Buddhism And Buddha, an Asiatic religion and its founder. Buddha (the learned, wise, intelligent; perf. pass, participle from budh, to know, to understand, to be awake) is the generic name for a deified teacher of the Bauddhas, whom we call Buddhists. These hold that innumerable Buddhas have appeared to save the world, among them one of the present period, also known as Sakyamuni, or Saint Sakya, who is believed by some to have been the ninth incarnation of Vishnu. He was a reformer of Brahmanism, introducing a simple creed, and substituting a mild and humane code of morality for its cruel laws and usages. His history is to a great extent legendary and is divided into 12 sections, viz.: 1. While in the fourth heaven he determines to save the world, and chooses to be born as the son of Suddhodana, king of Ka-pilavastu, and of Maya, yet a virgin; both of the Sakya genus of the Kshattriya caste, and a branch of the Ikshvakus, who were of the race of the sun, kings of Ayodhya (Oude), or even descended from Mahasammata, the first of all kings of the present period. 2. He descends from heaven as a white elephant; is conceived as a five-colored ray of light. 3. He is born, amid great miracles, through the right side, and as soon as born solemnly proclaims his mission. 4. He is named Sarvarthasiddha (sarva, all; ariha, wish, request; siddha, fulfilled); his mother dies on the seventh day after his birth; he is cared for by her sister, Praja-pati Gautami (praja, world, people; pati, master; gautami, a female of the Gotama race), of the Brahmanic, Gotama genus; hence he is called Gautama. 5. He chooses Gopa, also a Sakya, for his bride, and obtains her after having shown his prowess in a public game, and his great learning and skill in arts. 6. After meditating on the vanity of enjoyments, he leaves his father's house and becomes a most austere ascetic and hermit. 7. He performs the most rigid penances, goes to the Bodhimanda or throne of intelligence at Gaya, and sits under the Bodhidruma, or Jicus religiosa (banian), where every Bodhisattva (intelligence of truth) becomes a Buddha. 8. He is tempted by Mara (mri, to die), the god of love, sin, and death; but withstands his enchantments and terrors. 9. He recollects all his previous births and those of all beings, attains thus to Bodhi (intelligence), and shines forth as the Buddha, " the awakened, intelligent, knowing" (Chinese, Fo thu or Fo, also translated Kio, the enlightened; Thibetan, Sangs rgyas; Mongol, Burtehan; Japanese, Budsdo; the number of his names is 12,000 in Ceylon, and in a Thibetan tract 5,453). All beings become aware of his arrival, and two merchants from far-off lands are the first mortals who see him, offering him honey, milk, etc. 10. He "turns the wheel of faith," or becomes a teacher, "unfurls the victorious banner of the good law," and proceeds to Varanasi, now Benares, on the Ganges; there he finds his five former pupils, and though he preaches in the Magadhi language he is understood by all hearers of different tongues.
Many other fanciful stories and many philosophic speculations have been interpolated amid the facts in the history of Buddha, especially in the 45 years of his sacerdotal functions. The scene of his priestly life is placed by some in the Deccan, by others in Ceylon, and by others in the Punjaub, and even beyond the Indus; although, as a matter of fact, it seems to have been restricted within Oude and South and North Bahar, extending probably to the boundary of Bengal and into the Doab and Kohilcund. Many sculptures not far from modern Gaya, and other monuments at and near Patna, bear witness to the reality of the reformer's existence. When he appears to discharge his mission, men and women of all classes and ages flock around him. Most of the rulers become converts together with their subjects. Sravasti (the city of hearing), on the northern bank of the Ganges, became a rival of Gaya. There Anathapindika built a magnificent monastery, from which most of the Buddhist holy books are dated. Here Sakya-muni appoints his pupils as apostles, and performs many miracles. At first he is adverse to the admission of worn en to ecclesiastical life, but afterward chooses some as his agents.
He is also named Sramana (sram, to be wearied), or the unchangeable, and is soon opposed by Brahmans and others, especially for admitting the impure and outcast to the privileges of religious asceticism. He humbles the six Tir-thakas, or sectarian philosophers and visitors of sacred ponds, whose lucrative occupation is ruined by the new doctrine. Calumny, conspiracies, and snares, all tricks of Mara, are unavailing against him. 11. His native city, with all his kindred, is cruelly destroyed by a king of Kosa-la shortly before'his death in the 80th year of his age. This causes great convulsions of nature. King Asoka raised on the spot where he died a stupa or mound with a column to his memory. 12. When his body is about to be burnt, the pile cannot be kindled; but after Kasyapa has honored the feet of the dead, the " flame of contemplation " breaks out of the breast and consumes the corpse. The pearly, heaven-scented pieces of his bones, which have defied the fire, almost cause a war for their possession, but are at last divided among seven competitors, who erect stupas over them. - Even if an actual personal existence be denied to Sakya-muni, the religious reform itself must be admitted as a fact.
Among the Buddhistic nations there is a difference of about 2,000 years as to the date of his death. As the skilfully contrived story of 33 Buddhist patriarchs in uninterrupted succession is now exploded, we prefer the Cingalese date of 543 B. C. Brah-manism had become intolerable. Sakyamuni rejects the Brahma, the authority of the Vedas, the sacrifices, and all Brahmanic rites. Even popular Buddhism in adopting the Brahmanic gods degrades them below Buddha, even below the Arhats (arh, to worship) or venerable priests, thus raising men above the gods. Buddha, a man, and not an incarnation of a higher being, is self-perfected. In the Vedas also holiness, piety, meditation, and wisdom are mightier than all gods. Indian virtue, more passive than active, consists in self-sacrifice, in the taming of sensuality and of one's own will, in sympathy with all beings. As soon as sin is uprooted, infinite knowledge opens. - Originally, Buddhism was simple, ethical, and rational; and hence hostile to mythology, scholasticism, ceremonies, and priestcraft. It was benevolent and humane in the highest degree. It improved upon the Sllnkhya philosophy, and rendered it popular and practical.
It called all men to its fold, without any distinction of quality or position, opening to all the way of salvation, which it teaches to be attainable by purity of conduct. Castes, however, were not directly prohibited, but ignored, so that they exist to this day in Ceylon, the great southern stronghold of Buddhism. "I am a bhikshu" (beggar), says Sakyamuni, without Brahmanic pride. "There is but one law for all: severe punishment for crime, and great reward for virtue." " My law is one of grace for all; like heaven, affording room for men and women, for boys and girls, for rich and poor." "It is difficult to be rich and learn the way." In a legend all lamps kindled in honor of Buddha ceased burning, except one offered by a poor woman. Ananda, his favorite disciple, drinks water drawn from a well by a Chandali. Sakyamuni spoke to the people in parables under the free sky; united the scattered anchorets into communities, orders, and monasteries, some for men, some for women, also allowing persons of both sexes to be lay members without vowing chastity and mendicity.
The clergy were made the foundation of Buddhistic society, whereas in other creeds the laity are the basis on which the hierarchy reposes. - The first period of Buddhism, from Sakyamuni to its recognition as a sort of state religion in the great Prachina or Prasian empire and beyond Hindostan, comprehends the fixation of the dogmas, its first schisms, and oecumenic councils. Kasyapa, the principal disciple of Sakyamuni, held the first council of 500 Arhats at Rajagriha, establishing the Vinaya (vi, before; ni, to conduct) or discipline based upon the Sutras (siv, to sew; suf. tra) or apophthegms and sermons of Buddha. Disorders in the great monastery at Vaisali called for a second council in that city during the reign of the king Kalasoka, a great protector of the faith, about 100 years after the death of Sakya. The history of Buddhism at that time is enveloped in the greatest darkness. Among about 18 sects two are prominent, viz., the Vaibhashika (vi, apart, asunder; Mash, to declare; suf. ilea), or dilemmists, with many subdivisions; the Sautrantika (sutra and antika, near), or close observers of the original maxims. - Alexander's invasion of the Punjaub gave a great impulse to the spread of Buddhism. The Nanda dynasty of Magadha in South Bahar was overthrown by the miraculous Chandragupta, or Sandrakottus, who freed the Punjaub from Macedonian rule, received Megas-thenes at his court in Pataliputra, and united all India under his sceptre.
Through his origin as a Sudra, and through the Macedonian invasion, he broke the power of the Brahmans. His grandson Dharmasoka, the greatest king of the Maurya dynasty, extended the empire, and, being miraculously converted, became from a cruel tyrant the most pious observer and the most zealous propagator of Buddhism. Under the name of Piyadasi (love-gifted, pious) he published most humane edicts, many of which are found engraved on columns at Delhi and Allahabad, and on rocks near Peshawer, in Guzerat, Orissa, etc, not in Sanskrit, the language of the Brahmans, but in Prakrit or popular dialects. These edicts inculcate the practice of virtues, order the construction of roads and hospitals, and even abolish capital punishment. The third great council was held at the command of Piyadasi at Pataliputra, where 1,000 Arhats tried to cure the great anarchy caused in the church by sectarians and false and licentious monks. At the conclusion of the council an earthquake is said to have approved its decrees. Scarcely any book which passes for the word of Buddha is prior to this council in which the decrees of the preceding councils were modified; indeed, it may be doubted whether any such book reaches even so far back.
The creed was introduced into Ceylon in the third year after the third council, where it was preserved for a century merely by oral tradition. In less trustworthy quarters than the Cingalese there are manifest contradictions; the Nepaulese believing that Sakyamuni wrote nine books, while the Chinese derive the canon from the first council, and the Thibetans say that the Tripitaka (three baskets) were written two centuries after the third council. In preparing the canon, Sanskrit was probably used along with other vernacular tongues by the disciples. The books of Ceylon, Burmah, and Siam are translated from the Pali, a form of writing of the Magadhi, a dialect of the Sanskrit. The code of the fourth council, held in Cashmere, is in Sanskrit. Unlike the Brahmans, who thought barbarians unworthy of their holy religion, the Sthaviras or elders of the third council had sent out apostles to preach in foreign lands, who converted the Nagas (snake worshippers) and other idolatrous tribes of Cashmere; the Hima-vat (snow mountain), lower Cabool, Gandhara (now Candahar), Yavana (from 'luvia, probably Bactria, Ionia, and the satrapies of Alexander), and Ujana (now Kafiristan) also received apostles.
The Deccan, and even Pegu and Burmah were not forgotten, although the creed was carried thither much later from Ceylon. Buddhism carried the elements of Indian civilization to many a savage tribe, broke up many a cruel custom, and became a blessing to the greater portion of Asia. But in time the great Buddhistic body was split, by its own extension, into a southern church, whose chief seat is in Deva Lanka, the divine island, or Ceylon, where it has been least altered from its ancient condition, and whence during more than five centuries it was propagated, even to further India; and a northern church, divided into many important branches, owing to the great number of nations that profess it; the Nepaulese branch being less divergent from the ancient faith than those of Tartary, Mongolia Thibet, China, and Japan. - In Hindostan, the primitive character of Buddhism was greatly .impaired by its long and bloody contest, as well as its mixture, with Brahmanism, and especially with the sanguinary tenets of Sivaism; and it finally degenerated into a medley of incongruous creeds.
About the beginning of our era a new school or sect, called Mahay ana (great passage), was added to the older Hinayana (little passage) by Nagarjuna, a celebrated Sthavira; and another in the 6th century of our era, called Yoga-char a (yoga, junction and magic; char, to go), or Tantra, a sort of Sivaitic mysticism, by the Bhikshu Asanga. Even in Ceylon heretical tenets were inserted in the code of the Tripitaka by the learned Buddha Ghoska at the commencement of the 5th Christian century. - Among the Greek and Roman writers who have more or less imperfectly dwelt upon the men and affairs of India, Herodotus (books i. and iv.) names the Budini; Megasthenes, though residing at Palibothra, does not speak of the Buddhists, although (about 300 B. C.) he gives a full account of the five rivers of Pentapotamia, and describes Indian manners; Strabo speaks of two religious systems in India (book xv. of his geography), that of Brahma and that of the Garmans (apparently the Sar-manes, a sort of saints, probably Buddhists); Arrian mentions a Budias as third king of India; Clement of Alexandria speaks of a deified Butta; Victorinus and St. Jerome, of a Buddhas; Cedrenus and Suidas, of Budas. Clement and Jerome call that personage a gymnosophist, meaning probably the Jaina sect, which worshipped naked idols, and whose chief priests were naked. - The Jesuits have endeavored to prove Buddhism to be of Nes-torian origin; but the Nestorians sought the protection of the Sassanidse in Persia, and came into central Asia after their expulsion from the Byzantine empire, as late as the 5th Christian century.
It is more probable that Buddhism had an influence on western creeds, as, for instance, on the Gnostics. - Buddhism was introduced into China by two ways, namely: in the south by sea, 65 B. C, and in the north through Khoten, over the great wall, into Shensi, in the 5th century. From Corea, where it existed about A. D. 370, it was brought into Japan about 550, to the court of the dairi. Some writers assert that it entered that country as early as A. D. 60. From Ceylon it found its way into Aracan, Burmah, and Pegu (then a mighty empire, A. D. 397), Siam, Laos, Anam, Cochin China, and Tonquin. From Nepaul, where there is a very rich Buddhistic literature, the creed came into Thibet and Mongolia, the Mongol emperors of Hindostan having instituted a patriarchate. In Thibet, great dignitaries, called (about 1430) dalai-lamas (sea priests), pretended to be personified Bodhisattvas. Many Calmuck and other tribes of Tartary and Siberia also adopted this religion, and its influence is even perceived in Swedish Lapland. Its priests bear different names, as talapoins (umbrella-bearers) in Siam, bonzes in Japan, rahanes in Mongolia, etc.; they are dressed in yellow gowns, shave their heads, and go about bareheaded.
The total number of Buddhists is about 300,000,000. In all Buddhistic countries there is a profusion of temples, monasteries, stupas, dhagobas (pillars and mounds containing relics of Buddha), and other monuments overloaded with statues and sculptures of deities in grotesque forms. Among the great number of ancient grottoes containing temples and cells hewn in rock, many of them also containing monuments Of Brahraanic worship, we may mention those on the islands of Salsette and Elephanta, those at or near Dhumnar, Carlee, Nassuck, Ayanti, and those most magnificent specimens at Ellora. Ceylon boasts of its Lova Maha Paya, with 1,600 pillars; of its mountain temples at Me-hentele, grottoes and temples at Dambulu-galle, etc. Most of them are in ruins caused by time or by Portuguese devastation. Of the many battles of the Buddhists with the Brahmans in India, few turned out favorably for the former, one of their victories only (A. D. 473) being worthy of record. Although Buddhism was most ruthlessly overthrown during a contest which lasted for 15 centuries, still some of its traces remain in Hindostan. In the 4th century, Fa-hian witnessed its decadence, and with other Chinese pilgrims, especially Hiuan-Thsang (629-45), recorded what remained of it and its monuments. - Having thus narrated the history of Buddhism, we now come to a summary of its doctrines, and of their principal ramifications.
First of all, Buddhism maintains the vacuity, unreality, and illusiveness of nature. Naught is everywhere and always, and is full of illusion. This very nihilism levels all barriers between castes, nationalities, and conditions of worldly fortune, embracing even the vilest worm in the brotherhood of Buddhism. " All compounds are perishable," is the last sentence which Sakyamuni is believed to have uttered. The final object is Moksha, Nirvana, or the deliverance of the soul from all pain and illusion. The endless round of metempsychosis is broken, by preventing the soul from being born again. This is attained by purification from even the desire of existence. These fundamental traits of Buddhism are plainly comprehended in the most ancient positive dogma, which is contained in the four Aryani Satyanis, the sublime truths attributed to Sakyamuni in his first sermon in the gazelle grove near Benares. These four truths relate to pain, its origin, its annihilation, and the way leading to annihilation. " Pain is birth, age, disease, death, the meeting with what one dislikes, the separation from what one loves, the failure to obtain what one strives for. The causes of pain are the desires, lusts, passions. Annihilation of all these causes is the third truth.
The way of annihilation again has eight parts: right view, right sense, right speech, right action, right position, right energy, right memory, and right meditation. Such is the " formula of faith," found upon many monuments, as well as in many books. The essence of Buddhistic morality is "to eschew everything bad, to perform everything good, to tame one's thoughts." As the doctrine of Mohammed is succinctly called al Islamu (obedience to the precepts of the apostle), so the precepts of Sakyamuni are named the "Way" (Gati), or the " Way of the four truths." To teach is "to turn the wheel of faith." The genuine law of Buddha Sakyamuni was contained in these four truths, and was altogether moral and practical. All the mythology, sacrifices, penances, hierarchy, scholasticism, mysticism, which we find connected with it, have been superadded in progress of time, in different countries, and under manifold circumstances. This mixed Buddhism, as depicted in the above-mentioned Hinayana, comprehends three sections, the Dharma, Vinaya, and Abhidha-rama. We will give an account of each in its order.
I. The Dharma (virtue, duty, law, from dhri, to support) comprehends the revelation, the dogmas, and their precepts; and in a strict sense, cosmology and cosmography, mythology, metempsychosis, and the theory of salvation. Buddhism knows of no creation. " The worlds are, from the not-beginning, in a continual revolution of arising and of perishing." Succession is the only reality, everything else being a process and progress of becoming in the concatenation of cause and effect. This rotation has no cause, hence no beginning. It is not within the domain of the intellect to know whence all entities come or whither they go. Four things are immeasurable, viz.: the science of Buddha, space, the number of breathing beings, and that of worlds. A Buddha alone can conceive the worlds. It is heresy to believe the worlds limited or illim-ited, or neither limited nor illimited. Mount Sumeru is the centre of the world, as deep in the ocean as it is high above its level. This ocean is enclosed by a girdle of rocks, within six other concentric oceans with similar girdles, which decrease toward the periphery (the oceans in breadth, the rocks in height), in the progression of 84, 42, 21, 10 1/2, 5 1/4, 2 5/8, 1 5/16 thousands of yojanas (about five miles each). The whole stands again in the genuine ocean known to men, in which are the four islands with 500 islets each.
The southern island, or India, is triangular, with men of trigonic face, living 100 years, 3 yards high; the eastern, semicircular, with men of semilunar face, living 250 years, 8 yards high; the western circular, with round-faced men, living 500 years, 16 yards high; while the northern island is quadrangular, containing the happy square-faced hyperboreans, who live 1,000 years, and measure 32 yards. Chakravala (chakra, region; val, to encompass), or an iron wall of 3,610,-350 yojanas, near which the sea is very shallow, surrounds the above-described group. Each such universe has its own sun, moon, stars, and hell. The Meru is like an index of a dial, shading each island, and thus producing night. Above the Meru rise the heavens in the following order: 1. Deva lokas, or heavens of the gods, six in number, forming with the earth the Kama dhdtu or lust principle. 2. Above it the Rupa dhatu or form principle, with four Dhyanas (divine and clear contemplations), of which the first has three heavens for the Brahmas and their servants; the second three for the gods of light; the third three of purity; the fourth seven of merits, exemption from pain, beauty, etc. 3. Still higher is Arupa-dhdtu, or formless and colorless principle, with four heavens, viz.: one of illimited space, one of illimited knowledge, one of naught, and the fourth of neither thinking nor not thinking.
Among the extreme heavens, the lowest in position and majesty is that of the Chatur maharaja kayikas (quatuor magnorum regum comitum), or kings of demons, a sort of magnates guarding the higher heavens. The second, Trayas-trimsas (triginta trium), belongs to Indra, who is the highest Buddhist god. The 26th, the Naivasarijnandsanjndyatanam (nec velut cognoscentium nee non cognoscentium), or the 28th and highest heaven of all, affords a life of 80,000 great kalpas or periods from the origin of one world to the beginning of another. The fourth Dhyana, referred to above, comprises 1,000 Dhyanas of the third kind, or 1,000 millions of worlds of lust, with 1,000 millions of first Dhyanas and 5,000,000 of the second; the whole forming one great chiliocosm, or 1,000 worlds. Again, 1,000 great chiliocosms, as many as perish at each revolution, form a Buddha territory, or system of a single Buddha. With the northern Buddhists " 3,000 great chiliocosms " is a stereotyped phrase. Twenty great chiliocosms, piled one above the other, rest on a lotus flower, of which an infinite number blossom in the " sea of aromas," each bearing 20,000 millions of worlds.
The number of these aromatic seas is again 10 times as great as the number which we would write with a " unit followed by 4,456,488 zeros," and which would extend, in common print, in a line of 44,000 feet. The above-named three groups of worlds and heavens are peopled everywhere by entities of six Gatis (goings or ways of rebirth), of which the first two are good and the last four bad, viz.: 1. The way of the Devas, or gods, who, although unavowed by Buddha, have been adopted by his followers. The gods dwell in the 26 or 28 heavens, and are named accordingly; the four great kings, the thirty-three, the not fighting, the joyful, the change-enjoying, the changing others arbitrarily, the assembled Brahmas, the servants of Brahma, the great Brahmas; the gods of limited light, of illimited light, of pure light; of limited purity, illimited purity, perfect purity; of great merits, the unconscious, the not great, the exempt from pain, the well-seeing, the beautiful, the highest; illimited space, illimited science, the place of naught, that of no-thought, and not no-thought. 2. The way of men. 3. That of the Asuras, or most powerful bad genii, of monstrous shapes. 4. That of unreasoning animals, divided into footless bipeds, quadrupeds, multipeds. 5. That of Pretas, goblins, monsters of hunger and thirst, giants, moving skeletons, fire-eaters, vampires, etc. 6. The denizens of hell, placed originally in four, later in eight, at last in 136 hells of all degrees, from a sort of limbo or purgatory to the Lokdntarika Naraka, or intermediate hell, destined for skeptics, who are the greatest of all sinners.
These hells are of Brah-manic invention. - As seed and plant, or egg and bird, contain and follow one another in an endless series, so is it with worlds. Innumerable worlds have thus appeared and disappeared. This chapter of world-renewals is the most contradictory and incomplete in popular Buddhism, because it grew up by agglomerating the fantastic notions of many peoples around the nucleus of the purer doctrine. A Kalpa is a period of destruction and reconstruction, and a Mahakalpa or great Kalpa, as we have said, is that from the origin of a world to the beginning of a new one; it is subdivided into four Asan-khya kalpas or incalculable Kalpas, viz.: of destruction, interval, renewal, stability; each again into 20 Antara or intermediate Kalpas. If it should rain incessantly during three years on the whole globe, the number of the fallen drops would not equal that of the years of one Asankhya. Each destruction is announced 100,000 years in advance by a Deva, calling on all beings to avoid sin, to repent, etc. Monsters and many of the damned are reborn as men; the denizens of the lower heavens and men rise higher.
At the appointed time a great cloud rains for the last time; then everything dries up, lower beings are advanced, and only skeptics and infidels are reborn into the Lokantantarika. The dross of nature is now annihilated; a second and a third sun dry up all flowing waters; a fourth and fifth dry up the ocean; a sixth heats the earth up to the seat of Indra; the seventh at last kindles it to a flame, which consumes the world to less than ashes, up to the heavens of the Brahmas inclusively. The liquid destruction by caustic waters is somewhat analogous, and reaches beyond the second Dhyana. Wind destroys still higher up the whole third DhySna. The scheme of the intensity of the destructions is: the first, third, and fifth are moderate; the second and sixth are middling; the fourth is great. The world preceding the present was greatly destroyed. In short, there is a whole minute tariff of the medium, degree, and extent of world-destructions. The fourth Dhyana forms the limit of destruction, it being, together with the higher heavens, a reservoir for the reconstruction of the universe.
The Kalpa of emptiness is a dark vacuum below the preserved heavens, existing during 20 intermediate Kal-pas; after which a wind from the 10 quarters begins to blow; then a cloud gathers; rain, contained by the wind as in a vessel, fills the vacuum up to the reservoir; then all beings are reproduced by the churning action of the wind; first the annihilated Dhyanas, then the lower regions, the "throne of intelligence," and the Bodhi tree, near Buddha-Gaya (gai, to sing), and the lotus, whose number of blossoms is emblematic of that of the Buddhas (originally five, afterward 1,000) in the future Kalpas. Many of the beings preserved in the higher heavens are reborn on the new earth, with bodies shining like the sun, and live by meditation. After having tasted of the sweet new earth-sap, their bodies begin to ferment with lusts, to have need of the sun and moon (which only then shine forth), and they deteriorate in the ratio of their appetites. Their nutriments grow coarser, and excite sexual desires, which beget the necessities of birth and other evils. The greedy accumulate too much rice, which ceases to grow spontaneously; agriculture therefore becomes imperative.
Then " mine and thine," or ownership, are contrived; followed by laziness, gluttony, dissipation, envy, avarice, theft, murder, war, etc. Therefore Mahasammata (the great assented to) was chosen as the first king on earth; and castes followed. The duration of life sank with the deterioration of beings to 80,000 years; many are reborn as animals, and at last hell yawns. After this follows the Kalpa of stability. In it the life of men lasts only 10 years, then 80,000, and thus gradually and alternatively 20 times, in the ratio of sinfulness. In this the most majestic and perfect Buddhas are born, for the renewal of the Dharma. A Kalpa with five Buddhas is called Bhadra (prosperous, virtuous), and such is the present one, which is in its decline. Deterioration by sin is cured by wars, pestilence, hunger, scourges, which arouse the survivors to better conduct. - The world is governed by destiny. This differs from the Greek the Latin fatum, and the maniyat of the Islam; nor is it a law of nature, or an eternal decree, or predestination. According to the Buddhists, living beings are by no means products of nature. Only because the entities have sinned from eternity or become material, matter exists; because they are from eternity in the process of purification, the innumerable worlds arise and vanish. The entities are the marrow, the universe is its lodging. In short, the universe is a result of the morality of breathing beings, and destiny is the product of their merit and guilt. There is no indivisible absolute being, as the germ of nature. The cardinal point of the rotations of the worlds lies in the lowest stations of the fourth Dhyana, viz.: in the two heavens of the gods of great merits and of the unconscious, which form the line of demarcation between sin and sinlessness. Morality is the prime agent of that whirlwind which tosses the universe into being and not-being. The mode of its action is variously explained. Beings migrate, because they are sinful, by having fallen through terrestrial nourishment into avarice, hatred, etc, in consequence of unatoned guilt in former lives.
Buddhism makes no inquiry into the origin of individual entities. Sansara (san, Lat. simul, and sri, to go), or mundane life, is the fundamental evil, the ocean of existence with the four poisonous streams, birth, age, disease, and death, upon which we are tossed by the storm of passion, restless and without haven. Out of the Sansara there is naught; on the one hand there is emptiness, and on the other Nirvana, or beatific enfranchisement. In Sansara there is no truth, no essence; all is deceit and fallacy. It is only constant in inconstancy; in it every form or determination breaks like a bubble, Birth leads to death, death to rebirth, youth to old age; beauty, health, wealth, vanish. All ages are beset by peculiar evils. Death is not the last of pains, for it leads to birth again. Sin degrades to a lower being or leads into hell. Even godliness does not exempt from rebirth or from relapse into a bad Gati (way) of rebirth. - With regard to ontology and psychology, the philosophic schools of Buddhism are at variance, and especially concerning the notions of the soul and of the Nirvana. In some cases the soul of man may sink even below the six Gatis or ways of rebirth into the vegetable and mineral way; although this view is less supported by the more ancient texts than by Brahmanic or Thibetan legends.
Klesa (klis, to suffer or inflict pain), or the original sin in a former existence, is the fountain of all evil. Its conquest is the last aim of all life and effort. He who breaks its fetters, "breaks through the eggshell" and escapes the alternation of births. The Klesa awakens evil desires, which are chains to existence; this clinging to life impels us to a renewal of existence, and to further wandering after death; the love of life begets new life. Both this motive and the so-called destiny by morality have their root in the Klesa: the former acting as impulse or gravitation into corporeality; the latter as the germ, leading to the realization of the former. With the death of the body the soul is not freed from its desires, but wanders by that Gati which it deserves. All good and bad deeds are balanced against each other like credit and debit in a commercial account, and determine individual destiny, hot providentially, but in consequence of the endless chain of causes and effects. Only a Buddha or an Archcha (arch, to worship) or saint can overlook and unravel the thousandfold knotted threads of the moral chain. Buddha said once to Ananda: "If a well-doer comes to hell, the merit of his present life is not yet matured, but the evil of a former.
To be rewarded before such maturity would be tantamount to being paid before the appointed term." Freedom is obtained only after the escape from the bonds of desires, and from the power of our past deeds. Then only do we. see, with a "divine eye," our numberless births, risings, and fallings, which are all due to our actions. The succession of the existences of a determinate being is also a succession of souls, which are united by the law of moral causality, each one being the product of the guilt or merit of all its predecessors. When an individual dies, the body is broken, the soul is extinguished, leaving merely its deeds with their consequences, as a germ of a new individual. According to the germinating power, determined by the Karman (morality of actions), the result is an animal, or a man, or a demon, or a god. Identity of souls is thus replaced by their continuity, in the solution of the moral problem. Each soul inherits the fruits of the Karman, and the office of liberating and purifying its predecessor.
I oi\ght, therefore, not to act well merely on behalf of my own selfish weal, but for the benefit of a new "I," which is to follow after me. ' The Buddhistic metempsychosis is, therefore, rather a metamorphosis of the soul. "A lamp is lighted from another; the lamps differ, the second only receiving the light from the first. So is it also in regard to souls." - The final goal of Buddhistic salvation is the uprooting of sin, by exhausting existence, by impeding its continuance; in short, by passing out of the Sansara into the Nirvana. The signification of the latter term is a prolific subject of discussion and speculation with the different philosophic schools and religious sects of Buddhistic Asia. Its interpreters prefer vague definitions, from fear of offending sectarians. It means the highest enfranchisement; to theists, the absorption of individual life in God; to atheists, in naught. The Thibetans translate it by Mya-ngan-los-hdah-ba, the condition of one freed from pain; eternal salvation, or freedom from transmigration. Its etyma are: nir, not; vd, to blow; suffix ana; its orthography is also Nirmdna; its collaterals are: Nirvvdnamastaka, liberation; nirvvapa, putting out, as a fire, etc.
It is Nibbdna in Pali, Niban in Burmese, Niruphan in Siamese, Ni-pan in Chinese. Weighing all divergences in its exegesis, it may be safely designated as the definitive enfranchisemeut from existence without a new birth, the cessation from all misery. It is the beyond of the Sansara, its contradiction; without space, time, or force. In the third council it was declared to be ineffable and indescribable. Life being the summum malum, its annihilation is the summum bonum. The common definition is "total annihilation of pains and of the Skandhas or attributes of existence." But this " beatifying dogma of naught" became with the laity a mere emancipation from suffering and cessation of existence. By dint of Dhyana (divine meditation) and of ecstasy, the soul, forsaking its selfishness, may, even during bodily life, exalt itself momentarily to the Nirvana; and for this reason this was also considered as one of the higher heavens, as the empyreum of the formless and colorless world. In progress of time the Nirvana was divided into three kinds, the simple Nirvana, the Parinirvana or complete Nirvana, and the Mahflparinirvana or great complete Nirvana, answering to the three degrees of wisdom and of sanctity.
In the modern mystic-pantheistic schools, which contain a mixture of Sivaism, the Nirvana means the absorption into the abstract, nameless monad or original Buddha. From a higher point of view, both the Sansara and Nirvana are each a naught; the former being changeable naught by deception; the latter naught absolutely. The Sansara exists only to ignorance; it is a mere illusion of the Maya. From the destruction of this ignorance the Nirvana results. - In the Kalpa of restoration the most perfect Buddhas appear to turn the wheel of faith, and inaugurate a new period of revelation and salvation. Innumerable Buddhas have already appeared. They are beings who have raised themselves with their own energy, by virtues and sacrifices of all sorts, in thousands of births, to this highest pinnacle. All are born in central India, and their mother dies on the seventh day after giving them birth; their doctrine is one and the same; in short, their whole biography is a stereotyped copy of that of Sakya-muni. They differ merely in parentage, one being of Brahmanic, another of Kshattriyic extraction; in age (which is determined by that of the period in which they reveal themselves), one living less than a hundred, another many thousands of years; in size, one being six feet, another 80,000 miles in stature, according to the character of the period.
They are called Tathagatas (tatha, thus; gata, known, and gone). The teaching of each evaporates with time, while sins grow. Then a Bodhisattva (intelligence of truth) is chosen among and by the blessed on high, who is to become, by a new birth on earth, a Buddha. His career has three stages of immeasurable length, viz.: 1, that of decision to become a Buddha; 2, that of prospect; and 3, that of nomination by the Tathagata, whom he meets on earth. Only a monk possessed of the fruit of the four Dhyanas, and who has met with a Buddha during a preceding life, can thus be chosen. The exercise of the six Paramitas (para: Lat. praiterita - itus, a, urn) of charity, kindness, patience, energy, meditation, and wisdom, in their highest degree, and during millions of existences, can alone fit the individual for this career and mission. - Few of the innumerable Buddhas, who are said to have lived on earth many millions of Kalpas before Sakyamuni, are nominally recorded; but 24 of his immediate predecessors are mentioned by himself, all of whom promised him that he should become a Buddha; especially Dipankara Buddha and six others.
Of the five saviours of the present Bhadra Kalpa, three appeared before Sakyamuni, namely: Krakuchchanda (krakcach, saw; uda, end), Karakamuni (karaka, gold; muni, saint), and Kasyapa (kasya, spirituous liquor; pa, to drink), while the fifth, Maittreya (mitra, friend, charity), is yet to come. Many legends concerning the predecessors of Sakya-muni are applied to him; and it is not absurd to suppose that he represented his doctrine as pre-Brahmanic. All these Buddhas of the dimmest antiquity are dogmatic, mythological, and fantastic personages. Our historical Buddha is also not altogether free from legendary qualities. For, says a legend, when in unfathomable fore-ages Brahma saw a youth carrying his mother through a most terrible tempest, he instilled into his heart the wish to become a Buddha. This wish lasted during the revelation of 125,000 Buddhas, and his prospective stage was matured while 387,000 Buddhas were turning the wheel of faith. As a Bodhi-sattva he offered flowers to Dipangkara, on a spot near .the present Jelalabad. - The Jatakas (Jan, to be born) and Jatakamalas (mala, wreath of flowers), or the migrations of Sakya, are a favorite subject of oriental monastic poetry, as well as of the pictorial and plastic arts, and a source of many pious frauds.
Dsanglun (the wise and the fool), a Thibetan collection of such legends, and kindred works, are of recent date. Sfikyamuni, although passing through 550 transformations (as king, hermit, priest, courtier, Brahman, Indra, merchant, and as animals of many kinds), in a Cingalese legend, preserved his Bodhisattvic character in the greatest purity. His sufferings on behalf of the salvation of the world were extraordinary in their number as well as in their horrible nature. These Jatakas took place mostly at Benares and on the Indus, about the time of Christ's birth, and the centuries immediately succeeding. A spot is shown even now at Attock, where, as a prince, he offered his body to be devoured by a starving tigress and her young; and a few miles thence another, where he used his own skin as a tablet, splinters of his bones as styles, and his blood as ink, to record a lost passage of the Dharma. In the legend of the royal prince Vesantara, his penultimate life as a Bodhisattva is ushered in by his Maha-jatalca, or great birth. This legend is popular among all Buddhistic nations, from the Cal-mucks to Ceylon and Siam; in it he makes the most extraordinary sacrifices of his person and of his wife and children.
Vesantara went to the heaven of the joyful; thence, in the shape of a white elephant, into the body of Maha Maya to be born as Sakyamuni. His royal father became his other father, Suddho-dana. The law which he revealed is to last for 5,000 years, and disappear with the world before the advent of Maittreya, whom he had already crowned in heaven, and who is to bring a period of peace and holiness upon earth. II. The Vinaya (vi, before ni, to guide) is the discipline of the priests; one of its parts, called Sila, has reference to the morality of laymen. The Sramanas (sense-tamers) are bound to observe 250 ordinances. Of these ten are essential, viz.: not to kill, not to steal, to be chaste, not to lie, not to get drunk, not to eat in the afternoon, not to sing or dance, etc, to abstain from ornamental dresses, not to use a large bed, not to receive precious metals; five concern the respect to be paid to Buddha, to the law, and to the priesthood. Good conduct, good health, and little learning suffice for admission to monkhood, even in very early youth. The novice is enjoined to eat only the leavings of laymen's meals, to wear a soiled garment of rags, to live near the roots of trees, to use the urine of cows as medicine, and not to boast of superhuman faculties.
Ordination is performed with many ceremonies, on great festival days. The vows do not bind for the whole of life. The clerical dress, which consists of an under jacket, a gown reaching to the knees and fastened by a girdle, and a cloak over the left shoulder, all yellow, must be kept on even at night, and its loss entails that of the priestly character. Different climates, sects, and dignities have introduced some modifications; thus, Lamaists wear crimson or violet garments. New and costly materials, cut in pieces, are sometimes sewed together and sprinkled with dust, to comply with the letter of the law. Except apostles and very holy men, all others shave their heads and beards at the new and full moon. The nails and teeth are kept clean. The indispensable implements of a Bhikshu or mendicant are: a great, round, narrow-mouthed bowl, without a handle, for receiving alms; a sort of sieve or ewer to filter water; a staff or umbrella; a rosary of 108 beads; a razor, and needles. Besides these, he has no property, and lives altogether on alms, which he collects without importuning the givers. - Solitude and wandering about, begging without a fixed residence, were soon exchanged for residence in convents, with cells for single monks. Celibacy is strictly enjoined.
The homes of luxury, of nobles, of widows, and infidels, must be avoided by the begging monk. The receiving of alms or of presents is regarded as a favor to the giver, who is more benefited than the receiver. It is a sin to receive more than is needful for one meal, or to spill a part of the gift, or to separate liquid from solid victuals. Animal food is forbidden, and even vegetables while retaining the power of germin ating. Although poverty is a law for single monks, the monasteries can receive and possess great wealth, lands, serfs, etc, for the maintenance of ternpies and sttipas. Obedience and subordination are less required than fraternal and peaceful conduct. Sins are confessed twice a month, to an assembly of at least four priests. The penalties are not cruel, and consist in repentance, reprimand, suspension, or expulsion, according to the character of the sins. Nuns (Bhikshuni) have to observe the same rules as monks, and to be respectful to them; some are allowed to dwell with their parents or friends. They also shave their heads, dress in white, and go about begging, sometimes for the monastery.
The abbots, or heads of monasteries, are chosen by a meeting of the monks; but in Siam and Burmah they are appointed by the king, and among the Lamas of Thibet they are elected by the college. The number of monks in a monastery is from four to many thousands, especially in northern countries; for instance, in the collegiate monastery of the Ohutukts in Mongolia there are 30,000. On the whole, the hierarchy is more democratic than monarchic. We have seen that the uninterrupted series of 28 patriarchs, who are believed to have followed Buddha Sakyamuni, has no historic foundation. In Thibet, however, there is a minutely regulated hierarchic and monarchic government under the dalai-lama, who is always reborn after death in another person, and whose administration is carried on during his minority by regents. - In the beginning Buddhism was very simple, without a complicated system of saints; but in progress of time we find teachers of theology: Aryas (venera-bles), who know the four truths; men of the four paths or fruits, those who have attained the stream which floats them into the Nirvana, others who will return yet once to life, others who will not return; and Archats, or the worshipful, who are perfectly pure, infallible, endowed with miraculous powers, and see the Nirvana. There are three still higher sorts of saints, according to the three passages or vehicles: those having life on account of their being pupils of Sakyamuni; Pratyeka Bud-dhas, or self-saviours, a million times higher than Archats, comprehending all causalities; and Bodhisattvas, a sort of embryonic Bud-dhas. The three passages or vehicles are represented as being drawn, the little by antelopes, the middle by goats, the great by oxen.
Buddha himself is represented to have been thrice as great in body as ordinary men, of the most majestic beauty of appearance, with 32 great and 80 lesser characters of physical perfection, with a protuberance on the head, with bluish-black locks flowing like a periwig, a tuft of hair between the brows, etc. His footsoles are marked with various emblems, such as a wheel with many spokes, an umbrella, an elephant's trunk, a lotus, Mount Meru, the sun, moon, tiger, and mystic crosses. The atmosphere about him is aromatic; his head is surrounded by a halo of light. - Buddhism favored the laity by admitting them to salvation, and binding them to the priests. UpdsaJcas and Updsakis (upa, near; as, to sit; suff. alca) are male and female religious servants, a sort of half monks and half nuns; bound to observe the first five of the above ten precepts, with the following five: not to swear or curse, not to talk nonsense, not to be concupiscent or greedy of pleasure, not to be malignant, to eschew superstition, heresy, and skepticism. In short, the whole morality is more one of endurance, patience, submission, and abstinence, than of action, energy, and enterprise. A general love of all beings is its nucleus; each animal being our neighbor or possible relative.
To love even our enemies, to offer our lives for animals, to abstain even from defensive warfare, to gain the greatest of victories by conquering one's self, to avoid all vices, to practise all virtues of humility and mildness, to be obedient to superiors, to cherish and respect parents, old age, learning, virtuous and holy men, to provide food, shelter, and comfort for men and animals, to plant trees on the roads, dig wells, etc. - such are the moral duties of Buddhists. No religion is despised by them; religious wars waged against dissenters have never been heard of among them; the only contest on record being that between the Thibetan Yellow and Red caps, in which the latter were driven out into the high valleys of the Himalaya (Bootan, Ne-paul, Ladakh, &c). "Honor your own faith, and do not slander that of others," is a Buddhistic maxim. Kublai Khan, who became a convert in 1259, allowed priests of all creeds to "swarm at his court," who were eager to convert him to their own faith. The persecutions of Christians in Japan, China, Siam, etc, are occasioned by other than religious causes, being commonly reprisals against their intermeddling habits.
National barriers have been most effectually levelled to the ground by Buddhism. Polygamy is not countenanced, but merely tolerated where it had existed before Buddhism came in. Monogamy is the rule in Ceylon, Siam, and Burmah; somewhat less so in Thibet, Mongolia, and among the Calmucks. Illegitimate children are not disowned or abandoned, but taken care of, although they have no equal right of inheritance with the strictly legitimate. Woman, in general, is better treated than by any other oriental religion. In the cold, high regions of Thibet, and in the Himalayan valleys, polyandry is not rare, several (sometimes as many as ten) men, mostly brothers, having but one wife. - Worship, in our sense of the word, arose slowly and late in Buddhism. Almsgiving, confession, preaching, explaining the reasons for the inequality of fortune, and other relations between the clergy and laity, produced at last the use of prayers, of adoration, and of sacrifices. The memory of Sakyamuni, his pretended image, his relics, and afterward those of others, became objects of idolatry. Buddha is said to have made a portrait of himself, which became the stereotyped model of an infinity of images, statues, and the like.
The ancient Buddhistic paintings in fresco, as found in grottoes, are highly creditable to the taste and skill of the painters, who were mostly monks. Three sorts of relics of Buddha and of saints are distinguished, viz.: bodily dhatus (elements) or sariras (m, to injure), such as teeth, hairs, nails, pieces of bones; things once possessed by the saint; and objects with which he came into contact. The most renowned relic is Buddha's left eye-tooth, the present palladium of Ceylon, whose history is quite romantic and miraculous. It is a piece of bent ivory, about two inches long, kept in a splendid chapel and surrounded by many jewels. Buddha's skull, eyeballs, shoulder blade, etc, his manuscript of the Dharma, his gowns, alms-pot, etc, his shadow, heaven-ladder, his animal bodies, as bird, elephant, etc, the Bodhi tree at Gaya, and many other relics, are shown in various places. Belies are kept in stupas or topes of peculiar construction; the shape of a water bubble, and one or several umbrellas, being characteristic and symbolic features of these monuments, among which the celebrated porcelain pagoda of the convent of celestial beatitude at Nanking is the principal. Most have cupolas; but some, like the suvur-ghans of the Mongols, are pyramids, or only truncated pyramids.
Their height is from a few inches to three hundred feet and more. Most of them contain a small cavity, in which the relics are kept; but some are solid. A trinity, called Triratna (three jewels), was at last developed in the less than unitarian Buddhism, probably the prototype of the Brah-manic Trimurti, but certainly a personification of the ancient formula, "Buddha, Dharma (law), and Sangha (collection)." We know the two former. Sangha is the collection or congregation of saints, or what we call the church or the council; but at last it came to mean simply the priesthood. Since the priesthood was the representative of Buddha and the expounder of the Dharmma, it became itself the whole trinity, and even God; though in pure Buddhism no God is mentioned. The original formula of a prayer, " I take refuge with Buddha, I take refuge with Dharma, I take refuge with Sangha," is repeated mechanically ad infinitum by the aid of the beads; the movement of the lips being sufficient to render it efficacious. At last praying machines were constructed, consisting of a sort of hollow barrel, which turns on an axis, and in which the prayer, written on a great many little scrolls, is turned about. Fa-hian, the Chinese pilgrim, describes (A. D. 400) some which he saw.
Some are colossal, and moved by wind or water, or by special turners, or merely kicked into motion by passers by; others are small, and carried in the hand. Magic formulas of exorcism, storm-making, raising from death, etc, remnants of ancient Shamanism, have been engrafted upon Buddhism among the Mongols and Calmucks. Sermons have also become an integral part of worship, as also processions around temples or stupas, with relics; sacrifices of fruit, flowers, incense, eatables (not bloody); confession of laymen, consecration of sacred water, sacred baths or baptisms (in Mongolia), fasting, psalm-singing, chorals, benedictions, litanies. The lamas are dressed in pontificals, like those of the Catholic bishops. The temples are square, with a nave and lateral halls, separated from it by columns. Opposite the entrance is the sanctuary with the altar, and images of saints. In some there is a dagoba under a cupola. Paintings, banners, garlands, tapestries, and allegorical representations adorn the church. There are eight altar implements: an umbrella, a horn, crosses entwined in a knot of 24 angles, a lotus flower, a gold fish, a ewer, a wheel, an allegory of five senses; all symbolic of Buddha, and made of pasteboard or of metal, varnished, gilt, and painted.
On the altar are sacrificial shells, sacred vessels, a metallic mirror to reflect Buddha's image, a round plate with five protuberances, representing the Meru and the four Dvipas or quarters of the world, and a chalice. Fumigations, illuminations, music, bell-ringing, and many other things similar to those used in the west, attend the rites. Besides the festivals at the new and full moon, and some others in different countries, there are three great annual festivals. One is called the lamp festival, at the close of the Varsha, or rainy season, our autumn; there is another at the beginning of spring; one on the day of the conception or birth of Sakya-muni, whose time varies in different countries. There is also, in some parts, a fourth festival, when the images of Buddha and of the saints are carried about on wagons; and in the north a fifth is that of the consecration of water, rivers, lakes. The lanvis also say masses for the repose of souls. Synods are held annually and quinquennially; the latter, in olden times, on the sacred plain at the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna, called the great alms field.
Family worship takes place at different stages of life, such as birth, naming of the child, hair cutting at puberty, marriage (though this is merely a civic and not a religious act), death, funerals; at all of which the priest is present, although not necessarily, as in Europe. The priest acts also as a physician, and in the north as a sorcerer, magician, or augur. - Samddhi (sam, together; dha, to have hold), or meditation, for the sake of arriving at the extinction of the selfhood in the manner described above, is the acme of spiritual life. It consists of four degrees: 1, consideration of one thing as distinct from others, with satisfaction at the discernment of multifarious things; this frees one from the conditions of sin; 2, suppression of that discerning judgment, reduction of the many things to one, with pleasure thereat; 3, indifference in the discernment by judgment; memory and consciousness yet active, with a dim feeling of bodily well-being; 4, complete indifference, purification from all feeling of joy or pain. Nothing can resist contemplation, and the Bodhisattvas thereby reach the 28th heaven. There are theories concerning 108 Samadhis. Over the 28th heaven there is yet Nirodha (ni, before; rudh, to oppose), or the obstacle, before the Nirvana can be attained.
Whether this obstacle necessarily ends life is not yet ascertained. The fruit of Samadhi is jndna, science or omniscient omnipotence, containing the Ifoksha or final liberation. III. The Ab-hidharma (abJii, over, upon, and dharma) constitutes Buddhistic metaphysics, and is derived indirectly from Sakyamuni. The southern Buddhists say, " Sutras are for men, Vinaya for priests, Abhidharma for gods." There are but two sources of knowledge: sensual perception and logical deduction. There are two principal philosophic schools: 1, that of the Vaibhdshikas, or dilemmists, who maintain the necessity of immediate contact with the object to be known; 2, that of the Sautranti-kas, who insist on perception and on deduction therefrom. Some among the former reject the existence of the world. Buddhistic logic is exceedingly contradictory. Each determination ends in naught. To be is said also not to be. A common formula of arguing is this: "A thing is and is not, and it neither is nor is not." The method is purely dogmatic and dialectic, proceeding with stereotyped categories and formulas. Philosophy, cosmology, and theology are an ever-turning wheel without any locomotion.
In general, the wheel and water bubble are the constant emblems and symbols of Buddhistic reasoning, which is most developed in the theory of the " great passage." Matter is merely a product of morality. Some schools count five elements, with as many qualities and senses; some have six, viz.: earth, hard, nose; water, wet, tongue; fire, hot, eye; air, movable, skin; ether, audible, ear. To these is added the Manas, or common sensorium, whose objects are the Dharma (law, being, nature, matter) and the Vijndna (science, conscience). Some systems admit a specific soul or self (Jiva Atman, Upadhi); others deny it. It is needless to enter into further details, and we conclude with a list of the following chain of 12 causes (Niddnas: in, on; dd, to give): 1, age and death; caused by (2) birth; caused by (3) existence; this by (4) attachment to things; this by (5) desire; arising from (6) sensation; which presupposes (7) contact; this (8) senses; which perceive (9) forms and names or distinction; caused by (10) conception of ideas or consciousness; which comes from (11) stirring and action; this being, at last, the result of (12) Avidyd (non and videre), or ignorance.
All these illusions must be annihilated before we can sink into the emptiness of the Nirvana. - See "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society" and "Asiatic Researches," especially articles by Hodgson in vol. ii. of the former and vol. xvi. of the latter; Burnouf, Introduction a Vhistoire du Bouddhisme indien (Paris, 1844), and Lotus de la bonne loi (1865); Hardy, "Manual of Buddhism" (London, 1850), and "Eastern Monachism" (1853); Koppen, Die Religion des Buddha (Berlin, 1857); Barthe-lemy Saint-Hilaire, Le Bouddha et sa religion (Paris, 1860); Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet (Leipsic, 1863); Eitel, " Handbook of Chinese Buddhism" (London, 1870); Alabaster, "The Wheel of the Law, from Siamese Sources" (London, 1871).
A modern Idol representing Buddha.