Buckingham, a central county of Virginia, bounded 1ST. and N. W. by the James river, and S. by the Appomattox; area, 680 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,371, of whom 7,711 were colored. The surface is somewhat hilly and the soil not very rich, except near the rivers. Near Willis mountain are gold mines. Iron is found here, and valuable slate quarries have been opened near the Slate river. The James River canal passes along the border of the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 76,694 bushels of wheat, 112,336 of Indian corn, 96,314 of oats, and 809,937 lbs. of tobacco. There were 1,138 horses, 1,819 milch cows, 2,958 other cattle, 2,922 sheep, and 6,898 swine. Capital, Marysville.
Buckingham, a parliamentary and municipal borough of England, the county town of Buckinghamshire, 50 m. N. W. of London; pop. of the municipal borough in 1871, 3,703. It is built on a peninsula formed by the river Ouse, which is here crossed by three bridges. A branch of the Grand Junction canal runs through it, and a branch of the London and Northwestern railway gives easy communication with the metropolis. The chief public buildings are the town hall, the jail, and the large parish church, erected in 1781. Buckingham once employed many women in lace-making, but this branch of industry is now declining. There are some breweries and tan yards, and in the vicinity are corn and paper mills and quarries of limestone and marble. There are numerous fairs for horses, cattle, and sheep. The reform act of 1867 deprived the borough of one of its two members of parliament.