Buckland. I. William D. D, an English geologist, born at Axminster, Devonshire, in 1784, died Aug. 14, 1856. He was educated at Oxford, where in 1813 he was appointed reader in mineralogy and in 1818 reader in geology. The clearness, force, and full information of his lectures made the study of geology very popular. He may be said to have founded the geological museum in Oxford, sparing neither time, travel, nor expense to supply it with specimens, which he classified, arranged, and described. This collection is more particularly rich in the remains of the larger fossil mammalia and other animals from the caves in different parts of England and Germany. In 1813 he communicated to the transactions of the geological society bis "Descriptive Notes" of 50 miles of a coast survey of Ireland, which he had made in company with the Rev. W. Cony-beare, dean of Llandaff. In 1820 he delivered a lecture before the university, which was published as " Vindicice Geologicae, or the Connection of Geology with Religion explained." In 1823 he published Beliquim Diluviance, being the expansion of a paper he had communicated to the royal society (of which he was elected member in 1818) respecting the fossil remains of the elephant, hippopotamus, tiger, bear, hyaena, and sixteen other animals, discovered in a cave at Kirkdale, Yorkshire, in 1821, for which paper the society voted him the Copley medal, the highest honor in their gift.
In 1825 he was made canon of Christ Church, and took the degree of doctor of divinity. In 1836 appeared his Bridgewater treatise on " Geology and Mineralogy considered with Reference to Natural Theology," which has always been the most popular of the series. He bestowed unusual pains upon this work, in which, led by the discovery of new facts, he modified his previous diluvial theory. His sketch of the structure of the Alps, in the "Annals of Philosophy," is regarded as one of the ablest of his geological writings. From its formation he identified himself with the British asssociation for the advancement of science. He was one of the council of the royal society from 1827 to 1849, and was a member of the Linnaean society. He was made dean of Westminster in 1845, when he relinquished his canonry at Oxford, but continued professor of geology and mineralogy. Removing to London, he was appointed trustee of the British museum, actively employed himself in advancing sanitary movements, and was mainly instrumental in procuring the establishment of the national museum of practical geology in London. In 1850 his mind became impaired, and the remainder of his life was passed in retirement at Islip, near Oxford. He published several sermons, preached on various occasions, all of them distinguished rather by good sense than by scholastic divinity.
II. Francis Trevelyan, an English naturalist, son of the preceding, born Dec. 17, 1826. He was educated at Christ Church college, Oxford, studied medicine, served as house surgeon to St. George's hospital, and from 1854 to 1863 as assistant surgeon to the life guards. He has devoted himself to investigations in natural history, especially in the department of fish culture. In 1858 he edited his father's Bridgewater treatise on geology and mineralogy. In 1859 he discovered the coffin of the great surgeon and physiologist John Hunter, whose remains were thereupon rein-terred in Westminster abbey by the royal college of surgeons. Besides contributing many papers to various periodicals, he has written "The Curiosities of Natural History," three series, and a treatise on "Fish Hatching." He established at his own expense the " Museum of Economic Fish Culture" in the royal horticultural gardens, in which are illustrated the modes of propagating fresh and salt water fish and oysters. For his labors in this department he received in 1866 a silver medal from the Exposition de peche et oVagriculture at Arca-chon, France, and in 1868 the diploma of honor from the Havre exhibition.