I. Cneius Pompeius Magnus

Cneius Pompeius Magnus, a Koman general, born Sept. 29,106 B. 0., assassinated in Egypt, Sept. 28, 48. He was the son of Cneius Pompeius Strabo, under whom he first served in the social or Marsic war. During the struggle between Marius and Sulla he sided with the latter, and in 87 aided in the defence of Kome against Cinna and Sertorius, the partisans of Marius. When Sulla, after finishing the Mithridatic war, took up his march for Italy, Pompey raised on his own responsibility three legions, with which he defeated the Marian general M. Brutus and effected a junction with Sulla. During the war which prostrated the Marian party in Italy he gained great distinction as one of Sulla's legates. He next reduced Sicily, and in 81, crossing over to Africa, he overran Numidia, where the Marian party still held out, and crushed them in a battle, in which their general Cn. Domitius Ahenobar-bus and 17,000 Numidians were slain. On returning to Rome he was met by the populace with acclamations, and the dictator bestowed upon him the surname of Magnus. Not content with this distinction, he claimed a triumph, a thing unheard of for a man of equestrian rank who had filled no office of state. ' To avoid contention, Sulla finally yielded, and the young general entered Rome In triumph in September, 81. Two years later Pompey again thwarted the wishes of Sulla by securing the election of M. AEmilius Lepi-dus to the consulship; but, true to the aristocratic party to which he had attached himself, he refused to aid the consul in repealing the constitution of Sulla, and when Lepidus in 77 marched upon Rome at the head of an army, he joined Catulus in defeating him.

In the succeeding year he was sent by the senate to cooperate with Metellus Pius in the reduction of Spain, where Sertorius, the last and ablest general of the Marian party, continued to hold out against the aristocracy. Their first encounter resulted in the defeat of Pom-pey, and in several succeeding battles he was again worsted by his opponent. He received reinforcements from the senate, and Sertorius having been assassinated by his rival Perper-na, he brought the war to a successful termination, and in 71 returned with his army to Rome. Passing through northern Italy, he cut to pieces a body of 6,000 gladiators, who had escaped from the battle in which their leader Spartacus was overthrown by Orassus, and thus claimed the merit of finishing the servile war also. His demand for a triumph was willingly granted, while Orassus, who had in reality crushed the formidable revolt of Spartacus, received only an ovation. In the following year Pompey and Orassus entered upon the consulship, notwithstanding both were excluded by the laws of Sulla; and the former increased his popularity by restoring the tribu-nician power, and instituting a reform of the judicial system.

These measures involved the severance of his former party ties, and thenceforth for many years he was the avowed enemy of the aristocracy. For two years after the expiration of his consulship he kept aloof from, civil affairs; and in 67, after an obstinate resistance by the aristocracy, he was appointed with unlimited and irresponsible power for three years commander-in-chief of an immense naval force destined to exterminate the pirates who infested the Mediterranean. He speedily cleared the sea west of Greece of the enemy, and sailing eastward annihilated their entire force in a great battle off Coracesium, on the coast of Oilicia. In three months the war was completed, and the victorious commander, during his absence from Rome in 66, was invested by acclamation with the command of the war against Mithridates. This commission was accompanied with a grant of unlimited control over the land and naval forces in the East, and with proconsular power in the whole of Asia as far as Armenia; so that Pompey now wielded the most extensive authority hitherto conferred by law upon a Roman citizen, with the exception of Sulla. The aristocratic party naturally looked upon him Avith more jealousy and distrust than ever, while in the estimation of the people he was the foremost man in Rome. In the summer of 66 he assumed the command of the army of the East, and pushing forward with rapidity surprised and totally defeated Mithridates in Lesser Armenia. For the next four years his career was one of uninterrupted success.

All eastern Asia Minor was subjected to the Roman sway, and Armenia, the southern Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia, and Judea were either made tributaries to the republic or were reduced to the condition of conquered provinces. In 63 Mithridates, a fugitive in the Tauric Ohersonesus, after vain endeavors to unite the barbarous tribes of eastern Europe against Rome, put an end to his life; and Pompey, who had taken Jerusalem and was meditating new conquests in the remote East, led back his troops to the Euxine, and at Sinope honored the remains of his adversary with a royal funeral. Early in 62 he left Asia, and proceeding by slow marches reached Rome at the end of a twelvemonth, bringing with him an immense train of royal and noble captives, and an almost fabulous amount of eastern spoils. His third triumph, lasting two days, was celebrated Sept. 29 (the anniversary of his birth) and 30, 61. Almost immediately afterward he met with a rebuff from the senate, who refused to ratify his measures in Asia without detailed examination, and to make an assignment of the lands he had promised to his veterans, a promise which the senate had in a general way confirmed. This widened the breach between Pompey and the aristocracy, and hastened the downfall of both.

Pompey found a friend in Caesar. They agreed to support each other in their prominent public measures; and Orassus, formidable from his great wealth and aristocratic connections, joined the coalition, which is known as the first triumvirate. In the succeeding year, 59, Caesar entered upon his first consulship, and secured for Pompey the ratification of his acts in Asia, and also by his agrarian law enabled him to make good his promises to his soldiers. At the same time he gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, Pompey having shortly before divorced his wife Mucia. Pompey now surrendered himself to the pleasures of domestic life, with little care for the machinations of his enemies, or regard for the welfare of his friends. Cicero, his panegyrist, was allowed to go into exile; and only when his own life was threatened by the enemies of the orator did Pompey make an effort to procure his recall. In gratitude for this Cicero proposed Pompey for the office of prqfectm annonce for five years, and the senate passed a law to that effect. Notwithstanding he was enabled to cheapen the price of corn in Rome, he found that his influence was waning at home, and that he had gradually lost the confidence of all parties.

Exasperated by the attacks of Clodius, Cato, and others, who, he charged, were acting at the instigation of Crassus, he went in 56 to Caesar's winter quarters at Lucca, where he was reconciled to Crassus, and the triumvirate was ratified anew, the agreement being that Pompey and Crassus should be consuls during the ensuing year and obtain provinces and armies, while Caesar was to have his government of Gaul continued for five years. Accordingly, in 55, after some opposition, Pompey and his colleague were inducted into office, and the former endeavored to regain the popular favor by an exhibition of gladiatorial shows and combats of wild beasts in a large theatre he had constructed in the Campus Martius. The people soon began to express their discontent that Pompey should send his legates to Spain, the government of which province he had secured, instead of conducting the war there personally. For two years after the expiration of his consulship Pompey remained at home, and by secretly abetting intestine feuds promoted a state of anarchy which •ompelled the senate to invoke his assistance. He was made "consul without colleague," in reality dictator, in February, 52, and soon restored comparative order in the city. He now became the acknowledged head of the aristocracy.

Various measures were at once brought forward to check the designs of Caesar, whose influence with the people was steadily increasing; and on his announcing his intention to stand for the consulship for the year 48, Pompey and the aristocracy demanded that he should present himself in Rome as a candidate for the office. Caesar declined to place himself in the power of his enemies, but agreed to resign his offices and command if Pompey would do the same. As this proposition was unpalatable to the senate, a decree was passed in January, 49, by which Caesar was required to disband his army before a specified time, under penalty of being declared an enemy to the republic. Caesar immediately crossed the Rubicon and marched upon Rome. Pompey, confident of his capacity to raise any number of troops which the exigencies of the state might demand, had taken no measures to provide against this movement; and when Caesar with his veteran legions, trained in the wars of Gaul, was at the city gates, he found himself utterly unable to offer resistance, and with the consuls and the greater part of the senate and aristocracy fled to Brundusium. Being vigorously followed, he crossed the Adriatic, and at Dyr-rhachium, on the coast of Illyria, assembled a numerous army.

Early in 48'Caesar, having conquered Pompey's legates in Spain, arrived in Epirus, with forces less numerous than those of his antagonist, but greatly superior in discipline. He manoeuvred in vain to draw Pompey from his position; the latter was bent upon weakening his enemy without risking a battle. But the clamorous impatience of the Roman nobles and senators thwarted his purpose, and when Caesar, after a severe check at Dyrrha-chium, was compelled through failure of supplies to direct his march into Thessaly, Pompey was urged against his better judgment to follow and give him battle on the plains of Pharsalia. His army was completely routed by Caesar's veterans, and he himself fled with a few friends to Lesbos, whence he went to Pamphylia, where a number of his party with ships and troops joined him. Being advised to seek an asylum with the young king of Egypt, to whose father he had rendered signal services, he arrived off the coast of that country and disembarked in a small boat with a few attendants.

The chief officers of the king, who were awaiting him on the shore, had determined, as a means of propitiating Caesar, upon putting him to death; and as he was about to leave the boat Septimius, who had been one of his centurions and was now in the service of the king of Egypt, stabbed him in the back. The rest then drew their swords, and Pompey, seeing that resistance was hopeless, covered his face with his toga and was despatched upon the spot. His body was cast out naked on the shore, where it was buried by a freedman, and his head sent to Caesar, who wept upon beholding it, and put his murderers to death. In private life Pompey was temperate and frugal, and was a kind and indulgent husband. He was married five times, his last wife, Cornelia, surviving him.

II. Clients

Clients, eldest son of the preceding by his third wife, Mucia, born between 80 and 75 B. C, killed in Lauron on the Spanish coast in 45. His first important military service was in the war between his father and Caesar. After the battle of Pharsalia he was left in possession of a formidable fleet, and in 47 began to take active measures to renew the war. He collected an army of 13 legions in Spain, whither in the latter part of 46 Caesar followed him. He was totally defeated in the desperate battle of Munda, March 17, 45, and shortly after was overtaken and killed. HI. Sextos, brother of the preceding, born in 75 B. C, killed at Miletus, Asia Minor, in 35. After the defeat at Munda he assembled a considerable force of fugitives and malcontents, with whom he defeated Asinius Pollio, the Roman legate, and acquired possession of Baetica and other portions of Spain. So formidable did he become, that the senate voted to allow him to return to Rome and to indemnify him for the confiscation of his father's possessions. The formation of the second triumvirate defeated this project, and Sextus, being included among the murderers of Caesar, although he had not participated in the deed, and declared an outlaw, made a descent upon Sicily, which was speedily reduced.

He now for years harassed his enemies by cutting off their supplies of provisions from Sicily, and in 42 he defeated in the straits of Sicily a fleet sent against him by Octavius. During the campaign of the triumvirs against Brutus and Cassius he remained inactive, but subsequently the vigilance of his fleet in intercepting the supplies of corn destined for Rome produced such a scarcity in the capital, that the populace rising in insurrection demanded that peace should be concluded with him. By this peace Sextus obtained the provinces of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Achaia, and 17,500,000 denarii for his private fortune. Antony refusing to give up Achaia, Sextus recommenced his piracy; and Menas, his general, having surrendered Sardinia and Corsica, Octavius ventured upon another war. It began with signal advantages to Sextus, whose admirals in 38 twice defeated the fleets of Octavius; but again by his inactivity he let the moment for decisive action slip by, and quietly permitted his enemies to equip new armaments. In the summer of 36 three large fleets sailed from different points upon Sicily, but were so shattered by a storm that the attack proved abortive.

With fatal infatuation Sextus again allowed Octavius to recover from this disaster, and in September of the same year the triumvir's fleet, commanded by M. Vipsanius Agrippa, completely defeated his own in a fight off Naulochus on the coast of Sicily. He fled to Asia Minor, and, «after vain endeavors to wrest the eastern provinces from Antony, was captured and put to death by the triumvir's legate, M. Titius.