Portugal (from Portm Cale, the ancient name of the town of Oporto; anc. Lusitanid), a kingdom of Europe, occupying most of the W. portion of the Iberian peninsula. It is bounded N. and E. by Spain, and S. and W. by the Atlantic, and extends from lat. 36° 57' to 42° 8' N., and from Ion. 6° 12' to 9° 32' W. Its greatest length from N to S. is 366 m.; greatest breadth from E. to TV. 137 m., general breadth about 100 m. The length of the coast line is about 500 m., of which 100 m. is on the south. The extreme S. W. point of Europe is formed by the elevated cliffs of Cape St. Vincent, whence the shores decline by a gentle slope, which on the north terminates in the low and flat region surrounding the laguna of Setubal, and on the southeast ends near Cape Santa Maria, the most southerly point of the kingdom. This latter part of the coast is fringed by numerous islands, of one of which the cape just mentioned forms a part. N. W. of the laguna of Setubal rises the Serra da Ar-rabida, which, from an elevation of less than 2,000 ft., gradually sinks to less than 700 ft. at Cape Espichel; where it terminates.

Thence northward to the mouth of the Tagus the coast is generally low, but N. and W. of Lisbon the space between the river and the Atlantic is occupied by the mountain ranges of Torres Ve-dras, Mafra, and Cintra, which terminate W. of Lisbon in the Cabo da Roca, the most westerly promontory of the continent, nearly 2,000 ft. high. N. of this to the mouth of the Mon-dego the coast is generally rugged, though low, but from the Mondego to the Douro it is flat and sometimes swampy. N". of Oporto is another rise in the coast, which again subsides on approaching the Minho. The only islands of the W. coast are the Berlingas, 10 m. N. W. of the Peniche peninsula. The harbors are comparatively few, the principal being Lisbon, Oporto, Setubal, Aveiro, Figueira, and Viana, and nearly all have bars which render them inaccessible with westerly and southerly winds, on account of the terrible surf. - The surface of Portugal may be considered as a continuation of that of Spain, from which it is not divided by natural boundaries.

Spurs of the Pyrenees enter the provinces of Tras os Montes and Minho from the Spanish province of Galicia. One of them, the Serra de Acoba, extends into Beira, and terminates in a low coast chain, the extreme S. W. point of which is Cape Mondego. A much more extensive mountain system almost bisects the kingdom from N". E. to S. W., traversing the provinces of Beira and Estremadura, in the former of which it is called Serra da Estrella, and in the latter successively takes the names of Serra do Aire, Patelo, Albardos, and Junto. The extreme S. W. spurs of this great range comprise the mountains of Torres Vedras, Mafra, and Cintra. The highest peaks of the Estrella range reach an altitude of about 6,500 ft. Other ridges traverse the country obliquely in the same direction as the former, such as the Serra do Moradal, S. of that of Estrella in Beira, and the Serra d'Ossa in Alemtejo, which in the E. corner of that province unites with the Portalegre chain almost at right angles. The southern branch of the latter is called the Serra de Viana. The remarkable Serra de Monchique, the eastern ramification of which is called Serra de Oaldeirao and the western Serra Figueira, runs nearly parallel to the S. coast, and forms a natural barrier between Algarve and the remainder of the kingdom.

It terminates in the rocky precipice of Cape St. Vincent, and like all the Portuguese mountains is but the western ramification of a great Spanish system. All the mountain scenery is fine, but that of the beautiful region around Cintra is unequalled elsewhere. - The most important rivers are the Tagus (Tejo), Douro, Guadiana, Minho, and Lima, all entering the kingdom from Spain, and the Sadao, Mondego, and Cavado, entirely within Portuguese territory, the largest of which is the Mondego. The Tagus separates the provinces of Beira and Alemtejo, traverses Esfcremadura, and reaches the ocean through a vast estuary resembling rather an arm of the sea than a river, in which is the commodious harbor of Lisbon. It is navigable to Abrantes, upward of 80 m. inland. The Minho, forming the boundary line with the Spanish province of Pontevedra, likewise expands into a fine estuary through which it falls into the sea. The Douro, after a S. W. course of nearly 60 m. between the two kingdoms, traverses Portugal, and empties through a wide mouth below Oporto. The Guadiana crosses the frontier a short distance W. of Badajoz, forms the boundary line with the province of Badajoz for about 40 m., and then flows entirely within Alemtejo generally S. to the N. E. corner of Algarve, from which point S. it serves as the dividing line with Spain to its mouth at the extreme S. E. point of Portugal. There are several smaller rivers, none of which are navigable, and a few unimportant lakes.

Mineral and hot springs are abundant; but the scarcity of water in many districts, particularly in Alemtejo, renders large tracts uninhabitable. In the vicinity of Setubal and near Aveiro are several salt marshes. - Granite constitutes the great geological base, which is generally overlaid by clay slates and micaceous schists, forming the upper strata of several provinces. The district of the upper Douro is formed of slate rocks belonging to the Silurian system, and nearly surrounded by granitic and syenitic mountains. In this district, about 11 m. from Oporto, is the anthracite coal field of Yallongo. Limestone abounds on the declivities of the Serras Junto, Arrabida, Monchique, and Oalderao. S. of Abrantes is a tertiary basin with an area of more than 2,000 sq. m., in which Lisbon stands. S. of this secondary beds appear, and still further S., between Alemtejo and Algarve, is a lofty chain of hills consisting of schist and slate. The mineral products are considerable, though few mines are worked. The lead mine of Bracal, not far from the river Vouga, gives occupation to a large number of persons. Gold and silver are found in small quantities.

The salt pits yield about 60,000,000 bushels annually. - The climate is on the whole cooler than that of Spain, the summer heat being tempered all along the coast lands by delightful sea breezes. The mean annual temperature at Coimbra is 62° F., and at Lisbon 61°. In the northern mountainous parts snow sometimes falls heavily; in the south it is almost unknown. Abundant rains visit the W. coast in winter, but violent storms are rare. - The soil is rich and the scenery beautiful. In addition to the oak, chestnut, pine, elm, and ash, there are the cork tree, olive, walnut, mulberry, orange, lemon, citron, fig, peach, apricot, almond, and arbutus. The camellia japo-nica, acacia, mimosa, and tulip abound. Humboldt estimates the different species of indigenous plants as exceeding 3,200. A few wild animals are still found, such as the wolf, the wild cat, and the wild boar. Small game and edible fish are abundant. Portugal is divided into six provinces, which, with their areas, population (estimate of 1871 from the census of 1868), and capitals, are as follows:

PROVINCES.

Area, sq. in.

Population, 1871.

Capitals.

Minho....

2,807

971,001

Oporto.

Tras os Montes....

4,289

365,838

Braganpa.

Beira...

9,244

1,294,282

Coimbra.

Estremadura....

6,872

839,691

Lisbon.

Alemtejo....

9,416

331,341

Evora.

Algrave....

1,872

188,422

Faro.

Total.................

84,500

3,990,570

The provinces are subdivided into 17 districts, and these into 111 comarcas and 3,774 parishes. Lisbon, the capital of the kingdom, has a population of about 225,000; the other important towns are Oporto, Coimbra, Elvas, Bra-ga, Setubal, Evora, and Ovar, only one of which, Oporto, has over 50,000 inhabitants. The Azores or Western Isles (area, according to latest calculations, 996 sq. m., pop. about 250,000) and the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo (area 317 sq. m., pop. about 118,000) are administratively regarded as forming a part of the kingdom. The other colonial possessions of Portugal, with their areas and population (according to the latest estimates), are as follows:

COLONIES.

Area, sq. m.

Population.

In Africa.

Cape Verd islands....

1,649

70,164

Sao Thome and Principe islands----

454

23,681

Bissao,etc., in Senegambia....

26

8,500

Ajuda....

13

700

Angola and Ambriz....

250,000

2,000,000

Benguela and Mossamedes........

Mozambique, Sofala,etc....

380,000

300,000

In Asia.

Goa, Salsette, Bardez, etc...........

1,447

474,234

Damaun...

155

40,980

Diu(island)....

2 1/2

12.303

Timor and Solor...

5,527

250,000

Macao(in China)....

12

71,739

Total....

639,285 1/2

3,258,140

The people of Portugal resemble in appearance and manners the natives of Galicia in Spain, but differ considerably from those of Castile and Leon. On the whole the comparison is unfavorable to the Portuguese lower classes, who are ignorant and indolent. Yet in the mountainous districts, such as Tras os Mon-tes, the peasantry are active and energetic, and are peculiarly fitted for the army. The educated classes are polished in manners, courteous to strangers, insinuating, and altogether more pleasing than the corresponding classes in Spain. The women are retired, domestic, and amiable. - Agriculture is still in a backward condition. The farmers are ignorant, and with few exceptions raise the same crops on the same soil from year to year, without rotation. Improvements in cultivation were impeded by most of the land being owned either by the crown, the nobility, or the clergy. With amended mortmain laws the soil has become free, and agricultural progress rendered possible; and improved methods and implements are gradually introduced, especially in Alemtejo. Maize is the principal crop in the northern districts of Viana, Braga, Oporto, Avei-ro, Vizeu, and Ooimbra. The central districts of Leiria, Santarem, and Lisbon, extending from the valley of the Mondego to the southern limit of that of the Tagus, produce as much wheat and maize and more rice than all the rest of the kingdom.

The provinces of Alemtejo and Algarve are the hottest and dry-est part of Portugal, and abound with herds of swine. The mountainous districts of Cas-tello Branco, Guarda, Braganca, and Villa Real produce good rye and maize, and the hills and valleys afford excellent pasturage in spring. In 1874 the production of wheat was about 5,500,000 bushels, rye 5,900,000, maize 14,000-000, and rice 400,000. The cultivation of rice, introduced in the middle of the last century, is retarded by the insalubrious influences popularly supposed to attend its cultivation. The cultivation of the vine constitutes one of the most important commercial elements of the country; the vineyards cover an area of 473,-517 acres, yielding annually 132,500,000 gallons of wine. The most important wine-producing region is that of the Douro watershed, which produces the famous Oporto wines; its vineyards cover 77,205 acres, and yield an annual average of 1,325,000 gallons. (See Portugal, Wines of.) The exports of wine have increased from 4,715,386 gallons in 1842 to 6,366,837 in 1861, and 8,069,276 in 1870. In 1873 the exports from Lisbon alone amounted to 3,834,106 gallons.

Of a great variety of indigenous fruits, the principal is the orange, with a mean annual yield of 626,000,000. Lemons and figs form a leading source of agricultural wealth; the average annual yield of lemons is 20,405,000. The olive is cultivated over an area of more than 100,000 acres, principally in Alemtejo, Estremadura, and Tras os Mon-tes. The manufacture of oil is one of the most important branches of industry in Portugal, and likewise one of the most progressive; the quantity annually produced averages 5,412,000 gallons. The state forests cover 51,-782 acres, and those owned by the municipalities and private individuals may be set down at 250,000 acres. - The foreign trade of Portugal is mostly with Great Britain, Brazil, and France; and the chief articles of export are wines, olive oil, oranges and lemons, iron and copper pyrites, cork, elephants' teeth, wool, archil (a colonial product), cotton fabrics, vinegar, silver in bars and worked, other metals, chemicals, salt, dried fruit, and pork. The imports mainly comprise cotton, woollen, and silk fabrics, gold and silver coin and jewelry, rice, butter, sugar, salt fish, tobacco, coal, iron wrought and unwrought, timber, cotton, tea, coffee, hides, and drugs.

The foreign commerce has steadily increased since 1852; the annual value of the imports increased from $10,214,625 in that year to $29,876,000 in 1871; and the exports in the same period from $7,231,586 to $23,386,000. Wine constitutes more than one third of the value of the entire exports. The Portuguese merchant navy in 1873 consisted of 17 steamers with an aggregate tonnage of 14,536, and 415 sailing vessels, with an aggregate of 93,815 tons. - Much of the present agricultural prosperity of the country is due to the improved condition of the highways. In 1873 there were 1,824 m. of national highways, 356 m. of district roads, and 76 m. of communal roads, besides 204 m. in process of building. These roads have cost the treasury about $10,000,000. Important works have likewise been undertaken of late years for improving the beds of the larger rivers, and for the canalization of the smaller streams. The length of the railway lines completed in October, 1873, was 503 m., including that from Lisbon to the Spanish frontier, 182 m., and that to Oporto and Ooimbra, 144 m. Subsidies to the amount of $18,000,000 have been paid by the national treasury for the building of these lines, several branches of which are now (1875) in course of construction.

In 1873 there were 1,930 m. of telegraph wires. - The manufactures are still comparatively unimportant, though considerable progress has been made within a few years, particularly in Lisbon, where several prosperous establishments have been founded, though chiefly under the direction of foreigners. Manufactories of cotton, wool, silk, paper, chemicals, earthenware, and candles are among the more important establishments formed since 1860. There are likewise saw mills and rope factories; and porcelain, lace, copper and tin ware, ribbons, embroidery, hats, fine soaps, glass, and wicker-work are extensively manufactured. Ship building is carried on with some success at Lisbon and in other ports. Tobacco manufacture is a government monopoly, and is exclusively confined to Lisbon. In 1856 there were but two banks in all Portugal; in 1873 their number had increased to 15. - The government of Portugal is a constitutional monarchy, hereditary in the female as well as the male line. The constitution is based upon the Carta de ley granted by Dom Pedro IV. in 1826, and revised by the cortes in 1832. An additional act was made under date of July 5, 1852. The legislative power is vested in a cortes consisting of two houses, one of peers and the other of deputies; the peers are named for life by the crown, and the deputies are chosen by electors, who must have a yearly income of not less than $100. The administration is conducted by seven ministers, who form the cabinet.

For judicial purposes Portugal is divided into 105 districts, in each of which there is a judge, from whose decision there is an appeal to superior courts at Lisbon and Oporto. These judges remain but six years at one place, and are appointed by the crown. Beneath them are inferior classes of judges, who are elected by the people for two years. Trial by jury is established in criminal cases, and also in civil unless the parties agree to a trial by the judge exclusively. The finances of the kingdom are confused, and there has been no budget for the past 30 years without a deficit. - The revenue for 1871-2 amounted to $20,310,832, as follows: from direct taxation, $7,588,732; indirect taxation and customs, $10,600,612; deductions from civil list and salaries, $591,140; national domains, and miscellaneous, $1,530,348. The total expenditures were $24,015,605, distributed as follows: ministry of finance, $3,843,414; of interior, $2,018,181; of justice and religion, $635,034; of war, $3,751,199; of marine and the colonies, $1,248,519; of foreign affairs, $274,972; of commerce and public works, $1,-404,062; interest on home debt, $4,810,969; interest on foreign debt, $4,731,505; expenditures extraordinary, $1,297,750. The national debt originated in 1796, when a loan of $4,-500,000 was contracted; on Nov. 30, 1873, it amounted to $364,165,000, with an annual interest of $11,080,000. Nearly half of these amounts represents the foreign debt, mainly to Great Britain. The loan contracted in 1832 by Dom Miguel, and other portions of the national debt, have from time to time been repudiated, and the interest on the aggregate debt has not unfrequently remained unpaid; and sometimes, when the interest on the home debt has been paid, that on the foreign debt has not.

By royal decree of Dec. 18, 1852, the interest on the whole national debt was reduced to 3 per cent., the creditors protesting in vain. - The army on Jan. 31, 1874, consisted of 24,544 infantry (officers and men), 4,242 cavalry, 2,797 artillery, and 666 engineers, besides 1,767 municipal guards. The colonial troops amounted to 7,847. The navy in 1874 comprised 23 steamers with an aggregate of 109 guns, and 16 sailing vessels with 44 guns. It was officered by a vice admiral, 5 rear admirals, and 38 captains, and manned by about 3,000 sailors and marines. - The Roman Catholic is the religion of the state, but all sects enjoy perfect freedom of worship. The ecclesiastical hierarchy includes the patriarch of Lisbon, who is always a cardinal, and to a certain extent independent of the pontifical see of Rome, the two archbishops of Evora and Braga, and 16 bishops, two of whom are for Madeira and the Azores. The patriarch's authority over the bishops is little inferior to that of the pope; but the bishops are appointed by the crown and confirmed by the holy see. All the conventual establishments of Portugal (632 monasteries and 118 nunneries, with over 18,000 monks and nuns, and an income of about $5,000,000 yearly) were suppressed by decree of May 28, 1834, and their property confiscated.

A few religious establishments still exist, but the inmates are in extreme poverty. There are Protestant churches at Lisbon and Oporto; but the Protestants, who are for the most part foreigners, are said not to number over 500. - By a decree of Sept. 20, 1844, the primary schools are divided into elementary and higher. Primary instruction is compulsory, but the law is rarely enforced. In 1870 there were 1,950 male schools, with 104,000 pupils, and 350 female schools, with 28,000 pupils. Higher instruction is given in the lvceums, of which there is one in each dis-trict. Lisbon and Oporto have each a school of medicine and a polytechnic school. The university of Coimbra is the highest educational establishment in the kingdom. There is a royal academy of sciences, founded in 1778, and the gremio litterario in Lisbon. - Portugal was anciently inhabited by Celtic tribes, and was early visited for commercial purposes by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks. The Romans, who called it Lusitania from its chief tribe the Lusitani (see Lusitania), effected its subjugation about 140 B. C, and held it as a province till the 5th century of the Christian era, when it was overrun by the Visigoths and other northern barbarians.

Early in the 8th century it was conquered by the Arabs or Moors, from whom it was partly recovered toward the close of the 11th century by Alfonso VI., king of Leon and Castile. About 1095 Alfonso gave the country between the Minho and the Douro to his son-inlaw Henry of Burgundy, who took the title of count of Portugal or Porto Cale, the name then given to the united provinces of Minho, Tras os Montes, and a part of Beira. Henry, who made Guimaraens his capital, soon extended his dominions by conquests from the Arabs. He died in 1112, and was succeeded by his son Alfonso (Affonso) Henriquez, who in 1139 defeated the Moors in a great battle on the plains of Ourique near the Tagus. From this battle the Portuguese date the foundation of their kingdom. Dom Alfonso, having been proclaimed king by his army on the field of victory, was confirmed in that title by the pope, and acknowledged as independent by the king of Castile. In 1143 he assembled a diet at Lamego, which drew up the fundamental statutes of the kingdom.

His son and successor, Sancho I., was equally successful in the struggle with the Moors, and by his valor and abilities raised Portugal to a high pitch of prosperity and power, extended its area to its present dimensions, and transferred the seat of government from Guimaraens to Ooimbra. In 1197 he assumed the additional title of king of Algarve, though that territory was not fully conquered till 1253. Of his successors the most distinguished were: Dionysius (Diniz) I. (1279-1325), who built upward of 40 cities, encouraged industry and learning, opened an era of navigation and commercial enterprise, and died with the name of "father of his country;" and John (Joao) I., surnamed the Great (1385-1433). The latter repelled a formidable invasion of the Oastilians, led a successful expedition against the Moors of Bar-bary, and acquired possession of Madeira and the Azores, which were discovered during his reign. The Portuguese at this period were the most enlightened and enterprising people of Europe, and their efforts to enlarge the scope of geographical knowledge toward the south led them to undertake daring and difficult voyages along the coast of Africa, which for nearly half a century were ably and per-severingly directed by Prince Henry the Navigator, son of John the Great. These attempts were at length crowned with success by the achievement of a passage to the East Indies round the cape of Good Hope by Vasco da Gama in 1497. This was in the reign of Emanuel the Fortunate (1495-1521), under whose intelligent guidance, though his reign opened with the expulsion of the Jews, prodigious efforts were made to extend the commerce and the dominion of Portugal in Africa and the East. In the latter region their power was exercised by a succession of able viceroys, among whom Alfonso d'Albuquerque was particularly eminent.

For nearly a century the Portuguese were masters of the Indian ocean, and the dominant power on the E. coast of Africa and the S. coast of Asia. Gaspar Cortereal visited Newfoundland and the shores of Labrador and the St. Lawrence; and Cabral in 1500 discovered Brazil, which was shortly after taken possession of by Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine in the Portuguese service, and was colonized by John III. (1521-'57). His son and successor, Dom Sebastian, distinguished himself by Quixotic expeditions against the Moors of Barbary, in one of which, in 1578, he perished with all his army. This disaster effectually broke the power of Portugal. Dom Henry, the uncle of Sebastian, ascended the vacant throne, and on his death in 1580 without direct heirs, the crown was claimed by Philip II. of Spain, the prince of Parma, and the duchess of Braganca. The power of Philip decided the contest in his favor, and for the next 60 years Portugal was ruled by the kings of Spain, still designated as " the intruders" by the Portuguese. For a considerable period the peace of the country was disturbed by pretenders claiming to be Dom Sebastian, who was popularly believed to have escaped the swords of the Moors and to be still living in a mysterious seclusion from which he was to reappear for the redemption of Portugal. The rule of the Spanish kings bore heavily on Portugal, and in 1640 the nation rose in revolt, and bv an al-most unanimous vote proclaimed the duke of Braganca king, under the title of John IV. A long war with Spain ensued, which was terminated in 1665 by the decisive defeat of the Spaniards in the battle of Montesclaros. A treaty of alliance concluded with England in 1661 inaugurated a series of similar alliances destined to have great. influence on the prosperity of Portugal. By this treaty the contemptible Alfonso VI. (1656-83) gave to the English Tangiers and Bombay as the dowry of his daughter, the wife of Charles II. Alfonso VI. was set aside as imbecile in 1667, and replaced by his brother as regent, afterward King Pedro II. (1683-1706). Another alliance offensive and defensive was concluded with England in 1703, which drew Portugal into the war of the Spanish succession, and crippled its industry by the exclusive commercial privileges it conferred upon the English. Under John V. (1706-50) an amicable adjustment was finally made with Spain in 1737, which had till then maintained its claim to Portugal. In the reign of Joseph (Jose, 1750-'77) Portugal experienced many calamities, the most remarkable of which was the great earthquake which destroyed half of Lisbon in 1755. This reign, however, was marked by great social and agricultural reforms, carried out chiefly by the genius and energy of the king's prime minister, the famous marquis of Pombal. The expulsion of the Jesuits from all Portuguese dominions was one of his most important acts.

Still, though Pombal in the first years of his administration endeavored to destroy the commercial monopoly enjoyed by the English in Portugal, he left her at its close controlled more completely than ever by English interests. Joseph was succeeded by his daughter Maria (1777-1816), who reigned conjointly with her uncle and husband Pedro III. till his death in 1786. In 1792 she showed symptoms of insanity, and her son John, prince of Brazil, governed in her name, assuming the title of regent in 1799. In 1793 he was induced by England to declare war against the French republic, but the dreadful commercial distress and general bankruptcy caused by this step led to a peace in 1797. In 1799 the regent was persuaded by England to join her and Russia in a second war against France, which impoverished and weakened Portugal still more. Spain united her arms with those of France in 1801, and by the subsequent treaty of Badajoz Portugal was forced to cede Olivenca to Spain, besides paying a considerable sum of money.

From that moment Portugal became almost entirely dependent on England. She was invaded by the French under Marshal Junot in November, 1807, the regent with the royal family embarking for Brazil just as Junot appeared before Lisbon, where he declared in his master's name that the house of Braganga had ceased to reign. In the beginning of 1808 the Portuguese rose against the invaders, and, though several times defeated, kept the field till the arrival of the English under Sir Arthur Wellesley (afterward duke of Wellington), and with them gained the victory of Vimeiro, Aug. 21, followed by the convention of Cintra, Aug. 30, and the evacuation of Portugal by the French. The country, unaccustomed to self-reliance, was utterly helpless when overrun again by the French in 1809, and again protected by the English arms till 1812. The Portuguese court and government were meantime established in Rio de Janeiro. In 1815 Brazil was raised to the rank of a kingdom, and in 1816 Maria died and the regent became John VI., king of Portugal and Brazil. In 1820 the dissatisfaction of the Portuguese at the absence of the court, and a general feeling that fundamental changes were required in the constitution, led to a revolution unattended by violence or bloodshed, the army and the people acting in concert.

A liberal constitution was adopted, and in 1821, at the request of the nation, John VI. returned from Brazil, leaving his eldest son Dom Pedro there as regent. John was forced, before being allowed to land at Lisbon, to accede to certain restrictions of the royal prerogative, and to swear fidelity to the new constitution. This secured freedom of person and property, liberty of the press, equality of all citizens before the law, the abolition of privileges, the eligibility of all Portuguese to offices, and the sovereignty of the nation. In the following year Dom Pedro was proclaimed emperor of Brazil, and the two countries were finally separated. John VI. died in 1826, and Dom Pedro of Brazil, his successor, surrendered Portugal to his daughter Maria da Gloria, and established a new and tolerably liberal constitution for the kingdom. Before Maria arrived in Portugal, however, her uncle Dom Miguel, Pedro's younger brother, who had been appointed regent, usurped the throne, and began to rule without regard to the constitution. His fierce despotism provoked a civil war, which raged for several years, the constitutional troops being led by Dom Pedro, who recruited an army and organized a fleet in support of his daughter's claims.

He took Oporto on July 8, 1832, entered Lisbon in July, 1833, and received his brother's submission May 29, 1834. Maria II. was declared of age on Sept. 15, and on the 24th Dom Pedro died, his memory being still cherished under the name of the "soldier king." Several revolutions and counter revolutions have since taken place, the principal result of which has been the substitution of one faction for another in the control of the ministry. The most serious of these outbreaks, that of 1846-7, was provoked by the unpopularity of the ministry of Costa Cabral, count of Thomar, and but for British, French, and Spanish intervention would have overthrown the government. Maria II. died in 1853, and was succeeded by her son Pedro V., under the regency of Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, his father. The regent wisely allowed the Portuguese to govern themselves through their constitutional representatives, inspired his son with a sincere love of free institutions, and retired into the obscurity of private life when the latter attained his majority (Sept. 16,1855). Pedro V. applied himself to remedy the financial disorders caused by previous revolutions and wars, to lighten the public burdens, and to promote all the arts of peace.

At the breaking out of the yellow fever in 1861, the young king exposed himself in assisting the plague-stricken, and was one of the victims (Nov. 11). His brother and successor, Louis (Luiz) I., born Oct. 31, 1838, continued the same policy, multiplied railway and telegraph lines, abolished slavery in the colonies in 1868, held industrial exhibitions at Oporto in 1866 and 1872, and consolidated the floating debt in 1873.