Phonography (Gr. Phonography 1300244 , voice, and Phonography 1300245 , to write), a system of shorthand, mainly invented by Isaac Pitman, of Bath, England, and published in 1887, since when various changes have been made by the inventor and other shorthand writers. In England the only text books of the art are those that are prepared or sanctioned by the inventor; but in the United States three distinct versions or modifications of the system are in common use, substantially as presented in the text books of James E. Munson and Andrew J. Graham of New York, and Benn Pitman (a brother of the inventor) of Cincinnati. The 24 English consonant sounds are each represented by a simple straight or curved line, the requisite number of distinct characters to write them all being obtained by giving these lines four different directions, and by making them both light and heavy. In the alphabet of phonography, on p. 459, the first 16 consonants are arranged in pairs of light and heavy signs; this is because of the near relation of such sounds.

By comparing the two sounds of any pair, it will be found that one is but a slight modification of the other; that they are produced at the same point and by the same contact of the organs of speech, in almost precisely the same manner, the only difference being that in one case the action of the organs is accompanied by a light or breath sound simply, and in the other the same action is accompanied by a heavy or partially suppressed vowel sound. This under tone or sub-vocal constitutes the only difference between the syllables pay, bay; tie, die; chest, jest; Kate, gate; fend, vend; thigh, thy; seal, seal; and shim, sion (as in vision). In each of these pairs the heavy stem is given to the heavy sound. The simple vowel sounds are written with a dot or a short dash placed to the consonant signs, distinction between one vowel and another being secured by writing these signs to the consonants in three places, namely, at the beginning, at the middle, and at the end, and by making them heavy for the long and light for the short vowels. The four double vowels or diphthongs, the sounds of i in ice, oi in oil, ow in owl, and ew in new, are usually represented by small angles, placed in a similar way to the consonant stems.

The following is the alphabet of phonographic signs:

Consonants

Explodents

Phonography 1300246

P

Phonography 1300247

B

Phonography 1300248

T

Phonography 1300249

D

Phonography 1300250

OH

Phonography 1300251

J

Phonography 1300252

K

Phonography 1300253

G

Continuants

Phonography 1300254

F.

Phonography 1300255

y.

Phonography 1300256

TH.

Phonography 1300257

DH.

Phonography 1300258

s.

Phonography 1300259

z.

Phonography 1300260

SH.

Phonography 1300261

zn.

Liquids

L.

Phonography 1300262Phonography 1300263

or.

Phonography 1300264

R.

Nasals

M.

Phonography 1300265

N.

Phonography 1300266

NG.

Phonography 1300267

Coalescents

W.

Phonography 1300268

Y.

Phonography 1300269

Aspirate

H.

Phonography 1300270

Vowels. Long

ah.

Phonography 1300271

a.

Phonography 1300272

ē

Phonography 1300273

aw.

Phonography 1300274

ō

Phonography 1300275

ōō

Phonography 1300276

Short

v a.

Phonography 1300277

ě

Phonography 1300278

i.

Phonography 1300279

ŏ

Phonography 1300280

ŭ

Phonography 1300281

ŏ ŏ

Phonography 1300282

The upright skeleton line to which the dots and dashes are placed in the above table is no part of the vowel sign; it is employed merely to show the positions of the vowels, namely, first, second, and third place. The diphthongs are written as follows:

I.

Phonography 1300283

oi.

Phonography 1300284

ow.

Phonography 1300285

ew.

Phonography 1300286

Except in regard to the letters w, y, and h, no change has been made in the phonographic consonant signs since the publication of Pitman's second edition in 1840. The old stem sign for h, and the one still given by Benn Pitman and Graham, is Phonography 1300287 ; but Isaac Pitman in his later editions adopted the sign Phonography 1300288 (upward) or Phonography 1300289 (downward) for h. E is also sometimes written with a light dot placed before the sign of the vowel which follows it; and in a few instances it is indicated by a tick sign joined to the stem of the succeeding consonant. Isaac Pitman also, in his later editions, varies from the above consonant table by adopting the signs Phonography 1300290 w and Phonography 1300291 y. The arrangement of the vowels as given in the foregoing scale, namely, ah, a, e, aw, o, do, etc, is . the one found in the works of Isaac Pitman and Munson; but Benn Pitman and Graham still adhere to the original arrangement, namely, e, a, ah, aw, , do, etc. The three diphthongs oi, ow, and ew are variously written by different authors. Both the Pitmans and Graham write the sounds of w and y, with a following vowel, by means of a small curve placed to the consonant stems in the vowel places, as shown below; the meaning of the signs according to the two vowel scales is indicated by the letters above and below the characters: wah:

Phonography 1300292

Wē wā

Phonography 1300293

wā we".

Phonography 1300294

wah waw.

Phonography 1300295

waw wo.

Phonography 1300296

wō wōō

Phonography 1300297

Wōō yah.

Phonography 1300298

yē yā

Phonography 1300299

yā yē

Phonography 1300300

yah yaw.

Phonography 1300301

yaw yō

Phonography 1300302

yō yōō

Phonography 1300303

yōō

In writing a word in phonography, the consonants are all made first without taking off the pen, and the vowel signs are written in afterward. The following are illustrations of words that are written exactly the same in all the versions of phonography:

Phonography 1300304

pay,

Phonography 1300305

day,

Phonography 1300306

beau,

Phonography 1300307

show,

Phonography 1300308

caw,

Phonography 1300309

gay,

Phonography 1300310

ache,

Phonography 1300311

ebb,

Phonography 1300312

up,

Phonography 1300313

us,

Phonography 1300314

by,

Phonography 1300315

nigh,

Phonography 1300316

bake,

Phonography 1300317

make,

Phonography 1300318

lake,

Phonography 1300319

orb,

Phonography 1300320

rope,

Phonography 1300321

lobe,

Phonography 1300322

tomb,

Phonography 1300323

beck,

Phonography 1300324

shop,

Phonography 1300325

dumb,

Phonography 1300326

month,

Phonography 1300327

file.

The rule for writing the signs for the vowels when they occur between two consonant stems is as follows: All first-place vowel signs are written to the stem that precedes them; all third-place vowel signs, to the stem that follows them; of second-place vowel signs, those that are long are written to the preceding stem, and those that are short to the following stem. In addition to the simple stems of the alphabet proper, provision is made for still further abridging the phonographic writing by means of compound signs formed from the original simple stems by the addition to them of various hooks, modifications, circles, and loops. In the following table are given all of the hooks and modifications that experience has shown can be safely used by phonographic writers:

Phonography 1300328

Although there is not perfect uniformity among reporters in the use of these hooks and modifications of the stems, the general principles governing their application are the same in all. The following examples illustrate their use:

L And R Hook Stems

Phonography 1300329

play,

Phonography 1300330

pray,

Phonography 1300331

glow,

Phonography 1300332

eagle,

Phonography 1300333

odor,

Phonography 1300334

apple,

Phonography 1300335

copper,

Phonography 1300336

noble,

Phonography 1300337

only.

W Hook Stems

Phonography 1300338

quail,

Phonography 1300339

quick,

Phonography 1300340

acquire.

N And F (Or V) Hook Stems

Phonography 1300341

pun,

Phonography 1300342

pave,

Phonography 1300343

cane,

Phonography 1300344

cough,

Phonography 1300345

vain,

Phonography 1300346

then,

Phonography 1300347

flown,

Phonography 1300348

cunning.

Shun And Te (Oe The) Hook Stems

Phonography 1300349

caution,

Phonography 1300350

actor,

Phonography 1300351

Russian,

Phonography 1300352

writer,

Phonography 1300353

gather,

Phonography 1300354

rather,

Phonography 1300355

fashion,

Phonography 1300356

motion,

Phonography 1300357

nation.

Lengthening To Add Tr Or The

Phonography 1300358

waiter,

Phonography 1300359

mother,

Phonography 1300360

flatter,

Phonography 1300361

lender.

Shortening To Add T Or D

Phonography 1300362

date,

Phonography 1300363

pate,

Phonography 1300364

get,

Phonography 1300365

God,

Phonography 1300366

bad,

Phonography 1300367

shut,

Phonography 1300368

prate,

Phonography 1300369

plate,

Phonography 1300370

friend,

Phonography 1300371

word,

Phonography 1300372

patient,

Phonography 1300373

bottom.

The sounds of s and s, the most frequent in the language, besides having their stem signs, are also written by a small circle which is joined to straight stems, thus:

Phonography 1300374

sTs,

Phonography 1300375

soap,

Phonography 1300376

sake,

Phonography 1300377

teas,

Phonography 1300378

sect,

Phonography 1300379

seat.

When joined to curved letters, it is turned on the inside of the curve, thus:

Phonography 1300380

sTHs,

Phonography 1300381

sSs,

Phonography 1300382

save,

Phonography 1300383

sash,

Phonography 1300384

sung,

Phonography 1300385

sail,

Phonography 1300386

lace,

Phonography 1300387

notes.

When occurring between two stems, it is written in the shortest direction, thus:

Phonography 1300388

ksj,

Phonography 1300389

DSJ,

Phonography 1300390

fsl,

Phonography 1300391

msl,

Phonography 1300392

Unsafe

The s circle is joined to hooks by turning it on the inside, thus:

Phonography 1300393

sable,

Phonography 1300394

supply,

Phonography 1300395

civil,

Phonography 1300396

squaw,

Phonography 1300397

caves,

Phonography 1300398

veins,

Phonography 1300399

occasions,

Phonography 1300400

actors,

Phonography 1300401

fashions.

The circle is enlarged for ss, sz, etc, thus:

Phonography 1300402

cases,

Phonography 1300403

noses,

Phonography 1300404

system.

A small loop indicates st, and a large loop str, thus:

Phonography 1300405

state,

Phonography 1300406

taste,

Phonography 1300407

stung,

Phonography 1300408

nest,

Phonography 1300409

store,

Phonography 1300410

cast,

Phonography 1300411

castor,

Phonography 1300412

master.

When a circle or loop is turned on the r or n hook side of a straight stem, if at the beginning the r hook is implied, and if at the end the n hook is implied, without being actually expressed; thus:

Phonography 1300413

spray,

Phonography 1300414

sabre,

Phonography 1300415

succor,

Phonography 1300416

stager,

Phonography 1300417

puns,

Phonography 1300418

dunces,

Phonography 1300419

against,

Phonography 1300420

punster.

It is the practice of all experienced phonogra-phers to omit generally the signs of the vowels in writing, it being found that with the aid of the context no trouble is found in readily reading the unvocalized consonant outlines or skeletons of words. This legibility comes partly from the fact that, as the vowels form no part of the outline, their omission does not change the general appearance of the word. See the following illustrations:

Phonography 1300421

or

Phonography 1300422

suppose,

Phonography 1300423

or

Phonography 1300424

desk,

Phonography 1300425

or

Phonography 1300426

under,

Phonography 1300427

or

Phonography 1300428

raised.

The writing of word outlines in the first, second, or third position (viz., above the line, on the line, or under or through the line), according as the accented vowels are first, second, or third place, is of great importance in its effect upon the reading of unvocalized phonography. The following are illustrative of this fact:

Phonography 1300429

by,

Phonography 1300430

be,

Phonography 1300431

my,

Phonography 1300432

me,

Phonography 1300433

fall,

Phonography 1300434

feel,

Phonography 1300435

as,

Phonography 1300436

is,

Phonography 1300437

an,

Phonography 1300438

the.

The dotted line running across or near some of these characters, and some of the other characters in this article, represents the line or ruling of writing paper. Both the brevity and legibility of phonography are greatly promoted by the use of phrase writing, that is, by joining or embracing two or more words in one outline. The following phrase signs will serve to illus-trate this:

Phonography 1300439

has not,

Phonography 1300440

as if,

Phonography 1300441

as well as,

Phonography 1300442

as is,

Phonography 1300443

is as,

Phonography 1300444

has there,

Phonography 1300445

'as there is,

Phonography 1300446

unless there,

Phonography 1300447

cannot,

Phonography 1300448

did not,

Phonography 1300449

or an,

Phonography 1300450

will there,

Phonography 1300451

on this.

Phonography is generally employed by reporters in this country and in Great Britain, and is also used by professional men. Since 1871 it has formed one of the regular branches of study in the college of the city of New York. The following is a complete list of phonographic text books published in America, with the dates of their first issue: " The Complete Phonographic Class Book," by S. P. Andrews and A. F. Boyle (1847); "The Phonographic Instructor," by James 0. Booth (1850); " The American Manual of Phonography," by Elias Longley (1851); " The Phonographic Teacher," by E. Webster (1852); " The Manual of Phonography," by Benn Pitman (1855); "The Handbook of Standard Phonography," by A. J. Graham (1858); and " The Complete Phonographer," by James E. Munson (1866).