Philippi, an ancient city of Macedonia Adjecta, near the shore of the AEgean sea, enlarged by Philip, father of Alexander the Great, from whom it received its name. Previously, as a town of Thrace, it had been called Crenides, the " place of fountains," from the numerous streams in the neighborhood. Near it were gold mines, which were not very productive until worked by Philip, who obtained from them 1,000 talents a year. It was taken by the Macedonian monarch about 357 B. C, and fortified as a protection against the Thra-cian mountaineers. At Philippi the fate of the Roman republic was decided in the contest between Brutus and Cassius on one side, and Antony and Octavius on the other, in the autumn of 42 B. C. There were two engagements on the same ground, 20 days apart, in the first of which Brutus gained the advantage over Octavius, and Antony over Cassius; in the second Brutus was totally routed. Philippi was afterward made a Roman colony by Augustus. It was twice visited by Paul (Acts xvi. and xx.), and was the first place in Europe where he preached the gospel; and to the church founded there he addressed one of his epistles.
Subsequently Philippi became the ecclesiastical capital of Macedonia Prima, when the province was divided by Theodosius II. It is now a mass of ruins, of which the chief are the remains of an amphitheatre, the colossal relics of a temple of Claudius, and some enormous marble columns.