Pomerania (Ger. Pommern; Wendish, po, along, and more, sea), a province of Prussia, bordering on the Baltic sea, West Prussia, Brandenburg, and Mecklenburg; area, 11,629 sq. m.; pop. in 1871,1,431,633, including 14,000 Roman Catholics and 13,000 Jews, nearly all the rest being Lutherans. It is divided into the districts of Stettin, Koslin, and Stralsnnd. On the N. coast are the islands of Rugen, Usedom, and Wollin. The largest river is the Oder, which forms below Stettin the lake of Damm and the Grosses and Kleines Haff, and flows into the Baltic through three channels. The principal of the numerous lakes are those of Kummerow, Plone, and Madtie. Pomerania is one of the most level regions of Germany. The soil, though mostly sandy, is generally fertile, and the province is celebrated for its large number of landed proprietors. It raises more sheep and possesses more registered vessels than any other province of Prussia. It is rich in agricultural products, cattle, and horses. There are prosperous fisheries, and many iron and glass works, paper and oil mills, breweries, distilleries, and manufactories of tobacco and other articles.
The principal educational institution is the university of Greifs-wald. - Pomerania was in the early part of the middle ages a principal portion of the old Wendish monarchy, and from 1062 had local dukes, whose line terminated with the death of Bogislas XIV. in 1637. It was frequently overrun by the Polish monarchs. Christianity was introduced in the 12th century. After the extinction of the Pomeranian dukes, the electoral house of Brandenburg had a claim to the whole country by right of former treaties; but as during the thirty years' war the province had come into the possession of Sweden, the former obtained only Further Pomerania (E. of the Oder). At the peace of Stockholm in 1720 Sweden gave up to Prussia the greater portion of Hither Pomerania, along with the islands of Wollin and Usedom, but continued to hold the district between Mecklenburg, the Baltic, and the river Peene, with the island of Rtigen. This she ceded to Denmark as a compensation for Norway; and by the convention of June 4,1815, it was given up to Prussia in exchange for the duchy of Lauenburgand the sum of 2,600,000 thalers. - See Die Erwerbung Pommerns durch die Hohenzollern, by Bohlen (Berlin, 1865).