Brooklyn, capital of Kings county, New York, the third city in the United States in point of population, on the W. end of Long Island, opposite New York city, and separated from it by the East river, an arm of the sea connecting the bay of New York with Long Island sound; lat. of the navy yard, 40° 41' 50" N., Ion. 73° 59' 30" W. The exterior line of the city measures 22 m., embracing an area of 13,337 acres, or 20.84 sq. m., of which 6.48 sq. m. are devoted to streets and alleys. Beginning at the northeast, its boundaries are Newtown creek and Queens county, the towns of New Lots, Flatbush, and New Utrecht in Kings county, the bay of New York, and the East river. Its extreme length from N. to S. is about 7 3/4 m., and its greatest breadth 5 m.; the average breadth, however, is only about 3 1/2 m. The western boundary of the city affords 8 1/2 m. of water front. Newtown creek, an irregular arm of the bay, receiving several small freshwater streams, is navigable for a mile or two from the East river for vessels of light draught. Wallabout bay is a deep indentation lying between the old cities of Williamsburgh and. Brooklyn; Gowanus bay extends into the southern part of the city.

Opposite South Brooklyn is Governor's island, between which and the shore is Buttermilk channel, about a quarter of a mile wide, in early times fordable by cattle, but now navigable for the largest vessels. The portion of land between Buttermilk channel and Gowanus bay is known as Red Hook point. Brooklyn is for the most part considerably elevated above tide water. The S. and E. borders are occupied by a broad range of low hills; a large portion of the S. part of the city is low and level. Along the East river S. of Fulton street is an irregular bluff, 70 ft. above the level of the sea, known as Brooklyn Heights. It is thickly built upon, and affords a magnificent view of the city and bay of New York. The city embraces several districts still locally known by the names which they bore when they were distinct municipalities. Brooklyn proper includes the older portion of the city S. of Wallabout bay, and the part of this lying S. of Atlantic avenue is known as South Brooklyn. Williamsburgh includes the thickly settled portions N. of Wallabout bay.

Bushwick occupies the N. portion of the city E. of Williamsburgh. South of Wallabout bay is Wallabout, adjoining which is the section called East Brooklyn. Greenpoint lies between Bushwick and Newtown creeks, occupies the extreme N. E. part of the city, and forms the 17th ward. Gowanus is the name of that portion of the city which has grown up around Gowanus bay. Bedford and New Brooklyn are localities in the E. part of the city, formerly separate villages. The city is legally divided into the Eastern District, embracing "Williamsburgh, Bushwick, and Greenpoint, and the Western District, comprising the old city of Brooklyn, and including the first 12 wards and the 19th to the 25th ward. Opposite Green-point, and separated from it by Newtown creek, is Hunter's Point, now included in the municipality of Long Island City. Adjoining the S. E. extremity of the city is the large village of East New York, and on the S. W., bordering on Prospect park, is that of Flatbush. - For many years after its settlement Brooklyn was merely a hamlet, but since its incorporation as a city its growth has been remarkably rapid.

In 1698 the population was 509. In 1706 there were 64 freeholders; 96 years later the number had only increased to 86. The progress of population in the present century has been as follows: 1800, 3,298; 1810, 4,402; 1820, 7,175; 1830,15.292; 1840, 36,233; 1845, 59,574; 1850, 96,850; 1855 (including Williamsburgh and Bushwick, previously separate), 205,230; 1860, 266,661; 1865, 296,378; 1870, 396,099. Of the population in 1870, 144,718 were foreigners and 4,944 were colored. Of the natives, 219,774 were born in the state of New York, 6,009 in New Jersey, 5,711 in Massachusetts, 5,264 in Connecticut, and 3,294 in Pennsylvania. Of the foreigners, 79,985 were natives of Ireland, 36,771 of Germany, 18,843 of England, 4,099 of Scotland, 2,806 of British America, 1,894 of France, and 1,105 of Sweden. - Brooklyn possesses many advantages as a place of residence. For the most part considerably elevated above tide water, it is open on all sides to the land and sea breezes, while its wide streets, generally at right angles to each other, afford a free circulation of air. Several avenues 100 ft. wide have been formed, connecting distant points.

On the Heights are many fine residences occupied by leading merchants of New York. Of the streets, perhaps Clinton avenue is the most attractive; it is lined with beautiful residences surrounded with extensive ornamental grounds. In the 21st ward many costly dwellings have recently been erected. The principal business thoroughfare is Fulton street, extending about 5 m. from Fulton ferry to East New York; until recently the portion above the city hall was designated as Fulton avenue. Myrtle avenue, extending E. from Fulton street near the city hall, is also a prominent business thoroughfare. Extending from South ferry to East New York, and parallel with Fulton street from near the city hall, is Atlantic avenue, an active business street in its lower part, and in its upper shaded by double rows of trees. Within a few years the business centre has extended from near the foot of Fulton street to the vicinity of the city hall, where are now situated most of the monetary and insurance interests, etc. The great commercial interests are along the river front. - The public buildings of Brooklyn are not remarkable for their imposing size or architecture.

The city hall, at the junction of Fulton, Court, and Jo-ralemon streets, is of white marble in the Ionic style, with six columns supporting the roof of the portico; its dimensions are 162 by 102 ft., and 75 ft. in height, comprising three stories and a basement; it is surmounted by a tower, the top of which is 153 ft. from the ground; it was built in 1845-6, and its entire cost was about $200,000. The county court house, fronting on Fulton street near the city hall, is 140 ft. wide and extends 315 ft. back to Livingston street; it is 64 ft. high, and is surmounted by a cupola composed of ribs and panel work of iron, rising 104 ft. above the street; the main edifice is constructed of Westchester marble in the Corinthian style of architecture; it was erected in 1862, at a total cost of $543,000. The county jail in Raymond street is a heavy-looking castellated Gothic edifice of red sandstone. The penitentiary is in Nostrand avenue, on the border of the city. The state arsenal is in Portland avenue near Washington park.

The post office is a rented building in Washington street near the city hall; there are sub-stations in Williamsburgh and Greenpoint. The academy of music in Montague street, near the city hall, was erected in 1860 at a cost of $206,000; it is built of the best quality of brick with Dorchester stone trimmings, 232 ft. long, 92 ft. wide, and 56 ft. high, and is capable of seating 2,300 persons. Adjoining the academy is the fine edifice of the art association, while opposite is the elegant building of the mercantile library, erected in 1868 at a cost of more than $150,000. The city hospital, on elevated ground in Raymond street near De Kalb avenue, is of brick with stone dressing; it has a front of 200 ft. facing Raymond street, and consists of a main building four stories high, 52 ft. in width and depth, with a rear extension of 30 ft., and two wings, each 74 ft. long, 56 ft. deep, and three stories high. Among other noticeable buildings may be mentioned the iron structure of the Long Island safe deposit company on the corner of Front and Fulton streets, erected in 1868 at a cost of $150,000; the building occupied by the young men's Christian association, in Fulton street, corner of Gallatin place; and the elegant building of the Kings County savings bank, corner of Fourth street and Broadway, erected in 1868 at a cost of $195,000. Ground has been purchased on the corner of Clinton and Remsen streets on which to erect a costly building for the Long Island historical society. - From its great number of church edifices, Brooklyn is often called the city of churches.

Among the more prominent of these is St. Ann's (Episcopal), with its adjoining chapel, on the corner of Clinton and Livingston streets, erected in 1868 at a cost of about $200,-000; it is constructed of Belleville and Cleveland stone in the middle pointed Gothic style, 126 ft, long, 75 ft. wide, and 90 ft. high, and can seat 2,400 persons. The church of the Holy Trinity (Episcopal), a brown stone edifice in the Gothic style, on the corner of Clinton and Montague streets, was erected in 1847 at a cost, including chapel, of about $175,000. The spire, recently completed at a cost of $55,000, is the highest in Brooklyn, being 275 ft. high, and of great architectural beauty. St. Paul's (Episcopal), corner of Clinton and Carroll streets, is a Gothic structure of rough-hewn blue granite, handsomely relieved with sandstone; it has a front of 75 ft., a depth of 145 ft., and is 67 ft. high in the nave; it has seats for 1,000, and cost $150,000. The church of the Pilgrims (of which the Rev. Dr. R. S. Storrs has been pastor since 1846), corner of Henry and Remsen streets, is of gray stone, its tall tower and spire forming a commanding object to those approaching the city from the bay.

Inserted in the main tower, about 6 ft. from the ground, may be seen a piece of the "Pilgrim Rock," from Plymouth, Mass. Plymouth church (Congregational), in Orange street, between Hicks and Henry streets, is a plain brick structure with accommodations for 2,800 persons, and containing the largest church organ in America, which was built in Boston. The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher has been the pastor since 1847. The amount realized from the rental of pews for 1873 was $60,230. The Second Reformed church, in Pierrepont street near Monroe place, is of brown stone in the Roman Corinthian style, with a depth of 100 ft. and a front of 70 ft., having a portico supported by Corinthian pillars. A Roman Catholic cathedral is in process of construction, which is to occupy the entire block bounded by Greene, Lafayette, Vanderbilt, and Clermont avenues; when completed it will be one of the largest church edifices in the United States. Among other churches of marked appearance may be mentioned Grace (Episcopal), in Hicks street; Christ (Episcopal), corner of Clinton and Harrison streets; the Methodist church corner of Clermont and Willoughby avenues, erected in 1868 at a cost of $75,000; and the new edifice of St. Charles Borromeo (Roman Catholic), in Sidney place, which cost $75,000. - One of the most important elements in the prosperity of the city is Prospect park, the construction of which was begun in 1866, from plans and under the superintendence of Olmsted, Vaux and co., who also laid out Central park, New York. The site chosen is a portion of an elevated ridge in the S. W. part of the city, adjoining Flatbush, and commands a magnificent view of the cities of New York and Brooklyn, the inner and outer harbor, Long Island, the Jersey shore, and the Atlantic. This spot affords unusual natural advantages by its wooded hills and broad meadows.

The park, with the adjoining parade ground, contains 550 acres. The ground was beautifully shaded by old woods, which have been skilfully improved. A great many large trees have been transplanted to the park, which already has the characteristics of an old pleasure ground, and is very attractive. The main entrance, at the junction of Park, Flatbush, and Vanderbilt avenues, is a large ellipse called the plaza, containing a fountain and a statue of Abraham Lincoln. A lake about 50 acres in extent, surrounded by a beautiful driveway, is in process of construction, and when completed will contain a large fountain. Among other prominent features included in the design are zoological gardens to cover 25 acres, and a grand observatory on Lookout hill. Seven miles of driving and three miles of riding roads have been formed, besides 11 miles of walks. The cost of the land was about $5,000,000, and up to January, 1873, nearly $4,000,000 had been expended in its improvement. In 1872 there were about 6,000,000 visitors to the park. The increase in the value of real estate in its vicinity since the beginning of the enterprise is estimated at $33,-000,000. In connection with the park a series of boulevards 200 ft. wide have been designed, leading to it from distant points.

The Ocean parkway, one of the finest, is laid out from the S. W. corner of the park to the seashore at Coney island, a distance of 3 m. The Eastern parkway, also laid out, extends from the plaza along the line of Sackett street 2 1/2 m. to East New York. It is a part of the scheme to extend this boulevard so as to cross the East river by the bridge to be constructed at Black-well's island, and connect with the Central Park boulevard. Others are designed to connect the park with Fort Hamilton and Bath, and with Sheepshead bay, all attractive summer resorts. With the completion of these improvements it is asserted that Brooklyn will be the most attractive city in the United States for driving. Washington park (Fort Greene) is on an elevated plateau E. of the city hall, between Myrtle and De Kalb avenues and Canton and Cumberland streets; it contains30 acres. During the war of the revolution it was the site of extensive earthworks. It commands an extensive view, and has been recently greatly improved and surrounded by a handsome stone wall.

Besides these two there are Tompkins square, containing 8 acres, bounded by Marcy, Greene, Tompkins, and Lafayette avenues; the City park, 7 acres, near the navy yard; Carroll park, 2 acres, bounded by Court, President, Smith, and Carroll streets; and the City Hall park, containing about 1 1/2 acre. The parks are under the control of a board of 10 commissioners, of which the mayor is a member ex officio. - Greenwood cemetery, widely noted for its natural and artificial beauties, is on Gowanus heights in the S. part of the city. It was opened for interments in 1842, and contains 413 acres, about one half of which is covered with wood of natural growth. The entire cost of the land was $281,684. At the main entrance, near 5th avenue and 23d street, is a highly ornamental structure of brown stone, monumental in form, in the middle pointed English Gothic style, 132 ft. long and 40 ft. deep, the central pinnacle being 106 ft. high. It is ornamented with figures representing scenes from the Gospels, chief of which are the entombment and the resurrection of the Saviour. The grounds have a varied surface of hill, valley, and plain, and are traversed by 17 m. of carriage roads and 15 m. of foot paths. The elevations afford extensive views.

Greenwood contains many beautiful monuments, chief among which are the pilots' and firemen's monuments, the soldiers' monument (unfinished), erected by the city of New York, and that to the memory of Miss Canda. In 1871 the total number of interments had been 154,803. The Cypress Hills cemetery, about a mile east •of the city limits, beyond East New York, occupies an elevated ridge of land, and contains nearly 400 acres, about one half of which is improved. The cemetery is beautifully arranged, and affords fine views of the surrounding country. More than 70,000 persons have been interred here. In the soldiers' plot are buried the bodies of 4,000 soldiers. The cemetery of the Evergreens, incorporated in 1849, near Bushwick, contains 207 acres, of which 60 are within the city limits. The Citizens' Union cemetery, between Butler and Sackett streets and Rochester and Ralph avenues, contains 10 acres, and is designed as a burial place for colored persons. The cemetery of the Holy Cross at Flatbush contains 36 acres, and is the principal Roman Catholic burying ground. Other cemeteries in the vicinity are Calvary (Catholic), on Laurel Hill, Queens county; Mount Olivet, near Maspeth; Washington, 1 1/2 in.

S. of Greenwood; the Friends' cemetery, near the city line, S. of Greenwood; and the Lutheran, between Cypress Hills and Mount Olivet. Nearly all the interments from New York are made in these cemeteries in and around Brooklyn. - Brooklyn is connected with New York by 13 steam ferries, belonging to five companies. The Greenpoint company runs two lines from the foot of Greenpoint avenue, the one to the foot of 10th, the other to the foot of 23d street, New York. The Houston street associates run a ferry from the foot of Grand street, Eastern District, to the foot of Houston street, New York. The New York and Brooklyn company runs lines from the foot of Bridge street, Brooklyn, to James slip, New York; from the foot of Broadway (formerly S. 7th street), Eastern District, to Grand and to Roosevelt streets, New York; and from the foot of Grand street, Eastern District, to Grand street, New York. The Union ferry company has a capital of $1,000,000, and owns the following ferries: Catharine ferry, from Main street, Brooklyn, to Catharine street, New York; Fulton ferry, from Fulton street, Brooklyn, to Fulton street, New York; Wall street ferry, from Montague street, Brooklyn, to Wall street, New York; South ferry, from Atlantic street, Brooklyn, to Whitehall street, New York; and Hamilton ferry, from Hamilton avenue, Brooklyn, to Whitehall street, New York. The boats of these ferries run constantly during the day at intervals of a few minutes, and some of them all night.

There are commodious ferry houses for the accommodation of passengers, of which the most noticeable for its size and architecture is that recently constructed at the foot of Fulton street, Brooklyn. The number of persons who crossed the East river on ferries was 32,845,950 in 1860, 41,350,000in 1865, and about 60,000,000 in 1872. The inadequacy of the ferries to accommodate the immense number of persons daily crossing between the two cities, and the occasional interruptions through fog and ice, led to the project of the East river bridge, which is now (1873) in process of construction, and is expected to be completed before the end of 1877. The Brooklyn terminus will be in the square bounded by Fulton, Prospect, Sands, and Washington streets; the New York terminus in Chatham street, opposite the City Hall park. The supporting tower on the Brooklyn side is just N. of the Fulton ferry house; the New York tower is at pier 29, near the foot of Roosevelt street. The bridge may be divided into five parts: the central span across the river from tower to tower, 1,595 ft. long; a span on each side from the tower to the anchorage, 940 ft. long; and the approaches from the terminus to the anchorage on each side. The whole length of the bridge will be 6,000 ft.

It will be 85 ft. wide, including a promenade of 13 ft., two railroad tracks, and four wagon or horse-car tracks. From high-water mark to the floor of the bridge in the centre will be a distance of 135 ft., so that navigation will not be impeded. The central span will be suspended to four cables of steel wire, each 16 inches in diameter, which are to be assisted by stays. These cables will have a deflection of 128 ft. Each tower rests immediately upon a caisson (see Caisson) sunk to the rock beneath the river, which on the Brooklyn side is 45 ft. and on the New York side from 82 to 92 ft. below the surface of the water. The Brooklyn caisson is 168 ft. long by 102 ft. wide. The towers erected upon these foundations will be 134 ft. in length by 56 ft. in width at the water line; below the upper cornice at the top these dimensions are reduced, by sloped offsets at intervals, to 120 ft. by 40. The total height above high water of each tower will be 268 ft. At the anchorages each of the four cables, after passing over the towers, enters the anchor walls at an elevation of nearly 80 ft. above high water, and passes through the masonry a distance of 20 ft., at which point a connection is formed with the anchor chains.

Each anchorage will contain about 35,000 cubic yards of masonry; that on the Brooklyn side will be in James street. The spans from the anchorages to the towers will be suspended to the cables and carried over the roofs of the buildings underneath. The approach on the Brooklyn side from the terminus to the anchorage will measure 836 ft.; on the New York side, 1,336 ft. These approaches will be supported by iron girders and trusses, which will rest at short intervals upon small piers of masonry, or iron columns built within the blocks crossed and occupied. The streets will be crossed by iron girders at such elevations as to leave them unobstructed. The Brooklyn terminus is 68 ft. above high tide. The total cost of the bridge, including the property on each side, will probably reach $10,000,000. - Brooklyn has communication with other parts of Long Island by means of three steam railroads: the Long Island and the Flushing and North Side, which start from Hunter's Point just outside the city limits; and the South Side, the city terminus of which is at the foot of S. 8th street, between which point and Bushwick its cars are drawn by dummies.

The Brooklyn, Bath, and Coney island railroad communicates with Coney island, the depot being at Greenwood. A railroad to connect with the new town on Hempstead plains projected by Mr. A. T. Stewart is in process of construction. About 25 lines of city passenger railroads, using horse power, radiate from the ferries to all parts of the city and suburbs.. Of these, nine or ten belonging to the Brooklyn city railroad company have their terminus at Fulton ferry; and six other lines start from the same point. Measures are now (1873) in progress for the construction of an underground steam railroad between Fulton ferry and the southern limit of Prospect park. - Brooklyn is not a port of entry, being a part of the customs district of New York; but the immense commercial interests along the shore line form' one of the chief features of the city. Its water front of 8 1/2 m. is completely occupied by piers, slips, warehouses, boat and ship yards, ferries, etc. Here are some of the most extensive and commodious docks, piers, and warehouses in the United States. The immense quantities of grain received here make Brooklyn one of the greatest grain depots in the world.

Grain is brought from the western states by canal and river to this port, where it is stored for distribution in the eastern and southern ports of the United States and in Europe. The capacity of the grain warehouses is estimated at 12,000,000 bushels. The most extensive commercial interests along the shore line are found between Red Hook point on the south and Main street on the north. Within these limits it is estimated that 25,000 vessels, exclusive off canal boats and lighters, are annually unloaded. The chief articles are molasses, sugar, grain, coffee, oil, hides, and wool. The value of the merchandise annually stored is estimated as follows:

Entrance to Greenwood Cemetery.

Entrance to Greenwood Cemetery.

Fulton Ferry in 1791.

Fulton Ferry in 1791.

South of Hamilton ferry.........


Between Hamilton and South ferries.........


Between South and Fulton ferries..........


Between Fulton ferry and Main street.........




Fronting Governor's island, near the S. extremity of the shore line, stands the massive Atlantic dock, built by a company incorporated in 1840 with a capital of $1,000,000. The basin is a parallelogram in form, has an area of 40 acres with a depth of 25 ft., and will accommodate the largest vessels; 500 vessels can occupy it at the same time, and 400 canal boats besides many other vessels have floated upon it at once. The pier line on Buttermilk channel is 3,000 ft. long; the total wharfage is about 2 m. Surrounding the basin on all sides, excepting an entrance 200 ft. wide for vessels, are substantial brick and granite warehouses, from two to five stories high, and covering an area of 20 acres. Grain is the chief article stored here, for the reception of which nine steam elevators are employed, the largest of which will raise 3,000 bushels per hour. The value of merchandise stored annually in the warehouses of this company and those south of them to Red Hook point is estimated as follows:

Atlantic Dock.

Atlantic Dock.



Sugar and molasses..........






Lumber and stone........








Saltpetre and brimstone..........






Miscellaneous, including rosin, turpentine, etc.




South of the Atlantic dock, on Gowanus bay, are the extensive Erie and Brooklyn basins, not yet completed. The property of this company comprises an extensive water front with 28 ft. of water in the channel. These basins are separated by a pier, of which Columbia street forms the E. side. On the "W. side of this pier is the Erie basin, containing about 60 acres of water and surrounded by spacious piers with extensive warehouses. E. of the Columbia street pier is the Brooklyn basin, 1,300 ft. long and 450 ft. wide, with an area of 40 acres. Near the Erie basin two extensive dry docks have been recently constructed, capable of receiving vessels of large size even when loaded. At the N. end of "Washington avenue is the Wallabout basin, recently formed from marsh land, with extensive piers and bulkheads. The basin proper extends from Washington avenue S. to Hewes street, 1,500 ft. Lumber, coal, and brick yards line the entire length of the basin on one side. The number of vessels that discharged cargoes at these docks in 1872 exceeded 3,000. The cost of the Wallabout improvement has been about $1,000,000. By it an additional wharfage of three fourths of a mile is secured; while the distance between the Eastern and Western Districts has been reduced three fifths of a mile by the extension of Washington avenue through the marsh from Flushing to Kent avenue.

Between the navy yard and Bushwick creek, in Williamsburgh, the shore is lined with ship yards, distilleries, sugar refineries, lumber, brick, and coal yards, and gas works; while the Greenpoint water front, between Bushwick and Newtown creeks, is chiefly occupied by large ship yards. The United States navy yard, on the S. shore of Wallabout bay, embraces a total area of 144 acres, including more than a mile of the most eligible wharfage in the harbor. The yard proper comprises 45 acres, enclosed by a high brick wall. About 2,000 men are constantly employed here. Within is an immense dry dock, one of the most remarkable structures of the kind in the world, built of granite, at a total cost of $2,113,173. The main chamber is 286 ft. long by 35 ft. wide at the bottom, and 307 ft. long by 98 ft. wide at the top, with a depth of 36 ft. The dock can be emptied by steam pumps in 4 1/2 hours. Half a mile E. of the navy yard, on the opposite side of the Wallabout, is the marine hospital, a handsome structure with 21 acres of ground, and with accommodations for 500 patients. The United States naval ly-ceum, founded by officers of the navy in 1833, is situated in the navy yard; it has a library, a large collection of curiosities, and valuable geological and mineralogical cabinets.

Fronting Flushing avenue, a short distance E. of the navy yard, are extensive marine barracks. - Brooklyn contains numerous manufacturing establishments remarkable for the extent of their operations. In Kent avenue, in the Eastern District, is the printing house and book manufactory of the firm of D. Appleton and co., the most extensive and completely arranged establishment of the kind in the United States. The buildings are constructed of brick with white marble trimmings, and occupy three sides of a square, enclosing one and a quarter acre. Each corner lias a tower-like structure, the one on the N". side being 100 ft. high. The establishment contains commodious press, composing, and store rooms, stereotyping and elec-trotyping departments, and the extensive book-bindery. In 1870 the number of manufacturing establishments in Kings county including minor industries, nearly all within the limits of Brooklyn, was 1,043; capital invested, $25,-287,981; number of hands employed, 18,545; value of products, $60,848,673. The most extensive interests were:




Value of products.

Coal oil,rectified........




Drugs and chemicals........




Engines and boilers........




Flouring mills.........








Glass ware........




Hats and caps.........




Iron all kinds.......




Linseed oil..........












Malt liquors........




Marble and stone work.........








Sash, doors, and blinds........




Ship building and repairing...




Sugar (refined) and molasses.




Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware.........




Tobacco (not cigars) and snuff




Woollen goods........




Among other extensive manufacturing establishments are the Brooklyn brass and copper company, the New York agricultural works, the American steel company's works, Campbell's printing press manufactory, and the Bushwick chemical works. The numerous buildings of the last named are built of brick and cover an area of six acres. In the Eastern District are extensive sugar refineries and distilleries, and numerous lagerbier breweries of immense size. - Brooklyn contains 11 insurance companies chartered by the state of New York, with assets aggregating $3,748,-557. There are 5 national banks, with an aggregate capital of $1,552,000, and 6 state banks acting under special charters, with a capital of $1,600,000. In 1872 there were 17 savings banks, with 115,693 depositors and deposits amounting to $39,458,630. The principal of these were the Brooklyn savings bank, which had 24,293 depositors and deposits to the amount of $10,375,872, and the Dime savings bank, with 26,458 depositors and $6,695,503 deposits. There are also two safe deposit companies and a trust company. - The city is divided into 25 wards, and is governed by a mayor (salary $10,000) and a board of 36 aldermen ($1,000), elected by the people for two years.

There are also 13 departments, the heads of which are in most cases appointed by the mayor with the consent of the aldermen for two years, viz.: finance, audit, treasury, collection, arrears, law, assessment, police and excise, health, fire and buildings, city works, parks, and public instruction. Besides the United States circuit and district courts for the eastern district of New York, the supreme court of the state for the second judicial district, and the county court of Kings county, which hold sessions here, there are the city court of Brooklyn, consisting of three judges, a police court, and six courts of justices of the peace. Brooklyn with the rest of Kings county elects three members of congress, and two senators and nine assemblymen in the state legislature. For police purposes the city is divided into 10 precincts and 3 sub-precincts. The department of police is under the control of a board of commissioners, consisting of a president and two other members. The force consists of a superintendent, an inspector, 10 captains, 51 sergeants, 25 roundsmen, 389 patrolmen, and 30 doormen, constituting the ordinary force, besides a superintendent of telegraphs with 3 operators, a detective force of 8 under command of a sergeant, 4 boiler inspectors, a.drill captain, and a fire marshal.

The pay of the superintendent is $4,000 a year, of the inspector $3,000, of the captains $2,000 each, of the sergeants $1,500, and of the patrolmen $1,100. According to the latest report of the police department, the whole number of persons arrested during the 8 months ending Dec. 31, 1872, was 15,906, of whom 10,124 were foreign and 5,782 native born. The principal offences were: drunkenness, 6,421; assault, 3,204; disorderly conduct, 1,142; violation of city ordinance, 1,005; petit larceny, 718; grand larceny, 247; felonious assault, 242; burglary, 84; robbery, 22; murder, 14. Lost children recovered, 1,112; value of property recovered, $77,316, of which $75,805 was restored to owners. The fire department is under the control of a board, consisting of a* president and two commissioners. The force consists of a chief and an assistant engineer, 6 district engineers, 16 steam fire engines, and 5 hook and ladder trucks, with a total of 189 men. The pay of the chief engineer is $3,000 a year, of the assistant engineer $2,000, and of the district engineers $1,500 each; the other members of the force are paid from $800 to $1,000 a year each.

There are 90 points in the city whence alarms may be transmitted by telegraph. - The city is supplied with water from a chain of ponds extending from Jamaica E. to Hempstead plains, whence it is brought in a brick-covered conduit to Ridge-wood reservoir, into which it is forced by three powerful engines. The furthest of these ponds is 19 m. distant from the city hall. The Ridge-wood reservoir is 170 ft. above the East river, and has a capacity for about 160,000,000 gallons. Besides this, Mount Prospect reservoir has a capacity for 20,000,000 gallons, with an elevation of 28 ft. above that of Ridgewood. From these two reservoirs the water is distributed throughout the city. There are 277 m. of distribution pipes and 2,000 hydrants. The average daily consumption of water in 1872 was 24,000,000 gallons. To secure a supply of water in case of drought a storage reservoir at Hempstead is in process of construction; its estimated cost is $1,393,743, and its capacity will be about 1,055,000,000 gallons.

The bonds issued by the city on account of the water works amounted in 1873 to $9,521,000; this department is self-sustaining. The water works are under the control of a board of city works, comprising three commissioners and a secretary, a chief engineer, water purveyor, register of water rates, and a general superintendent of sewers. This department also has charge of the sewerage and cleaning, paving, and repairing the streets of the city. In 1872 there were 546 m. of streets in the city, of which 283 m. were paved; the total length of sewers was 214 m. The 2d division of the national guard of the state of New York, consisting of the 5th and 11th brigades, has its headquarters here, and is composed mainly of citizens of Brooklyn. This force consists of 3 batteries of artillery, 3 troops of cavalry, and the 13th, 14th, 23d, 28th, 32d, and 47th regiments of infantry. - The city debt, Jan. 1,1873, was $32,012,884, and consisted of $20,260,929 in bonds issued for public, and $9,458,055 for local improvements, and certificates amounting to $2,293,900. The city's quota of the county debt was $3,471,977. Of the bonds issued for public improvements, the most important are $8,738,000 public park loan, $9,521,000 permanent water loan, $2,100,000 East river bridge loan, $726,000 Wallabout bay improvement loan, and $345,000 Kent avenue basin loan.

The property in possession of the city was valued at $26,220,000. The amounts authorized to be expended during the year 1872 for city purposes were: principal of public debt, $131,650; interest on same, $877,600; principal of certificates, $178,417; interest on same, .$9,748; salaries of city officers, $245,000; board of health, $25,000; general purposes, $795,596; board of education, $651,700; police department, $518,640; fire department, $332,-417; water and sewerage department, $190,000; park commission, $75,000; resurveys, ward maps, etc, $30,000; repairs to wells, pumps, etc, $8,000; total for city purposes, $4,058,768, of which $3,375,062 was to be raised by taxation. The amount authorized for county purposes was: for quota of state tax, $1,103,495; commissioners of charities, $400,000; maintenance of parade ground, $2,000; supervisors' budget, $870,700; total for county purposes, $2,376,-195. The following table exhibits the valuation of property and taxation since the consolidation:










































































Prominent among the charitable institutions is the city hospital in Raymond street. Accommodations are afforded to those unable to pay, while private wards may be obtained at a moderate price. The Long Island College hospital occupies 14 lots at the junction of Pacific and Henry streets. Its plan embraces a hospital with an indoor and an outdoor department for the treatment of medical and surgical diseases; a lying-in department; a department for the regular education and licensing of nurses; and a college in which all the branches of medical science are taught. In 1870 it had 9 professors, 72 students, and 315 alumni. There are also St. Mary's female hospital in Clinton street, and St. Peter's hospital under the care of the Sisters of Charity; the eye and ear hospital, in Washington street, established in 1868; the dental infirmary, in Washington street, organized in 1870 to afford gratuitous dental treatment to the indigent; and six dispensaries. The female orphan asylum, corner of Clinton and Congress streets, had in 1871 530 girls under charge of 16 Sisters of Charity. Besides the Brooklyn orphan asylum in Cumberland street, which has accommodations for more than 150 children, and the Roman Catholic asylum recently erected in Albany avenue, with still greater accommodations, there are three other orphan asylums, one of which is for colored children.

The Graham institution, corner of Washington and De Kalb avenues, for the relief of aged and indigent females, was founded in 1851 through the beneficence of John B. Graham, and has accommodations for 90 persons. The industrial school association and home for destitute children, organized in 1854, has a commodious building and 14 lots in Butler street, between Flatbush and Van-derbilt avenues; its mission is to reach children not attending other schools, and afford them instruction, and a home and clothing to the needy. The church charity foundation occupies a handsome building with 43 lots on the corner of Albany avenue and Herkimer street; its object is to afford a foundation upon which may be built up the different charities connected with the Episcopal church. The society for improving the condition of the poor is one of the oldest benevolent societies in the city, and is designed to aid the poor by procuring them employment and temporary relief. There are numerous other charitable institutions, among which is the children's aid society, which opened a newsboys' home in 1866 and a children's home in 1867, affording to neglected boys in the streets industrial training and places to sleep.

The society embraces a special relief department for placing boys and girls in good homes; a sewing machine or girls' industrial department; and an industrial department and school for boys. The truant home, on the Jamaica turnpike, has an average number of 100. Excellent accommodations are also afforded by the charitable institutions of Kings county, which embrace the almshouse, hospital, nursery, lunatic asylum, etc, in Flatbush. - The common schools are classified as grammar and primary, there being no public high schools. They are under the control of a board of education of 45 members, and a city superintendent with an assistant. Under their supervision in 1872 there were 52 schools, of which 13 were primary and 5 were for colored children, besides the Protestant orphan asylum school, the church charity foundation school, the Catholic orphan asylum school for boys, the Catholic orphan asylum school for girls, and the Howard colored orphan asylum school. There are 52 school houses, of which 36 are built of brick and 16 of wood. For the school year ending Jan. 31, 1872, the number of teachers was 857, of whom 823 were females. The whole number of pupils enrolled during the year was 102,033, embracing 66,890 different pupils. Of this number 1,670 were colored.

The average number registered was 40,935; average attendance, 36,044. These statistics are exclusive of the evening schools and orphan asylums. Seven evening schools for white and two for colored children were open during the 12 weeks beginning with October, employing 26 male and 82 female teachers. The whole number of pupils, including 191 colored, was 6,001, of whom 4,429 were males and 1,572 females; average attendance, 2,198. The whole number of the preceding year was 5,416, with an average attendance of 2,071. The cost of maintaining these schools was $13,164. In the orphan asylums 14 teachers were employed, the whole number of pupils being 1,049, with an average attendance of 818. The sum of $11,-391 was apportioned from the public school fund to these schools. The amount expended in the day schools for teachers' wages during the year was $468,841, and $8,095 for music teachers. The total amount expended for school purposes was $719,800. There are about 35,000 volumes in the school libraries, valued at $43,750. In addition to the public schools there are many excellent private seminaries.

The Packer collegiate institute, which ranks among the first seminaries for females in the United States, was incorporated in 1853, and named after the late William S. Packer, by whose widow the institution was liberally endowed. Its large Gothic structure in Jorale-mon street, with its grounds and boarding establishment, valued at over $300,000, is insufficient for its wants. In 1872 it had 38 professors and teachers, besides special lecturers, between 700 and 800 students, and a library of more than 4,000 volumes. There are free and endowed scholarships for between 30 and 40 pupils. The collegiate and polytechnic institute for boys, in Livingston near Court street, founded in 1854, with a capital stock subsequently increased to $100,000, is under the control of a board of 17 trustees. In 1872 it had 27 instructors, 597 students, and a library of 3,000 volumes. The juvenile high school, opposite the preceding, designed for the thorough instruction of boys under 12 years of age in the rudiments of an English education, has an average attendance of about 300. The Adelphi academy, founded in 1863, and incorporated as an endowed institution in 1869, has a fine building in Lafayette avenue, corner of St. James place, and receives pupils of both sexes to all grades except the collegiate.

In 1873 it had 31 instructors and 552 pupils. Among others of importance are the Brooklyn Heights seminary, in Montague street, for the education of young ladies, and the college of St. John the Baptist (Roman Catholic), corner of Lewis street and Willoughby avenue. There are also three convents and a monastery. - The chief library is the mercantile, founded in 1857, which contains about 41,000 volumes, and is provided with a spacious reading room. The annual subscription for each member is $5. The Brooklyn institute and youths' free library, liberally endowed by Augustus Graham, occupies a commodious building in Washington street, containing library, reading and lecture rooms, a public hall, and a picture gallery; it has about 12,000 volumes. The Long Island historical society, organized in 1863, has a library of nearly 20,000 volumes and an equal number of pamphlets, besides valuable treasures of art and history. The Brooklyn library association of the Eastern District had in 1870 over 8,000 volumes, and the law library in the court house is rich in that department of literature.

The chief art institutions are the Brooklyn art association and the academy of design. - The chief places of amusement are the academy of music, in Montague street; the Brooklyn theatre, corner of Washington and Johnson streets; the Park theatre, in Fulton street, opposite the City Hall park; and the Olympic, which is devoted to varieties, and Hooley's opera house, to minstrelsy. The philharmonic society gives a series of classical instrumental concerts annually. There are four clubs: the Brooklyn, social, which meets at the corner of Pierrepont and Clinton streets; the Long Island, political and social, corner of Clinton and Remsen streets; the Faust, established in 1871 chiefly for journalists, artists, actors, etc.; and the yacht club. - The young men's Christian association of Brooklyn, organized in 1854 with 207 members, is in the front rank of similar institutions in the United States. In 1872 it occupied the elegant new building on the corner of Fulton street and Gallatin place, which is rented by the association, and is admirably adapted to the social enjoyment and instruction of the members. It is of architectural iron, four stories high; its dimensions are 100 by 75 ft.

The first floor above the ground embraces the library, reading, prayer-meeting, and conversation rooms, a large, handsomely furnished parlor, and offices. The second and third floors are devoted to a hall for lectures, concerts, etc, with seats for 1,200 persons; also various class, music, and debating.rooms. The library contains about 6,000 volumes, while the reading room is well supplied with newspapers and magazines. Prayer meetings are held every day and evening, daily instruction in all branches is afforded by numerous recitations and lectures, and frequent concerts are given. The number of instructors is 10. Much work is done by committees in distributing clothing and other articles among the needy, visiting the sick, etc. In January, 1873, the number of members was 3,700, and was rapidly increasing. The annual subscription for each member is $2. There are two other local young men's Christian associations in the city. Three daily papers are published in Brooklyn, 1 semi-weekly in German, 6 weeklies, 1 bi-weekly, 1 semi-monthly, and 4 monthlies.

There are 57 masonic lodges, 18 lodges and 3 encampments of odd fellows, 27 divisions of the sons of temperance, and 16 lodges of good templars. - The number of churches is 230, of which 38 are Methodist Episcopal, 36 Episcopal, 29 Baptist, 29 Presbyterian, 28 Roman Catholic, 18 Congregational, 15 Reformed, 11 Lutheran, 6 Methodist non-episcopal, 4 Jewish, 4 Universalist, 3 Unitarian, 2 Friends', 1 New Jerusalem, and 6 of other denominations. In 1870 the total number of church organizations of all denominations in Kings county was 276; edifices, 262; sittings, 197,125; value of property, $12,025,000. - Brooklyn was settled by emigrants from Holland who had been sent out by the Dutch West India company to colonize New Netherland. The first settlement, according to Stiles ("History of the City of Brooklyn," 3 vols., 1867-'70), was made by William Adriaense Bennett and Jacques Bentyn, who purchased in 1636 from the Indians a tract of 930 acres of land at Gow-anus, upon which a dwelling house was soon erected.

In the following year John Jansen de Rapalje, one of the Walloon emigrants who settled at New Amsterdam in 1623, purchased a tract of land where the navy yard now is, which, however, he did not occupy as a residence till 1654. In the mean time others, many of whom were Walloons, settled in this locality, which became known as the Waal-bogt, afterward corrupted to Wallabout. In 1646 nearly the whole water front from Newtown creek to the S. side of Gowanus bay was held by individuals who were engaged in its cultivation. Settlers under patents from the Dutch West India company had established themselves between Flatbush and the "Ferry," along what is now Fulton street, S. E. of the present city hall, and the settlement thus formed was called Breucke-len, after the village of that name near Amsterdam in Holland. In 1646 the town was organized by Gov. Kieft, who appointed Jan Ever-sen Bout, and Huyck Aertsen as schepens, or superintendents, to preserve the peace and regulate the police of the community. In 1667 Gov. Richard Nicolls granted a full and ample patent to certain inhabitants of Breuckelen, their heirs, successors, and assigns, of all land acquired, or to be purchased or acquired, on behalf of the town, from the Indians or others.

This patent was confirmed by Gov. Dongan in 1686, in consideration of an annual quitrent of 20 bushels of good merchantable wheat. This quitrent, or its equivalent, continued to be paid by the town as late as 1786. Brooklyn was the scene of several memorable events during the revolution. On Aug. 27, 1776, the battle of Long Island was fought. (See Long-Island.) From this time until November, 1783, Brooklyn was occupied by the English. In 1776, and for six years thereafter, until New York was evacuated, several condemned hulks were moored in the Wallabout, and used for the detention of American seamen captured by the British. It is estimated that 11,500 Americans died on these plague ships. The shores of the Wallabout were full of dead men's bones, and for many years the tides washed out the remains from the sand. After some years of agitation, the bones were finally collected in 1808, and laid in a vault near the navy yard, with imposing ceremonies. In 1873 they were transferred to a vault constructed for the purpose in Washington park, where it is also proposed to erect a monument to the memory of the martyrs.

For many years after the settlement of Brooklyn, its inhabitants worshipped in New Amsterdam. In 1655 a church was erected in the neighboring town of Midwout, or Flatbush, for the accommodation also of Brooklyn and Amersfoort. The Rev. Mr. Polhemus was the pastor of this church. In 1660 the Rev. Henry Selwyn (otherwise Henricus Selyns), of Holland, was installed as pastor of the congregation in Brooklyn. The first church edifice in Brooklyn was erected in 1666, in the middle of the highway, now Fulton street, near Lawrence. Its successor is the first Reformed church in Joralemon street, erected in 1835. The Episcopal church of Brooklyn was incorporated by act of the legislature in 1787. In 1795 the church was reorganized and incorporated under the name of St. Ann's church. The first Methodist church was incorporated in 1794; the first Presbyterian, Baptist, and Roman Catholic churches in 1822; and the first Congregational church in 1839. The earliest ferry between Long Island and New Amsterdam was, according to Stiles, established as early as 1642, and connected the present Fulton street, Brooklyn, with what is now Peck slip, New York; these points were for more than a century the principal ferry landings.

The first steam ferry boat was the Nassau, which began running in 1814. Brooklyn was incorporated as a village in 1816, and became a chartered city in 1834. On Sept. 9, 1848, occurred the largest fire in its history, consuming seven blocks in Fulton and adjoining streets, between Poplar and Concord streets. On Jan. 1, 1855, it was consolidated with the city of Williamsburgh and the town of Bush-wick (including the village of Greenpoint) under the common name of Brooklyn; what had formerly been called Brooklyn being designated as the Western District, and the other portion as the Eastern District. Williamsburgh was founded by Richard W. Woodhull, who at the beginning of this century settled near Bush wick street (now North Second). It was incorporated as a village in 1827, and as a city in 1851. In 1855 its population was 48,367. The streets of Brooklyn were first lighted by gas in 1848, and water was introduced in 1855. There was a volunteer fire department from 1786 to 1869, when the paid department was organized.

A commission is now (September, 1873) engaged in arranging the terms of annexation of the rest of Kings co. to Brooklyn. (See Kings).