Philip V, the first king of Spain of the house of Bourbon, born in Versailles, Dec. 19, 1683, died in Madrid, July 9, 1746. The second son of the dauphin Louis, son of Louis XIV., by Maria Anna of Bavaria, and a pupil of Fenelon, he was known as duke of Anjou until by the will of Charles II., who died childless, Nov. 1, 1700, he was called to the throne of Spain. (See Charles VI. of Germany.) Within a few weeks he was declared king at Fontainebleau by Louis XIV., and proclaimed at Madrid. His arrival in the peninsula was hailed with lively manifestations of popular satisfaction, while his power was acknowledged in Naples, Milan, the Netherlands, and the colonies. No opposition was offered to his accession by any European power except the house of Austria and the empire, who protested against the will of Charles II., and prepared for war. Philip nevertheless seemed to be firmly established, winning the favor of his subjects by attention to his duties, curtailment of useless offices, reform of abuses, and personal affability.
But the rashness of Louis XIV., who, in contravention of express stipulations, endeavored to secure to his grandson the right of succession to the crown of France, alarmed Europe. A league between Austria, Holland, Great Britain, the empire, and Prussia was formed against France and Spain, to uphold the claims of the archduke Charles to the Spanish crown. The only allies of Philip V. at the opening of the contest, besides Louis XIV., were his uncle the elector of Bavaria, the duke of Savoy, whose daughter Louisa Maria Gabriella he had married, and the king of Portugal; but the last two were soon detached from his alliance by promises of territory, and finally joined the adverse coalition. The war opened in 1701 in Italy, where Prince Eugene at the head of Austrian troops gained the victories of Carpi and Chiari. Philip went to Italy and shared in Vendome's and Eugene's drawn battle of Luzzara, Aug. 15, 1702, but was obliged to return in haste to Spain, which was attacked by the combined troops of Great Britain and Holland. The archduke landed in Portugal in 1704; and the king, marching against him, defeated the Portuguese on the frontiers, but was unable to retake Gibraltar, which had been captured by Admiral Rooke. During 1705 Valencia, Catalonia, and Aragon acknowledged Charles, whom Philip unsuccessfully besieged in Barcelona. The disorganization of his army obliged him to retreat to Perpignan, but he soon reentered Spain, and through Navarre and Castile returned to Madrid, where his presence was sorely needed.
Scarcely had he reached the capital, however, when the approach of Lord Gal-way and the marquis of Las Minas forced him to retreat to Burgos, accompanied by a small band of faithful adherents; while the archduke, under protection of the English and the Portuguese, was proclaimed king with the title of Charles III. Philip's affairs were now so desperate (Louis XIV.'s armies being about the same time beaten by Marlborough in the Low Countries and by Eugene in Italy), that he was advised to emigrate to his American dominions; but, encouraged by his wife and the princess Orsini (des Ursins), he refused to abandon the field, and rejected overtures of peace. Supported by Marshal Berwick, whose skill and valor retrieved his fortunes, he reentered Madrid, and was reinstated on the throne by Berwick's brilliant victory at Almanza, April 25, 1707. The successful operations of the duke of Orleans in Valencia, Aragon, and Catalonia consolidated his power; but that commander, being charged by the princess Orsini with views of personal aggrandizement, was recalled to France; and Philip's success in Spain was checked, while abroad he lost Sardinia and Port Mahon in 1708. In the campaign of 1709 Tortosa, De-nia, and Alicante were taken by his troops; but in the following year the two victories of Count Starhemberg enabled Charles III. to return to Madrid, whence Philip had again to fly.
The timely arrival of Vendome from France gave another favorable turn to affairs, and in company with that brilliant general Philip boldly advanced to the capital, expelled his competitor, and reentered it, Dec. 3, 1710. The decisive battle of Villaviciosa, fought Dec. 10, was the signal of his definite triumph. Catalonia and Aragon were subsequently reconquered, and the archduke having in 1711 by the death of his brother become emperor, the greatest obstacle to peace was removed, the European powers being unwilling to restore the vast monarchy of Charles V., and Philip V. on his part assenting (Nov. 5, 1712) to a formal renunciation of his claims to the French succession. By the treaty of Utrecht (1713) he remained master of the kingdom of Spain, Spanish America, and other colonies; but he had to abandon Sicily to the duke of Savoy, and the Netherlands, Milan, Naples, and Sardinia to the house of Austria. Opposition at home was now quelled; and a treaty being signed with Portugal in 1715, Philip was permitted to reign in peace for several years. The government had been heretofore mostly in the hands of the camarera mayor, the princess Orsini, whom the queen had brought from France with her.
This able woman had made and unmade ministers; she had assisted Orri in restoring the finances; she had even exercised her influence over the operations of war. The death of the queen (1714) seemed but to add to her power, and she completely won the confidence of the king. By the advice of Alberoni, she caused Philip to marry Elizabeth Farnese, whom she expected to govern as she had governed her predecessor; but on her arrival Elizabeth unceremoniously banished the camarera mayor from Spain. Through Elizabeth's influence Alberoni was appointed prime minister (1717-18), and Spain seemed to be inspired with new life. Agriculture, commerce, and the arts revived; Sardinia and Sicily were reconquered, and Alberoni persuaded his master to undertake to restore the Stuarts in England by the assistance of Charles XII. of Sweden, to wrest the regency of France from the duke of Orleans, and to precipitate the Turks upon Austria. But, defeated in all these projects, Philip exiled the unsuccessful minister and joined the quadruple alliance, Feb. 17, 1720, giving up Sicily to Austria, while the duke of Savoy received Sardinia. He moreover, in 1721, abandoned Gibraltar and Port Mahon to the English, and by matrimonial alliances strengthened his union with France. His health had failed under his long trials; an invincible melancholy, aggravated by religious fears, preyed upon his mind; and, in spite of his wife's remonstrances, he abdicated, Jan. 10, 1724, in favor of his eldest son Louis, and retired to the monastery of San lldefonso.
But his son dying at the end of eight months, he yielded to the entreaties of the queen and resumed the exercise of power, Sept. 6, 1724. Another change of policy now took place, and by the instigation of Ripperda, a Dutch adventurer, who had won the queen's favor, Philip entered into an alliance with the emperor Charles VI., by the treaty of Vienna, April 30, 1725, whereby the two sovereigns guaranteed each other's possessions, and the Spanish king promised to uphold the emperor's pragmatic sanction. The alliance proved far from advantageous. Philip made an unsuccessful attempt in 1727 to retake Gibraltar, and then becoming disgusted with Ripperda, whom he had made his prime minister, banished him from Spain, listened to proposals from Cardinal Fleury, sent plenipotentiaries to the congress at Soissons (1728), and finally signed with France and Great Britain the treaty of Seville, by which he obtained for Don Carlos, his elder son by Elizabeth, the reversion of Tuscany, Parma, and Piacenza. He participated in the war for the succession in Poland, which broke out in 1733, and sent his son with the count of Montemar to Italy, where the latter, by his victory at Bitonto in 1734, conquered the kingdom of Naples, which was secured to the young prince by the treaty of Vienna (1738), while Tuscany was transferred to the duke of Lorraine, and Parma and Piacenza were assigned to the emperor.
A dispute with England relating to American colonial affairs ended in hostilities, which were still going on when the war for the succession in Austria broke out. In this Philip V., or rather his queen Elizabeth and his second son Philip, actively engaged; and the latter was in a fair way to win a kingdom in northern Italy when the king died. Philip's reign was upon the whole favorable to Spain; some useful reforms took place, especially in the administration of justice; the finances were managed with considerable regularity; the navy was restored to a state of efficiency; industry and commerce were fostered; and a royal library and academies of languages, history, and the fine arts were established. Philip had by his first wife two sons: Louis, before mentioned, and Ferdinand VI., his successor; by his second wife, Don Carlos, whom he left king of Naples, Philip, who became duke of Parma in 1748, and several daughters, three of whom married respectively Joseph, king of Portugal, Louis, dauphin of France, and Victor Amadeus III. of Sardinia.