themselves on the Aquiry, an affluent of the Purus, and have there been examined, as reported by Prof. Agassiz. The cretaceous rocks seem to have been deposited in a shallow sea, have been very slightly disturbed, do not anywhere form remarkably high hills, and are at the Abrolhos associated with volcanic deposits. Prof. Hartt, though no fossils have been found in them, refers to the tertiary the clays and ferruginous sandstones forming the coast plains and overlying the cretaceous rocks unconformably, inasmuch as they are themselves overlaid by the drift clays that descend from the mountains and cover their glaciated surfaces. Drift occurs in Brazil, and is considered by Prof. Agassiz to be due to the agency of glacier ice. - The mineral productions of Brazil are immense; they comprise diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, euclases, rubies, topazes, aquamarines, zircon, gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and other metals.
Diamonds have been found in various parts of the empire; but the great diamond region is in Minas, and extends from E. to W. between lat. 17° and 19° S., the most celebrated mines being those of the Serra do Frio. Diamond washing was formerly a monopoly of the government, but in pursuance of a recent law for the administration and working of diamond mines, these now belong exclusively to private individuals. The diamond usually occurs among the sands produced by the disintegration of the sandstone rock. Some of the largest known diamonds were found on some of the small rivers flowing into the Sao Francisco on the left bank, between lat. 18° and 19° S.; but search here has long since been abandoned. On one of these streams, the Abaete, was found one of the largest diamonds of which we have any record; it weighed 138 1/2 carats. From 1740 to 1772 the average diamond extraction per annum was52,080carats; but this average has since suffered an enormous annual decrease, and the total value of the diamond washings during the first 100 years, perhaps $20,000,000 at the most liberal estimate, was far outstripped by the exportation of the single article of coffee in the year 1856, $28,000,000. Diamonds are also met with in Parana, near Cu-yaba in Matto Grosso, and in the Patinga district in Bahia. The annual production of diamonds in this province is perhaps $3,000,000. The export of these stones from the port of Bahia in the year 1864-'5 amounted to nearly $760,000, and that of sugar alone to almost four times that sum.
The other precious stones above enumerated occur in Minas Geraes. Garnets, though not of the finest quality, are found throughout the whole empire; and beautiful amethysts are by no means rare. The gold of Brazil occurs in the metamorphic rocks, in drift gravels and clays, and alluvial sands and gravels. The formations richest in gold are clay slates traversed by auriferous quartz lodes, itacolumite rock veined with gold-bearing quartz, and certain iron ores variously known under the names itabirite and jacu-tinga. The richest gold mines in the empire are situated in the vicinity of Ouro Pre to, in the province of Minas Geraes. Here the metal occurs primarily in quartz veins traversing metamorphic rocks, and is also disseminated throughout the rock in many places. The principal mines of the Morro Velho, in the valley of the Rio das Velhas, a tributary of the Sao Francisco, are those of Oachoeira, Bahu, and Quebra Panella. According to Phillips, the net profits of these mines for 1849 were $190,680; for 1861, $483,845; and for 1865, $404,190. In 1864 there was a loss of $73,145. These mines are worked by a British company, and yield a dividend of $10 per share of $75. The mines of Gongo Soco, and some others formerly very productive, have been abandoned.
The gold veins in the alluvial soils of Minas Geraes are usually associated with platina and iridium, and in other mines of a different geological formation in the same province with tellurium and other minerals. In some parts of the country it is always accompanied by and at times mixed with palladium to the extent of 7 to 11 per cent. The opinion that the gold mines of Brazil are exhausted is pronounced to be false by Burton, Liais, Hartt, and other authorities. Silver almost everywhere accompanies the galenic formation. Copper abounds in Matto Grosso and in Sao Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul; it is likewise found in the provinces of Minas, Bahia, and Ceara, and near Villa Vicosa in Maranhao. Tin has been discovered among the sands of the river Paraopeba in Minas, and in the province of Rio de Janeiro. Galena is frequently met with, composed as follows: lead, 86 1/2- per cent.; sulphur, 13 1/2; and silver, from 1 to 7 parts in 10,-000 of ore. It is plentiful at the sources of the river Iguape, in the district of Iporanga, and also at Sorocaba in Sao Paulo, and is found in the provinces of Minas, Bahia, Parahyba do Norte, Santa Oatharina, Rio de Janeiro, and Ceara. Chromate of lead is found at Cogo-nhas do Oampo in Minas Geraes. Sulphide of zinc and traces of native carbonate of zinc occur in Ceara. Arsenic accompanies the pyrites in some gold mines, and exists in the acid state combined with iron, forming scorodite, in the province of Minas Geraes. There are in Brazil iron mines entirely free from pyrites, thus excelling even the famous mines of Danemora in Sweden. Iron works are carried on by the government at Sao Joao de Ipanema, the product being of excellent quality.
Many varieties of granite of different colors occur in various localities, suitable for building, though for this purpose the various kinds of gneiss are commonly employed. A very compact quartz suitable for pavements is likewise found. Of porphyry, the green, pink, and black varieties (the latter containing crystals of feldspar) are abundant. Saccharoidal limestone occurs in many parts of the empire, and is generally eruptive in the gneiss formation. Orthis class of rock there are several beautiful varieties. The limestone of the Rio das Velhas valley is of a dark gray color, and is so sonorous that in former times plates made of it were used as bells for the churches. The lime used in building on the coast is almost exclusively made from the sam-baquis or enormous mounds of shells piled up centuries ago by the aborigines, or from the coral beds which abound in all the bays from the Abrolhos northward. Gypsum is found in Minas, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Maranhao, and Amazonas. The various species of clays are extensively used for making bricks, and would also be very suitable for the manufacture of earthenware.
There are extensive mines in Rio Grande do Sul, yielding coal with a more abundant ash than the English coals sent to Rio de Janeiro, which it resembles in appearance and general properties. Prof. Hartt says it has been used since about 1860 in the Jacuhy company's steamers, and found more economical than the English coal. A railway from the mines will carry the coal to a seaport, whence it can be taken by colliers and delivered at Montevideo in three or four days at about half the cost of delivering it at Rio de Janeiro, where nevertheless it is computed that it can be sold at about $8 per ton. Coal also appears in Sao Paulo, and again in Ceara; it is supposed to exist in Piauhy and Maranhao, and in the valley of the Amazon. Lignite is found in Sao Paulo, and peat in almost all parts of the empire. Bituminous schists are also frequently met with, some being of a turfy origin. Near the mouth of the Camamti, yellow schists have been discovered which afford by distillation a solid matter analogous to naphthaline, and a very volatile carburet of hydrogen, possessing excellent illuminating properties.
Similar schists exist in Maranhao. Graphite is plentiful in Ceara. Sulphur has been detected in Rio Grande do Norte. Nitre, alum, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of soda in the efflorescent form, and rock salt occur in most of the provinces. Common salt is extracted from the stomapoda which come upon the rock in the Rio Negro below the fresh water, and in the strongest part of the current. A curious efflorescence is that of chloride of soda in the gneiss of some of the mountains of Ceara. - Among the fossil remains of extinct mammals found in Brazil may be mentioned those of the mastodon, species of macrauchenia, toxodon, chlamydotherium, and of the gigantic glyptodon (hoplophorus), mylodon, and megatherium. Among the car-nivora there were wild cats and jaguars, and a species of smilodon (S. neogceus), an immense cat-like animal with enormous knife-like canine teeth in the upper jaw, allied to the fossil European species. The protopithecus is the only extinct genus of monkey found. Lund encountered in the basin of the Sao Francisco stone implements and remains of man so buried with the remains of the extinct fauna as to leave no doubt that man was contemporaneous with it in Brazil as in Europe. Bones of an immense capybara (hydrochoerus sulcidens) have been met with, and of llamas and horses, which last certainly existed in Brazil, as in North America, long before the conquest. - The climate along the coast from about lat. 24° S. to the N. limit, and in the valley of the Amazon, may be described as generally hot, though some parts are subject to sudden and violent atmospheric changes.
In the valleys of the Parana and the Uruguay, as also on the highlands, a cool and even a cold temperature prevails; and the climate of the whole empire, though for the most part moist, is in general healthy. In the north the wet season (winter) begins regularly toward the end of November, and lasts till the middle of May; during this period the rains are abundant and usually accompanied by terrific thunder and lightning, and become more and more frequent and heavy as the end of the season approaches. On the Amazon, from Belem westward, rain falls almost every afternoon. At Belem there are but GO days out of the year without rain. The thermometer in this region ranges from 98° to 68° F., while at Rio de Janeiro the average temperature is 75°, and still lower toward the south. In the northern provinces, from June to December, the ventos geraes (general winds) blow steadily in the daytime from the northeast, and during the night from the east. The most common diseases are pulmonary consumption, intermittent fevers, and rheumatism. Goitre is extremely prevalent in Minas, parts of Bahia, and elsewhere, and is attributed to the saline impurities of the water.
Leprosy is prevalent along the banks of the Amazon, at Rio de Janeiro, and elsewhere; it is said rarely to attack foreigners, and though generally reported to be incurable, statistics show that, in places where there are good physicians, it often yields to treatment, and permanent cures are effected. - The soil of Brazil is as varied as its climate, being in some parts amazingly fertile, and bearing almost every known species of vegetable production; while in others it is dry, arid, and unfavorable to vegetation. As a rule, the lands surrounding the large and populous cities are exceedingly rich and productive. The immense plains of the interior are for the most part covered with primeval forests, offering inexhaustible quantities of timber adapted both for solid construction and for cabinet and ornamental works. Few countries in the world contain such a quantity of vegetable matter on their surface as the valley of the Amazon; from a point about 60 m. S. E. of Tabatinga, a circle may be drawn of 1,100 m. in diameter, the whole area of which is covered with one dense mass of arboreal vegetation.
Nearly 400 different species were exhibited in the ex-posipdo international at Belem in 1867; and Prof. Agassiz reports having seen at the same fair 117 different kinds of valuable woods cut from a piece of land not half a mile square, many of which were dark-colored veined woods, as beautiful as mahogany or rosewood, and susceptible of a high polish. Under the name of jacarandd or rosewood are known several species of wood, all very hard and compact, of a blackish red tinge. They flourish in Amazonas and the provinces N. of Rio de Janeiro generally, that of Espirito Santo being reputed of a fine quality, and forming the principal article of export from the Doce. The itauba or stonewood, found in great abundance in Amazonas, Para, Maranhao, and other northern provinces, often attains a height of 100 ft., with a trunk over 6 ft. in diameter; all the best vessels of the Amazon country are constructed of this wood, which is said to be more durable than teak. The copaiba (copaifera Guayanensis or officinalis) and the pao Brazil or Brazil wood, the former valuable for its oil used in medicine and the arts, and also for its timber, the latter for its celebrated coloring matter, present a marked feature in the forest vegetation.
The colossal pao d'arco or bow wood (tecoma speciosa) and macaranduba (mimusops elata) abound in the virgin forests N. of Rio; the timber of both is exceedingly hard and extensively used in carpentry and cabinet making. From the latter is extracted by incision a whitish, sweet, savory fluid, commonly used while in the liquid state as milk in tea and coffee; after some hours it coagulates, forming a white, elastic mass resembling india rubber, when it is employed in the arts; while the bark, very rich in tannin, is much used in dyeing. The total height of these trees, stem and crown, may be estimated at from 180 to 200 ft.; the vast dome of their foliage rises above the other forest trees as does that of a cathedral above the other buildings in a city; and logs 100 ft. long squared from these trees are not uncommon at the saw mills near Belem. The growth of buttress-shaped projections around the lower part of the stems, not only of the trees just mentioned, but of most of the larger trees, is a remarkable feature of the forest; the buttresses, generally thin walls of wood, form spacious stall-like compartments, often capable of holding half a dozen persons, and serve as props to the enormous stems. Of the order of lecythidacem there are some 40 species distributed among seven genera.
Chief among these are the sapucaia (lecythis Ollaria), the fruit of which (sapucaia nuts) is closely allied to the Brazil nut, and is enclosed in a vase-like shell with a close-fitting lid, called a monkey cup, and the Bertholletia excelsa, a majestic tree forming whole forests, and producing the Brazil nut. The timber of these genera is especially valuable in constructions exposed to trying atmospheric action. To those already enumerated may be added the augico, vinhatico, caixeta, sucupira, canella, pao ferro (ironwood), cedro, perobal, goncalo aloes, bacuri, jiquitiba, conduru, piquia, bracu-tiara, and a host of others yielding timber suitable for every purpose, besides an endless variety of fruits, resins, oils, dyes, etc. The chief ornament of the forest is the palm, which is here represented by from 300 to 400 species, all more or less useful to the aborigines, and some even necessary to their existence. From the graceful cocos nucifera, with its giant pinnate leaves often 20 ft. long, the Maximiliana regia, jara-assu, manicaria saccifera, yriartea exho-riza, Leopoldina pulchra, and some others, the Indian obtains food, drink, raiment, dwelling, hammocks, cordage, cooking utensils (the woody spathes of some palms standing the fire when they are filled with water), weapons, tools, fishing tackle, harpoons, implements for the chase, musical instruments, and medicines.
The car-nohuba palm gives wax which, mixed with tallow, makes excellent candles, and a sort of farinaceous pith much used when other food is scarce. The cocos, of which the cocoanut palm is the type, and of which about a dozen species are here known, the assai, the bacaba, a single bundh of whose fruit weighs from 30 to 40 lbs., the peach palm (pupunha), and scores of others, all furnish delicious and wholesome fruits, and some of them refreshing beverages. The cocos yield wax, oil, sugar, starch, and materials for cloth and cordage; the leaves and shells give thatch for huts, materials for hats, hammocks, mats, baskets, and other articles; and the roots, sap, flowers, and milk afford to the Indian medicinal remedies for many of his peculiar maladies. The wood of all the palms is very good for building. One of the most beautiful members of the palm family is the miriti, with its pendent clusters of reddish fruit, and enormous spreading, fanlike leaves, cut into ribbons, one of which is a load for a man. The plume-like leaves of the jupati are often 50 ft. long, and those of the bussu 30 ft. All the well known tropical fruits can generally be had in any part of the country; but the interior abounds in productions utterly unknown in the coast districts.
Some of these fruits have been cultivated by the natives, such as the jabuti-puhe and cama (two species), the former resembling the apple, the latter the pear in form and size, and both containing a pulp of a delicious flavor. The fruit of the artocarpus Braziliensis (Gom.), or Brazilian breadfruit, sometimes a foot and a half in the largest diameter, has immense seeds which are extensively used as food. Others grow wild, as the pama, an oblong, cherry-colored stone fruit, growing at a height of 100 feet from the ground; and the puruma-i, which tastes like wild grapes. The fatty, bitter pulp of the umari and the wishi is eaten mixed with farina, and is very nourishing; and mingau (custard) of bananas, flavored with the mallet-shaped wiko - an oblong, crimson fruit, growing apparently crosswise on its stem - is a favorite dish on the Solimoens. All vegetation is much more luxuriant in the basin of the Solimoens than in that of the Lower Amazon; trees which near Belem bloom but once a year have flowers or fruit, and sometimes both, throughout the four seasons at Ega. The species of social plants are comparatively few in Brazil; those most noteworthy in the Atlantic regions are the mangroves, conocarpus and avicennia, in addition to which and the pteris caudata are some species of rhexia, cecropia, and bignonia, together with the uba, jaquarassu, some grasses, a bamboo, and the dwarf palm of the coast, guriri.
The forests of the central provinces are made up of melastomw, conspicuous from their large purple blossoms; bombacece, with their peculiar foliage and large cotton fruits; candelabra trees, with a fruit resembling that of the bread tree (cultivated in Brazil), but slighter and more cylindrical; euphorbias of extraordinary size; the genera ilex, laurus, myrtus, eugenia, jatropha, visinia, ficus, as also the bignonia, rhexia, lecythis, and hundreds of other for the most part unknown species; and near the plantations and dwellings exotic tropical trees are everywhere cultivated. Luxuriant plant growth greets the eye in all directions; nowhere is a spot to be seen without plants. Numberless species of passiflora, caladium, dracontium, piper, begonia, and epidendrum, with multitudinous ferns, lichens, and mosses, bloom On every tree stem; and the mass of foliage is everywhere interlaced by parasitic vines. Countless tough, woody lianes, varying from thread-like tenuity to the thickness of a man's thigh, cling to and twine around the tree trunks, climbing to the very topmost branch, there to blossom and bear fruit above the reach of vision.
The caoutchouc tree occurs chiefly between Belem and the Xingu, and on the Solimoens and Rio Negro; and the smilax syphilitica, valuable for the sarsaparilla extracted from its roots, abounds in the whole Amazonian forest region, from Venezuela to Bolivia. Brazilian nutmegs, Tonka beans, and Maranhao cloves are all common to the Rio Negro, in the basin of which are numberless trees rich in various kinds of oils and resins. Among the forest trees of the Amazon, the leguminosae are by far the most abundant in species, and also the most remarkable, from their curious bean-like fruits, commonly of immense size or length. Many of the ingas and allied genera have pods a yard long and very slender, while in others the pods are three or four inches wide and quite short. There are numerous species of vanilla; the Leopoldina palm, the fibres of whose petioles give the piassaba so extensively employed in textile fabrics, occurs in large numbers; as do also several species of bombax, producing silk cotton.
The flowers of the forest trees in the densely wooded regions are comparatively small and inconspicuous; in the open country, or campos, tne flower-bearing trees and bushes are more abundant, as indicated by the larger number of floral insects attracted thither; but in the more cultivated districts in the central and southern provinces, the prodigious variety and beauty of the flowers never fail to command attention and admiration. In addition to the tropical fruits alluded to above, mention should be made of the bananas, yams, figs, lemons, oranges, etc, all of which grow in immense quantities in most of the provinces, the oranges of Para being at once remarkable for excellence and abundance. - The zoology of Brazil is no less remarkable than its botany for the variety of species which it comprises. Among the animals not indigenous to the country are the horse, ass, sheep, hog, and dog. Numerous herds of horned cattle roam wild over the vast plains of the interior, and considerable numbers in a domestic state on the large plantations of the southern and central provinces. The horses compare favorably with those of other South American states; but the sheep and swine are in general of inferior breeds, though the markets of the large cities afford some excellent mutton.
Wild pigs inhabit the forests and are hunted for food. Game in great variety abounds throughout the wooded region, and especially deer, hare, and squirrels. Here also are the great maneless lion (cougar or puma); the jaguar, whose strength enables it to kill a young bull and drag the carcass to the summit of a hill; the ocelot (felis partialis), and two other species of felidm. All these the Brazilians designate by the single generic term onca (ounce), distinguishing them, however, into three species according to the color of the skin: the onca preta, onca pintada, and onca de lombo preto. Wolves, cachorras do matto (dogs of the woods), a species of fox, and antas (American tapir) are common; as are likewise sloths, pacas (ccelogenys paca), agoutis, and armadillos; the three last named species ranking among the most highly esteemed game of the country. Three small species of deer, the tapir, the largest quadruped in the empire, two or three species of large felidm, two kinds of wild hog, the capybara, and the paca comprise nearly all the large game of this region. Small agoutis, sloths, armadillos, and ant-eaters are common. The capybara (hydro-char us capybara) frequents the banks of the rivers, eats grass, and dives when pursued.
Its flesh, though frequently eaten, is not very good, while that of the paca is particularly savory and tender. Many species of opossum occur, and are very destructive to poultry. The flesh of the armadillo, both species of which are eaten, is white and delicate. The large ant-eater is a powerful animal; the Indians assert that it sometimes kills the jaguar; and the various species of sloth are a favorite prey of the harpy eagle. Otters, the echimys (a kind of rat), two species of coati, porcupines, iraras or honey-eaters, water rats, and various other species of rodents are not uncommon. There are over 30 known species of monkeys in the basin of the Amazon, and probably twice that number in all Brazil; of these the mycetes, or howlers, are the largest; the coaita and many other kinds are esteemed for the delicacy of their flesh. Rabbits are common in the central provinces; and vampires often cause much trouble by biting horses, cattle, and even men. Chief among the predaceous birds are the king vulture and the harpy eagle, which, with a great variety of smaller eagles, hawks, kites, owls, etc, inhabit the Amazon region, and all but the first two are found in most parts of the empire. There are two other species of fine eagles inhabiting the Upper Amazon exclusively.
Wallace reckons at least 30 distinct species of parrots, varying in size from the tiny psittaculus passerinus to the magnificent crimson macaw, and some 20 varieties of humming birds. Immense flocks of aquatic birds frequent the rivers and lakes; the American ostrich (rhea Americana) ranges from Ceara to the Uruguay; and there is an infinite variety of small birds, whose showy and brilliant plumage forms a gay contrast with the monotonous, never-fading verdure of Brazilian vegetation. During certain seasons of the year frigate birds, gulls, and several other species of marine birds resort in numbers to the Abrolhos. A remarkable bird is the siriemma, a sort of small ostrich, occurring in the highland deserts; it is easily tamed, and then becomes very useful for the extermination of serpents, which form its chief food. Five species of toucans inhabit the woods of Ega, all remarkable for the enormous size and light structure of their beaks, which are. often two inches wide and seven long. Turkeys, geese, ducks, Guinea fowl, and other poultry are met with in every form; and wild turkeys, peacocks, wild geese, etc, are very numerous.
Some travellers have spoken of a kind of lyre bird in Minas Geraes. Among the reptiles, the boa constrictor (jiboia), and the anaconda (sucuruju) come first in order. Wallace says the latter is decidedly the larger of the two; but both attain to an enormous size, and it is generally believed in the country that they sometimes reach from 60 to 80 feet in length. Poisonous serpents abound, and there are numerous varieties, the most terrible of all being the jararaca; it is common in all the southern provinces, and its bite, near* ly always mortal, is 'immediately followed by the most poignant suffering. The jararacas-sd is a larger variety of the preceding. The cobra coral, or coral serpent; the cobra sipo, or liane snake, dangerous from the grayish color of the skin, similar to that of the lianes around which it entwines itself to lie in wait for its prey; the cobra fria, or cold snake, whose body is frigid as ice; and the rattlesnake (cascavel), are all exceedingly venomous, and rarely exceed two yards in length. Three or four distinct species of alligators abound in the Amazon and all its tributaries. The smaller ones are eaten by the natives, and they in their turn are devoured by the large ones.
Besides the jurara, the largest and most abundant of the Brazilian turtles, there are various other species; from their eggs, the yolks of which are very good eating, is extracted an oil much used for light and in culinary preparations. The rivers and lakes abound in fish of endless variety; in every small river, even in different parts of the same river, distinct species occur; and it would be impossible to estimate the number of kinds in the several rivers of the empire. The garoupa is a large fish, of excellent flavor, taken in prodigious numbers off the coast between lat. 17° and 18° S. An immense variety of fish is caught in the vicinity of the Abrolhos, and used for food, comprising some of the most delicious kinds of marine fish. The peixeboi, or cow fish, called by the Indians juried, is an herbivorous cetacean, of which there are probably two species in the Amazon, considered as distinct from the manatee of the West Indies. In the Sao trancisco there is a fish called the piranha, exceedingly voracious, biting the legs of bathers, and attacking and mutilating other fish irrespective of size. The piru-ructi is taken in large quantities in the Amazon, and is preserved like cod.
The Amazonian forests are without a rival for the great size and gorgeous colors of their butterflies, and the endless variety of the species. The helico-nii, a group of butterflies peculiar to tropical America, are very numerous; and the harlequin beetle, with the gigantic prioni and dynastes, are also found here. Musical crickets; immense spiders, of sufficient size (some being half a foot in expanse) and strength to attack and kill finches; countless varieties of bees, some without stings, others making sour honey; saii-bas, or leaf-carrying ants, so abundant in some districts as to render agriculture almost impossible; formidable mosquitoes, sand flies, motu-cas, piums (a minute fly, the insect pest of the Upper Amazon), carnivorous beetles, huge scorpions, and myriads of other species, form the characteristic features of the Brazilian insect world. - There exist in Brazil magnificent pasture lands eminently suitable for cattle raising, and watered by great rivers affording an easy and direct highway to all the markets of the country and of. the world. The meadow lands of the more southerly provinces, however, support countless herds of horned cattle, which form an important source of wealth to the country.
The cultivated ground from the Rio Negro to the Andes does not exceed a few score acres. In the valley of the Tocantins the inhabitants like better to gather nuts and cacao, and make india rubber, than to apply themselves to the regular cultivation of the soil. That part of the coast region extending from Bahia to Sta. Oatharina, with the exception of Espirito Santo, is generally devoted to coffee culture, though rice is an important product of Rio de Janeiro and the adjoining provinces, and there are immense sugar fazendas in all of them. The region embracing Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Sta. Catharina yields the various cereals, cattle raising being likewise an important industry; and the great equatorial districts are characterized by the spontaneous products of the forest - barks, gums, resins, and textile substances as yet unknown in foreign markets - india rubber, sarsaparilla, cacao, vanilla, etc. Rice is easily raised in all parts of Brazil; cotton yields large crops in almost all the provinces, as do also sugar and tobacco.
Agricultural operations are chiefly centred upon coffee, cotton, sugar, tobacco, mandioca, the various European cereals, beans, and cacao, of which last there are extensive plantations in the provinces N. of Rio de Janeiro. The yield of sugar is still considerable, and has not materially increased or decreased since 1862, notwithstanding the preference given of late years to coffee planting in many districts. Four fifths of the coffee consumed in the United States, and over half of all that is used in the world, is of Brazilian growth. Yet Brazilian coffee is much underrated, for the reason that the finer qualities are nearly always put into market under the name of Java or Mocha, or even Martinique or Bourbon, although the yearly produce of coffee in the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe would not be sufficient to supply the Rio de Janeiro market for a single day. Each tree is supposed to yield annually, on an average, two pounds of coffee; but some give as much as eight. Besides the provinces adjacent to Rio de Janeiro, the coffee plant flourishes in the shade of the Amazon forest, and with moderate care yields two annual crops; and the Ceara coffee, much esteemed, grows on the mountain slopes, at an elevation of from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. above the sea.
In the province of Para the coffee plant is seen growing on almost every roadside, thicket, or waste. In 1818 all the coffee exported from Brazil was only 74,300 sacks; in 1871 it was 2,358,001 sacks. The value of cotton exported increased from $8,383,705 in 1862 to $24,030,325 in 1866. This rapid increase was due to the civil war in the United States. Mandioca or cassava is extensively cultivated; it is said that one acre of it affords as much nutriment as six of wheat, and the farina prepared from it is a common article of food in all parts of the empire. The vine and the olive are cultivated to a limited extent in the southern provinces. - Manufactures are not yet in a very advanced condition in Brazil. Sugar refining is carried on extensively, particularly in the great cane-growing provinces of Bahia and Pernambu-co, where there are numbers of engenhos established on a grand scale, with the best modern machinery for water or steam power. In the interior the old imperfect systems are still adhered to, owing in many cases to the apathy of the planters, but chiefly to the expense and difficulties attending transportation from the coast. Little has as yet been done in Brazil toward manufacturing this class of machinery.
To the engenhos in the interior are commonly attached distilleries, and three kinds of rum are manufactured: cachaga, somewhat resembling in taste the rum of the West Indies, but inferior to that in quality, is in universal use among the lower classes, and is made from the molasses that drips from the mascavado or common raw sugar; agoardente, or the rum of commerce, directly distilled from the cane juice; and restilo, the result of a second process of distillation (hence the name) of the latter, to which is previously added another ingredient. About 6,500,000 gallons of rum are annually exported. The agoardente is extensively used in the manufacture of gin and of fine liqueurs, a large variety of which latter, flavored with the aromatic extracts of various indigenous fruits, was exhibited in Paris in 1867. A sort of brandy is also made from mandioca, the fruits of the cajueiro, genipa-peiro, etc. Beer breweries, of comparatively recent establishment, are in successful operation in Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, Rio Grande do Sul, and Pernambuco; but the full develop-ment of this industry is seriously impeded by the necessity of importing from Europe the barley and hops, which might be raised in abundance in the southern provinces.
Tobacco is manufactured on a large scale in some places, chiefly in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, where are made several kinds of snuff much esteemed in foreign markets. Large quantities of cigars of a common class (charutos) are manufactured in Bahia and other places. In some towns and districts near Bahia the whole population is thus occupied, and the saw mills turn out from 7,000 to 8,000 cigar boxes a day. In the financial year 1859-'60 46,000,000 charutos, valued at $304,667 55, were exported from Bahia; and the yearly export has since been steadily on the increase. A number of cotton-weaving factories have been established, and compete favorably with foreign manufacturers in the production of the coarser fabrics. The first cotton factory in Brazil was built by an American near Rio de Janeiro, and the workers are chiefly taken from the German colony at Petropolis. There is besides an extensive fabrica in the province of Bahia, also built by Americans, and employing 300 operatives of both sex-es, mostly from the orphan and foundling asylums of the city. From 30,000 to 40,000 pieces (of 16 yards each) are here produced annually, and a considerable quantity of sewing cotton, nets, etc.
The largest factory is in Minas Geraes, with 15,000 spindles and 400 looms; it affords constant employment to 800 hands, and is said to turn out annually 3,500,000 yards of cloth and 274,000 lbs. of yarn, of a total value of $1,100,000. In the provinces already mentioned, and in Alagoasand elsewhere, there are other cotton factories, but of minor importance. To promote the development of this industry, the government has decreed the free entry of all machinery for that purpose, and the exemption of the operatives from military service, but appoints an inspector to superintend each establishment. Very good silks are made at Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere. There are saw mills in various parts of the country. Common and wall papers are manufactured; also soap, chemicals, braids, ribbons, bronzes, etc. Some important works have been executed in Brazilian founderies, such as steamships and iron bridges; and the coast steamer companies have well appointed machine shops for the repair and even building of engines. The province of Sao Paulo has some large iron works. In the large cities there are gold and silver smiths and jewellers; but these and the artisans of the various other mechanical branches are mainly foreigners.
In Brazil the exaggerated appreciation of political employment everywhere prevailing amounts to a national misfortune. Every man of liberal education seeks a political career, as being at once the easiest and most aristocratic mode of gaining a livelihood. The possession of a sugar plantation is regarded among the cultivators as a sort of nobility. - The chief article of export from Brazil is coffee, supplying, as before stated, more than half the consumption of the world. Among the other products sent in large quantities to foreign countries are cotton, sugar, cacao, hides, horns, tobacco, india rubber, diamonds, etc. The principal imports are cotton and woollen fabrics from Great Britain; wrought and un-wrought iron from various countries; wines from Portugal, Spain, and France; agricultural implements, hardware, lard, flour, timber (pine), petroleum, biscuits, coal, ice, hams, soap, boots and shoes, etc, from the United States. The value of the total exports and imports for the three years 1866-'9 is shown in the following table:
The entire quantities of coffee, sugar, cotton, hides, and horns exported from 1857 to 1870 inclusive, are as follows:
1870 - '71.
India rubber, lb
• • •
Horse hair, lbs.
Wool, lbs , , ..
U. STATES PRODUCTS.
Of the 2,209,456 sacks of coffee exported in 1870, the United States took 1,373,654. In the first half of 1871 there were shipped 1,253,656 sacks, 645,749 to the United States; and the same country took 371,266 out of a total of 625,429 sacks exported during the first half of 1872 - a decrease in the total export of nearly-one half. The value of the exports to Great Britain for 1870 was $30,637,240, and of the imports $26,834,170. The value of the British cotton manufactures imported in 1869 and 1870 was almost exactly covered by that of the raw cotton exported to the United Kingdom during the same period. From a comparison of the trade returns of several years, it is observed that one fourth of the exports go to England, and about one fifth to the United States, the remainder being divided between France, Portugal, Germany, and the Argentine Republic. The port movements in 1870 were as follows: entered, 3,540 sea-going vessels, with an aggregate of 1,436,-000 tons; 4,903 coasters, tonnage 1,091,000; cleared, 3,215 sea-going vessels, tonnage 1,500,-000; 4,994 coasters, tonnage 1,198,000. A line of clippers between Genoa and Rio Grande do Sul was organized in 1872, with vessels of 500 tons burden, but of light draft, to suit the bar of the latter port.
The post-office receipts in 1865-'6 were $209,902; by 1869 they had increased one-half; the expenditure for that period averaged only $358,286 annually. - Save in the immediate neighborhood of the capital and other large cities, the want of adequate highways is still sensibly felt, and notably impedes the development of trade and industry, especially in the interior provinces. There are a few exceptions to this rule, however; and the department of agriculture and public works is devoting unremitting attention to this all-important subject. Lines of railway are fast multiplying in all the coast provinces; those already established are in process of extension, and new ones are projected. In the course of 1872 privileges were granted by the legislature for the construction of 12 lines of railway, with a telegraph system attached to each. The railway network penetrates the central provinces, from the capital to Belem in one direction, and to Rio Grande do Sul in the opposite, so that probably by the end of 1874 the traveller can proceed by rail from the Amazon to Uruguay almost without change of train.
An important line is about to be built (1873) chiefly for carrying coals from the Candiota mines to the coast at Sta. Oatharina. The railways existing in 1872, with their respective lengths, and the receipts and outlays in 1869, are shown in the following table:
Dom Pedro II............
Total in 1868.........
An unusual outlay for repairs, together with a marked diminution of traffic, owing to deficient crops caused by disease in the sugar cane and the drought, gave rise to the deficit in the Bahia line. Of the foregoing lines, the most important is that of Sao Paulo, from Santos to Judiahy, deserving of especial notice from its prosperous condition, due to the wealth of the province which it traverses. On Oct. 1, 1872, a line was opened from Macei6 in Alagoas to the interior. There were at the end of 1872 nearly 1,600 m. of telegraph in operation; and the laying of a line from Sao Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul to Montevideo was commenced about the same time. A privilege was granted in 1872 for laying a submarine cable from Rio de Janeiro to Portugal, and the work was to be commenced immediately. The city of Rio de Janeiro is thoroughly permeated with lines of street railroads; in other cities lines have likewise been constructed, and prove of material benefit to the community, especially in a social point of view, having been instrumental in eradicating abuses under which Brazilian society has long groaned.
Brazilian women, until lately con-idemned to a sort of Turkish seclusion, rarely going into the street, and never unaccompanied by father, brother, or husband, now travel alone in the street cars, and the custom is fast gaining ground. The great natural highways of Brazil, its majestic rivers, will afford an easy outlet for the productions of the interior, and a commencement has been made in turning these facilities to account. Weekly and even daily lines of steamers ply on the Amazon from Belem to the various towns along the course of that river. The Negro is navigated to a comparatively limited extent; steamers run regularly on the Araguaya-Tocantins from Belem to Goyaz; and vigorous measures are in progress to establish steam navigation on the Sao Francisco. Steamers ply constantly up the Paraguay (navigable through nearly the whole of its course) to Cuyaba, the capital of Matto Grosso, that being still the only route by which the province is readily accessible. A new survey of the Amazon at the expense of the imperial government was ordered in 1872, a preliminary step to the still further increase of steam facility on that river.
The English, on the one hand, have taken up steam navigation on the Amazon, so long carried on by a Brazilian company; and on the other, American enterprise is penetrating the Madeira and Mamore to open up steam communication with the interior of Bolivia; and railroads will be built wherever navigation is impeded by insurmountable obstacles, such as the falls of the Madeira. Before the introduction of railways, the traffic between the coast and the interior was imperfectly carried on by mule trains, which is still in a large portion of the country the only available method. - There are in Brazil 19 banks and innumerable private banking houses. Chief among the former are the bancos do Brasil, do Bahia, de Campos, Commercial do Rio Janeiro, do Maranhao, do Pernambuco, do Rio Grande do Sul, do Para; and the English of Rio de Janeiro, limited, London and Brazilian, Brazilian and Portuguese, the banco Rural e Hypothecario, and the bank of Maua and co. The sociedad eco-nomica de consumo, having for its object the establishment of cheap shops, has a capital of $150,000 in $50 shares. The Mercantile Industrial bank of Rio, established in 1862, has a capital of $10,000,000, in $100 shares. - Brazil is governed by a hereditary and constitutional monarch.
The constitution is based upon the fundamental law of March 25, 1824, modified by additional acts of Aug. 12, 1834, and May 12,1840. The constitution establishes four powers in the state: the legislative, executive, judicial, and the " moderating " power, or royal prerogative. The legislative power is vested in a national legislative assembly and in provincial assemblies. The national assembly consists of two houses, senate and congress. The senators, 58 in number, are elected for life; and the representatives, 122 in number, are chosen by the whole of the free population (save minors, monks, and seryants) for four years. Senators must be native Brazilians, have attained the age of 40 years, and possess an annual income of at least $800. They receive a salary of $1,800 for each session. Representatives are chosen by electors appointed by voters, every 30 voters having the privilege of naming an elector in each electoral district. The salary of the representatives is $1,200 for each session, besides travelling expenses. The executive power resides in the emperor, assisted by his ministers and a council of state.
The ministers are responsible for treason, corruption, abuse of power, and all acts contrary to the constitution; which responsibility cannot be evaded on the plea of orders from the sovereign. The latter has the power to convoke the ordinary meetings of the legislative assembly; nominate bishops, presidents of provinces, and magistrates; declare peace or war; and to sanction and superintend the execution of all measures voted by the legislature. By virtue of the " moderating" power, the sovereign can choose ministers and senators, withhold temporarily his sanction from legislative measures, convoke extraordinary legislative assemblies, dissolve the house of representatives, and grant amnesties and pardons. The ministry is composed of seven departments: interior, foreign, finance, justice, war, marine, and agriculture, public works, and commerce. The council of state is composed of 12 ordinary and 12 extraordinary members, appointed for life by the sovereign. These councillors are for the most part ex-ministers; and the heir apparent to the throne, if of age, is by right a councillor of state. Each provincial government consists of a provincial chamber and a general council or legislative assembly.
The members of the chambers are elected directly by the voters for two years; while the assemblymen are chosen by the same electors as the members of the national congress, their functions for the affairs of the provinces being analogous to those of the representatives for the affairs of the empire. - The army in time of peace is composed of 21 battalions of infantry (16,163 men), 5 regiments of horse (4,152 men), 1 regiment of artillery (5 battalions, and 1 battalion of engineers, 4,326 men); in all, 24,641 men, to which may be added 641 men forming a special corps. The strength in time of war is 73,784 men. The navy consists of 18 ironclads, 27 corvettes, 2 gunboats, and 7 transports, all steamers; besides which there are 33 sail of tho line; making a total of 87 vessels, mounting 316 guns, and manned by 7,901 men. There are 6 vessels without armament, and a number of ironclads and other vessels of war were in course of construction in 1872. The total strength of the navy is 8,393, distributed as follows: 18 general staff" officers, 545 first-class officers, 142 second-class, 101 forming a sanitary corps, 234 accountants, 62 boys, 132 engineers, 3,268 imperial marines; naval battalion, 1,275, and apprentice marines, 2,616. - - -The expenditure of the empire from 1855 to 1859 was as follows: 1855-'6, $20,120,000; 1856-'7, $20,187,500; 1857-'8, $25,877,500; 1858-'9, $26,859,000. After the Paraguayan war commenced, the expenditure increased as follows: 1864-'5, $43,243,280; 1865-'6, $60,-930,929; 1866-'7, $60,556,782; 1867-'8, $75,-523,870; 1868-'9, $82,995,703; 1869-'70, $73,-189,858; 1870-71, $53,266,047. The amount to be disbursed in 1872 for emancipation annuities was estimated by the minister of finance at $500,000; and that for 1902, when slavery is to cease, at $8,000,000. About one fifth of the ordinary revenue is derived from land licenses and other taxes, such as that on transfer of property, etc.; more than one half proceeds from duties, export as well as import, the former being 13 per cent, on coffee and 9 per cent, on all other articles.
From 1865 to 1870, when deficits were of frequent occurrence, these were covered by loans raised and bonds and paper money issued by government, and treated in the finance accounts as extraordinary receipts. The total receipts for the financial year 1864-'5 were $29,738,838; and for the year 1871-'2, $46,884,316. The expenditure in 1871-2 was as follows:
Ministry of the Interior:
Legislative chambers ...............
Ministry of Justice ...................................
" Finance .........................
" Foreign Affairs ..................
" Marine ...........................
" Commerce, Agriculture, Public
Works, etc. ....................................
Receipts in 1871 - '2...............
Expenditure in 1871 - '2..............
The revenue has been steadily increasing since 1864, at the rate of 75 per cent, approximately; while the increase of the ordinary expenditure in the same period has not exceeded 20 per cent. The indebtment of Brazil to England in 1862 was $25,000,000, the foundation of which had been laid by loans to cover old charges of the colonial time, the war with Uruguay, payments of indemnities to foreign nations, and to cover deficits originating from year to year; and in 1872 the amount reached $300,000,000, exclusive of railway guarantees, being an increase of $275,000,000 in ten years. A loan of $15,000,000 was contracted in February, 1871. In 1872 the following were the constituent elements of the national debt:
Foreign debt ..............................
Internal debt at 4, 5, and 6 per cent ...............
Debt prior to 1827........................
Orphans' funds and deposits ...................
Paper money ............................................
The issue of the 4 1/2 per cent, loan of 1860 amounted to $6,865,000; of that sum, $2,266,-500 was redeemed on June 1, 1872, leaving $4,598,500 still to be reimbursed by the operation of the accumulative sinking fund. Besides the general receipts, there are the provincial and municipal receipts; the former amount to $11,-500,000, the latter to $2,500,000. A credit extraordinary of $136,500 was opened to the ministry of agriculture in 1872, to meet the expenses of the national exhibition to be held in Rio de Janeiro. The aggregate customs receipts of the empire in 1868-'9 were $31,746,774. - Public education has not yet reached a high point of development in Brazil; but numerous schools have been established of late in the provinces, and the government is engaged in developing and strengthening a general system. There are at present 4,437 schools in the empire; 3,603 being public and devoted to primary and secondary education, and 834 private schools. The number of secondary schools is in the proportion of one for every 18 primary; and there are twice as many schools for males as for females. The average annual cost of each public school is $467; and the whole of the public schools cost annually $1,681,000, or nearly 15 per cent, of the average annual revenue of all the provinces.
In each of the latter there is one private primary school for every five public, and one school for every 2,404 inhabitants of all classes and colors; and these schools are attended by an average number of 305 children. The total number of scholars enrolled is 133,950, 125,867 of whom receive primary, and 8,083 secondary education. These figures show a marked improvement as compared with the returns of former years; in 1868, only 107,483 children attended school in the whole empire, or 26,467 fewer than at the present time. There are two faculties each of law and medicine maintained at the expense of government; the imperial academy of medicine has an annual subsidy of $1,000. Besides these there are 11 seminaries for the education of the clergy, subsidized by the state, a central college, an academy of arts, regimental and preparatory schools for the army, and a school of artillery. The whole educational system is under the jurisdiction of the minister of the interior and the control of the general assembly. The English merchants of Rio de Janeiro subscribed $6,500 in 1872 for the establishment of a gymnasium for the use of the English-speaking young men resident in that capital.
An annual subsidy of $3,500 is given by government to the geographical and historical institute of Rio de Janeiro. Besides the libraries connected with the various public scientific and literary establishments, there are in Rio de Janeiro 11 public libraries, chief among which is the gabinete portuguez possessing 50,000 volumes, and being visited on an average by 2,314 persons yearly. By the provincial law of Dec. 26, 1871, the creation of libraries in all the cities of Rio de Janeiro was authorized; and there are libraries in most of the other provinces of the empire. There are dramatic and musical conservatories, an academy of fine arts, and other institutions for the promotion of literature, art, and science. The astronomical observatory of Rio de Janeiro was the object of important modifications in 1872. - The religion of the state is the Roman Catholic. The whole empire constitutes one " metropolitan province," under the archbishop of Ba-hia. There are 12 dioceses: Bahia, Sao Sebas-tiao (Rio), Olinda (Pernambuco), Maranhao, Grao Para, Sao Paulo, Mariana (Minas Geraes), Goyaz, Cuyaba (Matto Grosso), Sao Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, Ceara, and Diamantina (Minas Geraes). Over these dioceses preside one archbishop and 11 bishops.
Brazil is divided into 1,299 parishes, most of the vicars of which are foreigners, chiefly Portuguese. Although the Roman Catholic is by law constituted the religion of the state, all other religions are tolerated, but restricted in their worship to buildings " without the exterior form of temples." In Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere there are Protestant churches; and the ministers of the Swiss and German colonies are paid by government. The United States Presbyterian board of foreign missions maintain a mission in Brazil, with ten ministers and three churches in each of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and some in Bahia. Their communicants number 347, nearly all native Brazilians. - Pedro Alvares Cabral, having been appointed admiral of a fleet sent by King Emanuel of Portugal to follow up the brilliant discoveries of Vasco da Gama in the East Indies, set sail March 9, 1500; but the fleet having been carried by ocean currents and adverse winds far to the westward of the intended course, Cabral on April 22 unexpectedly found himself in sight of land; and on the 25th the squadron cast anchor in a commodious harbor which the admiral named Porto Seguro. Cabral immediately took possession of the country in the name of his sovereign, calling it Vera Cruz, a name afterward changed to Santa Cruz, which in turn gave place to the present one of Brazil. This formality concluded, he once more set out upon his voyage eastward, but not without having previously despatched to the king tidings of his discovery.
On the arrival of the news, a squadron was fitted out under the command of Amerigo Vespucci to visit and explore the new country; and that navigator on his return to Portugal published an account of his explorations with a map, to which publication is due the name America given to the whole western continent. Vespucci on his return carried some specimens of Brazilian birds, and a cargo of dyewoods, whole forests of which he reported as existing in the newly found country. These dyewoods immediately became the object of an extensive and lucrative traffic on the part of numerous speculators. Merchants of other nations having engaged in the trade, King John III. determined to suppress what he regarded as a violation of his rights. Colonies were accordingly established under the auspices of the crown in 1531, towns sprang up rapidly along the coast, and fortune for a few years seemed to smile upon the new settlements. But the colonists had suffered much from the frequent incursions of the savages; the pecuniary resources of the Portuguese nobles who had received land grants from the government, and full judicial powers, on condition of establishing the colonies at their own expense, soon proved inadequate to the enterprise; and it was deemed advisable to form a permanent system of colonial rule, immediately dependent upon the home government.
A governor was accordingly appointed in 1549, in the person of Thome de Souza, who was invested with unlimited powers of jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, and under whose wise administration the home government in a short time recovered possession of the early colonies, or eapitanias. De Souza founded and took up his residence at Sao Salvador da Bahia, which was then constituted the capital of Brazil. A colony of French Protestants was founded in 1555 on an island in the bay of the present Rio de Janeiro; but the perfidy of the founder, Vice Admiral Villegagnon, and consequent internal dissensions, marred the success of the settlement; and the colonists were expelled from the island in 1565. The Portuguese in 1567 built the city of Sao Sebastiao, since called Rio de Janeiro, the name given to the bay by Martim Affonso in 1531. After the annexation of Portugal to Spain under Philip II. in 1580, Brazil found numerous enemies among the nations then on hostile terms with the latter kingdom; the coast towns suffered much from the successive inroads of the French, English, and Dutch, by whom they were in turn occupied, pillaged, and abandoned.
In 1612 the French took possession of Maranhao, and founded the city of Sao Luiz do Maranhao, from which they were driven by the Portuguese in 1615. But the Dutch were the most pertinacious in their endeavors to secure a firm foothold in Brazil. A fleet from Holland in 1623 captured the city of Bahia; but in 1625, after the departure of their ships, the conquerors were forced to capitulate. In 1629 the Dutch, took Pernambuco, and they extended their conquests with so much energy that in 1645 they ruled the whole territory N. of that city except Para. The Portuguese, however, recaptured province after province, and in 1654 had completely driven out the Dutch, who by the peace of 1660 renounced all claim to Brazilian territory. In the mean time the house of Bra-ganza had been restored to the throne of Portugal, in the person of John IV., Brazil erected into a principality, and the title of prince of Brazil conferred upon the Portuguese heir apparent (1640). From the time of the evacuation of the Dutch, Portugal remained in peaceful possession; but the exactions of the mother country drained the colony of its resources and retarded its development.
Meanwhile the mineral riches of Brazil had been discovered; gold and diamond mining were in active operation, and poured a constant stream of wealth into the home treasury; and the Lisbon government constituted Rio de Janeiro the capital instead of Bahia. In 1807, when Napoleon declared war against Portugal, John VI., its reigning sovereign, took refuge with his family in Brazil, followed by a large number of courtiers and other emigrants. This event was immediately attended by important modifications in the colonial administration; restrictions upon commerce were removed; the ports were thrown open to the shipping of all friendly nations; and on the fall of Napoleon in 1815 Brazil was raised to the rank of a kingdom, John assuming the title of king of Portugal, Algarve, and Brazil. During his absence from Portugal a revolution had broken out there, and the constitution of Spain had been proclaimed, September, 1820; and as that example had been followed in Para and Pernambuco, the king, fearing that the revolutionary movement might extend to Rio de Janeiro, took himself the initiatory steps, and proclaimed the constitution of Feb. 26,1821. Soon afterward he returned to Portugal, having appointed his son, Prince Pedro, regent of Brazil. A revolutionary movement took place in April, 1821. Brazil was proclaimed an independent empire, Oct. 12, 1822, and Dom Pedro crowned emperor Dec. 1. A constitution was adopted early in 1824; and the independence of the empire was acknowledged by the government of Lisbon, Sept. 7, 1825. In 1826 Dom Pedro became by the death of his father king of Portugal, but resigned that crown to his infant daughter Dona Maria da Gloria. In the same year the Brazilian government declared war against the Argentine Republic, which was seeking to convert Uruguay into an Argentine province; but peace was restored through the mediation of Great Britain, and Montevideo declared an independent republic.
Meanwhile disputes had arisen between the emperor and the chamber of deputies, and only ceased with the abdication of the former, April 7, 1831, in favor of his son Pedro II., then in his sixth year. (See Pedro I.) The country was governed by a regency till 1841, when the emperor was declared to have attained his majority, and crowned July 18. A law for the abolition of the slave trade was promulgated in 1831, and another in 1850 for the final abolition of slave traffic. Several political uprisings occurred in the empire from 1841 to 1849, chiefly in Minas Geraes and Pernambuco, directed against the provincial governments, or against the measures or ministers of the central government; but none attained the proportions of a civil war. An alliance was formed by Brazil, Uruguay, and the forces of Entre Rios, against Rosas, the Argentine dictator, with whose fall (at Monte Caseros) and flight to England, hostilities were terminated in February, 1852. In 1865 war was declared against Paraguay, and an offensive alliance was formed between Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine Republic, May 1, with the express stipulation that " none of the high contracting powers should lay down arms until the present government of Paraguay should be overthrown." For the motives, progress, and termination of this long and disastrous war, which ended in the defeat and death of the dictator Lopez, March 1, 1871, see Argentine Republic, and Paraguay. Toward the close of the year 1871 a controversy arose between the governments of Buenos Ayres and Rio de Janeiro, which threatened for a time to disturb the friendly relations existing between Brazil and the Argentine Republic. The latter protested against certain treaties concerning boundaries and a war indemnity ratified separately with Paraguay by Brazil, without the concurrence of the two other allied powers, and in violation of certain articles of the treaty of alliance of May 1, 1865; but the negotiations between the two countries came to a favorable termination in October, 1872, it being agreed that the Argentine government should also arrange boundary questions by separate negotiation, as Brazil had done.
In 1848 yellow fever, broke out in the province of Bahia, and spread rapidly through all the maritime provinces, causing frightful mortality. In 1855 an epidemic of cholera morbus visited Para, and afterward the other provinces, carrying desolation through all parts of the empire, and especially Alagoas. In 1872 an unknown distemper manifested itself in three towns, and carried off 13,000 out of 18,000 inhabitants - See " The Naturalist on the River Amazons," by Henry Walter Bates (2d ed., 8vo, London, 1864); "A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Negro," by Alfred R. Wallace (8vo, London, 1853); "A Journey in Brazil," by Prof, and Mrs. Louis Agassiz (8vo, Boston, 1870); "Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil," by Prof. Hartt (8vo, Boston, 1870).