Bremen, one of the three free cities of Germany, forming with its territory a state of the empire, situated on the Weser, 30 m. from its mouth, and 57 m. S. W. of Hamburg; area of the state, 99 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 122,565, of whom 82,950 resided in the city of Bremen, 10,594 in the town of Bremerhafen, 3,554 in the town of Vegesack, and 25,467 in the rural districts. More than 97 per cent, of the inhabitants are Protestants. The new and the old townr on opposite banks of the river, are connected by handsome bridges. No dredging being used to deepen the channel, the bed of the river continually rises by the deposits brought down, and the dike is consequently raised year by year, so that in time the bottom of the river will be on a level with the streets. Among the noteworthy buildings are the cathedral, built in 1050 by Archbishop Adalbert, with a tower 324 ft. high, having one of the finest organs in Germany, and a vault (Bleikeller) which has the property of preserving free from decomposition, after the lapse of ages, bodies interred in it; the church of St. Anscarius; the council house, with the celebrated wine cellar and casks, called the rose and the twelve apostles, filled with fine hock, some of which is a century and a half old; the Roland statue, 18 ft. high; the guildhall, called the Schutting; the theatre, the post office, the exchange, and the museum.
The statue of Gustavus Adolphus was placed in one of the public squares in 1856. Among the other public buildings are the commercial school, two orphan asylums, the infirmary, the naval academy, the institution for deaf mutes, the normal school, the drawing school, the art gallery, the observatory (founded by the astronomer Olbers, a native of the town, to whom a monument was erected in 1850), and the gymnasium. The "Library Association" undertakes to insure that all libraries belonging to the city or to special corporations are accessible to the entire population. There is a merchants' exchange, a bank of issue, a discount bank, several insurance companies, a commercial court, and public institutions for the security and comfort of emigrants. A Lloyd for northern Germany (der Nord-Deutsche Lloyd), after the plan of the Lloyd Avstriaco of Trieste, was founded in 1856. Ship building is carried on to a greater extent than in any other German port. Sugar refineries, iron founderies, lard-boiling, manufactures of oil, soap, and sail cloth, and cotton spinning, are also carried on.
More tobacco is imported here than at all the other German ports, the quantity amounting to about 24,000,-000 lbs. a year, and cigars are largely manufac-tured.- The improvements in the navigation of the Weser and its confluents, and the railway connections, have placed Bremen in direct communication with the heart of Germany. Its prosperity depends mainly upon its trade with the rest of the empire, and with the United States and Great Britain. The gold thaler, in which accounts are kept, is equivalent to 79 cents, American coin. The estimated revenue in 1871 was 2,281,463 thalers; expenditures 2,052,775, about one half on account of the public debt, amounting in 1870 to 11,584,513 thalers, of which 4,000,000 were a railway loan, paying 4 1/2 per cent, interest. The commerce in 1870 was: exports, 94,920,000thalers; imports, 90,950,000; of which were with the German Zollverein, exports 41,980,000, imports 28,370,000; the United States, exports 17,520,-000, imports 29,960,000; Great Britain, exports 4,120,000, imports 12,100,000; Hamburg, exports 1,870,000, imports 4,050,000; Austria, exports 7,390,000, imports 2,110,000; Russia, exports 6,760,000, imports 1,040,000; Holland and Belgium, exports 2,550,000, imports 1,460,-000; France, exports 440,000, imports 540,000; the Antilles, exports 940,000, imports 2,050,-000; the trade with other countries being small.
The average annual exports from 1861 to 1870 were 78,610,000 thalers, imports 82,920,-000; the largest amount was in 1869, when the exports were 94,920,000, imports 103,310,000. In 1869 the total trade with transatlantic ports was, exports 20,813,082 thalers, imports 38,-687,533; with European ports and the Levant, 18,516,102; by land and river, exports 52,985,-587, imports 33,816,220. In 1869 there were plying to and from the port of Bremen 274 vessels, of 238,148 tons, and 26 ocean steamers, of 51,725 tons. In 1868 the privilege was conceded to Bremen and Hamburg of remaining free ports, exempt from the German customs limits, in consideration of which the state engaged to pay to the Zollverein a tax proportioned to its trade. Bremen is the chief German port for emigration, the emigrants going almost entirely to the United States. In 1843 there were 9,844 emigrants; 1844, 19,863; 1845, 31,158; 1846, 32,372; 1847, 33,628; 1848, 29,947; 1849, 28,629; 1850, 25,838; 1851, 37,493; 1852, 58,551; 1853, 58,111; 1854, 76,875; 1855, 31,550; from 1856 to 1860, average 32,450; 1861-'5, average 20,397; in 1866, 61,877; 1867, 73,971; in 1868, 66,433; in 1869, 63,519. The total number of emigrants from 1830 to 1870 was 1,196,363. - Bremen is connected by railways with the whole interior of Germany, and also with Bremerha-fen, 30 m. distant, which is now its port; for the Weser having become too shallow for large vessels to ascend, it became necessary to abandon Vegesack, which had been the port since the 16th century. - Bremen has one vote out of 58 in the Bundesrath, or federal council of the empire, and one out of 382 in the Reichstag or diet of the empire.
Its local government is composed of a senate of 18 members, of whom at least 10 must be lawyers and 5 merchants; and a Burgerschaft or assembly of the citizens, consisting of 150 members, of whom 16 are chosen by the citizens who have attended the university, 48 by the merchants, 24 by the trades, 30 by the other inhabitants of the city, 6 by Vegesack, 6 by Bremerhafen, and 20 by the rural districts. The assembly is divided into committees, and is presided over by members of the board of aldermen, in whom is vested a portion of the executive power. Two burgomasters, elected by and from the senate, direct the affairs of state, through eight departments: foreign affairs, church and education, justice, finance, police, medical and sanitary administration, military affairs, commerce and shipping; all the ministers are senators. In 1854 a law was enacted admitting Jews to the right of citizenship. - Bremen was founded by Charlemagne in 788, and endowed with a bishopric, which was subsequently raised to an archbishopric. In the course of time the city increased in strength, wrested the temporal power from the hand of the church, and became one of the early participants in the league of the Hanse towns.
It conquered a number of Norwegian and Livonian ports, founded Riga in 1158, took part in the conquest of Prussia, extorted commercial privileges from all ports between Bremen and Amsterdam, from England and Flanders, and subjected to its control a large strip of land on both banks of the Weser. In common with Hamburg, it purged the North sea of pirates. It was one of the earliest cities to decide for Protestantism, but religious dissensions within the city, and finally the thirty years' war, brought the archiepiscopal territory under Swedish sway, with the title of duchy. The city itself was twice unsuccessfully besieged by the Swedes (1654 and 1666). Both the duchy and city were conquered by the Danes in 1712; the former was subsequently acquired by Hanover, and the latter restored to its independence. In the Napoleonic wars, when the city suffered much, its volunteer militia were among the earliest and bravest defenders of German independence. The treaties of Vienna made it a member of the Germanic confederation, after the dissolution of which in 1866 it joined the North German union, and four years later the German empire.
Statue of Eoland.