A S. W. County Of Iowa, separated from Nebraska by the Missouri river, and drained by the Boyer and West fork of the Nishnabatona, besides several large creeks; area, 960 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,893. Its soil, diversified by prairie and forest, is generally fertile. It is intersected by the Burlington and Missouri River, Chicago and Northwestern, and other railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 154,940 bushels of wheat, 611,528 of Indian corn, 88,108 of oats, 81,860 of potatoes, 200,-491 lbs. of butter, and 19,326 tons of hay. There were 3,040 horses, 3,134 milch cows, 5,102 other cattle, 2,195 sheep, and 6,683 swine; 4 flour mills, 1 saw mill, 2 breweries, 3 manufactories of saddlery and harness, and 2 of cigars. Capital, Council Bluffs.
A N. E. County Of Kansas, bounded S. by the Kansas and W. by the Big Blue river, and watered by numerous streams; area, 851 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,848. The Kansas Pacific railroad passes along the S. border. The surface is somewhat diversified, and the soil fertile. Timber grows along the streams. The chief productions in 1870 were 96,435 bushels of wheat, 468,445 of Indian corn, 112,407 of oats, 51,-254 of potatoes, 14,534 lbs. of wool, 152,422 of butter, and 18,719 tons of hay. There were 3,404 horses, 3,526 milch cows, 6,035 other cattle, 3,346 sheep, and 3,451 swine; 1 flour mill, 3 saw mills, and 4 manufactories of tin ware. Capital, Louisville.
Pottawattamies, a tribe of North American Indians belonging to the great Algonquin family, and speaking one of the rudest dialects.
At the beginning of the 17th century they occupied the lower peninsula of Michigan, apparently in scattered bands, independent of each other, there being at no period of their history any trace of a general authority or government. They were hunters and fishers, cultivating a little maize, but warlike and frequently in collision with neighboring tribes. They were finally driven west by tribes of the Iroquois family, and settled on the islands and shores of Green bay, and the French established a mission among them. Perrot acquired great influence with the tribe, who soon took part with the French against the Iroquois. Onanguice, their chief, was one of the parties to the Montreal treaty of 1701; and they actively aided the French in the subsequent wars. They gradually spread over what is now southern Michigan and upper Illinois and Indiana, a mission on the St. Joseph's being a sort of central point. The Pottawattamies joined Pon-tiac and surprised Fort St. Joseph, capturing Schlosser, the commandant, May 25, 1763. They were hostile to the Americans in the revolution and subsequently, but after "Wayne's victory joined in the treaty of Greenville, Dec. 22, 1795. The tribe, comprising the families or clans of the Golden Carp, Frog, Crab, and Tortoise, was then composed of the St. Joseph's, Wabash, and Huron river bands, with a large scattering population generally called the Pottawattamies of the Prairie, who were a mixture of many Algonquin tribes.
From 1803 to 1809 the various bands sold to the government portions of lands claimed by them, receiving money and annuities. Yet in the war of 1812 they again joined the English, influenced by Tecum-seh. A new treaty of peace was made in 1815, followed rapidly by others by which their lands were almost entirely conveyed away. A large tract was assigned to them on the Missouri, and in 1838 the St. Joseph's band was carried off by troops, losing 150 out of 800 on the way by death and desertion. The whole tribe numbered then about 4,000. The St. Joseph, Wabash, and Huron bands had made progress in civilization, and were Catholics; while the Pottawattamies of the Prairie were still roving and pagan. A part of the tribe was removed with some Chippewas and Ottawas, but they eventually joined the others or disappeared. In Kansas the civilized band, with the Jesuit mission founded by De Smet and Hoecken, advanced rapidly with good schools for both sexes. A Baptist mission and school was more than once undertaken among the less tractable Prairie band, but was finally abandoned. The Kansas troubles brought difficulties for the Indians, made the Prairie band more restless, and the civilized anxious to settle.
A treaty proclaimed April 19,1862, gave individual Indians a title to their several tracts of land under certain conditions, and though delayed by the civil war, this policy was carried out in the treaty of Feb. 27, 1867. Out of the population of 2,180,1,400 elected to become citizens and take lands in severalty, and 780 to hold lands as a tribe. Some of the Prairie band were then absent. The experiment met with varied success. Some did well and improved; others squandered their lands and their portion of the funds, and became paupers. Many of these scattered, one band even going to Mexico. In 1874 the Prairie band still under the Indian department numbered 467, on a reservation of 17,357 acres in Jackson co., Kansas, under the control of the society of Friends, who had established schools and reported some improvement. There were then 60 Pottawattamies of the Huron in Michigan on a little plot of 160 acres, with a school and log houses, 181 in Wisconsin, and 80 in Mexico or Indian territory.