Quebec (Formerly Lower Canada Or Canada East), a province of the Dominion of Canada, situated between lat. 45° and 53° 30' 1ST., and Ion. 57° 8' and 79° 30' W.; area, according to the latest estimates, 193,355 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the Northwest territories and the portion of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland; E. by Labrador and the gulf of St. Lawrence; S. and S. E. by the gulf of St. Lawrence, New Brunswick, Maine, and New Hampshire, then S. by Vermont and New York; and S. W. and W. by the province of Ontario, from which it is mostly separated by the Ottawa river. The N. boundary line, formed by the height of land which separates the waters that flow into the river and gulf of St. Lawrence on the one hand from those that flow into Hudson bay and those that reach the Atlantic through the Labrador coast on the other, is irregular, and has not been surveyed. The E. limit is a line drawn due N. and S. from Blanc Sablon bay (at the W. entrance of the strait of Belle Isle) to the 52d parallel. From Lake Temiscamingue, on the Ontario border, N. E. to Blanc Sablon bay, is about 1,050 m.; E. to the extremity of the Gaspé peninsula, 700 m.; S. E. to the angle formed by the boundary with Vermont and New Hampshire, 400 m. The general breadth N. and S. is about 125 m.

E. of the mouth of the St. Lawrence river and about 250 m. W. of that. Exclusive of the cities of Montreal and Quebec, each containing three electoral districts, the province is divided into 59 electoral districts or counties, viz.: Argenteuil, Bagot, Beauce, Beauharnois, Bellechasse, Berthier, Bonaventure, Brome, Chambly, Champlain, Charlevoix, Chateau-guay, Chicoutimi and Saguenay, Compton, Dorchester, Drummond-Arthabaska, Gaspé, Hochelaga, Huntingdon, Iberville, Jacques Car-tier, Joliette, Kamouraska, Laprairie, L'As-somption, Laval, Levis, L'Islet, Lotbinière, Maskinongé, Mégantic, Missisquoi, Montcalm, Montmagny, Montmorency, Napierville, Nico-let, Ottawa, Pontiac, Portneuf, Quebec, Richelieu, Richmond-Wolfe, Rimouski, Rouville, Shefford, Sherbrooke, Soulanges, St. Hyacinthe, St. Johns (St. Jean), St. Maurice, Stanstead, Témiscouata, Terrebonne, Three Rivers (Trois Rivières), Two Mountains (Deux Montagnes), Vaudreuil, Verchères, and Yamaska. Quebec . (pop. in 1871, 59,699) is the capital and Montreal (pop. 107,225) the commercial metropolis of the province. There are two other cities, Three Rivers (pop. 7,570) and St. Hyacinthe (pop. 3,746). Levis (pop. 6,691), Sorel (5,636), Sherbrooke (4,432), Joliette (3,047), and St. Johns (3,022) are incorporated towns.

Other towns and villages, having each more than 1,000 inhabitants, are Aylmer, Berthier, Beauharnois, Buckingham, Chicoutimi, Coaticook, Farnham, Fraserville, Hull, Lachine, Laprairie, L'Assomption, Longueuil, Montmagny, Rimouski, St. Jérôme, and Terrebonne. The population of the province in 1676 was 8,415; in 1734, 37,252; in 1770, 91,078; in 1780, 127,845; in 1827, 423,378; in 1831, 511,920; in 1844, 690,782; in 1851, 890,261; in 1861, 1,111,566; in 1871, 1,191,516. Of the last number, 596,041 were males and 595,475 females; 1,104,401 were born in the province, 7,018 in Ontario, 2,746 in other parts of British America, 12,371 in England, 35,828 in Ireland, 11,260 in Scotland, and 14,714 in the United States; 929,817 were of French, 123,-478 of Irish, 69,822 of English, 49,458 of Scotch, 7,963 of German, and 148 of African origin; and 6,988 were Indians, chiefly Algonquins, Iroquois, Abenakis, Hurons, Micmacs, Mali-cetes, Montagnais, and Nasquapees. There were 191,862 persons 20 years old and over (107,782 males and 84,080 females) unable to read, and 244,731 (123,926 males and 120,805 females) unable to write; 180,615 occupied dwellings, 213,303 families, 1,630 deaf and dumb persons, 1,023 blind, and 3,300 of unsound mind.

Of the 341,291 persons returned as engaged in occupations, 160,641 belonged to the agricultural, 25,507 to the commercial, 21,186 to the domestic, 65,707 to the industrial, and 15,376 to the professional class, and 52,874 were unclassified. A large portion of the inhabitants live in the region S. of the St. Lawrence and W. of the meridian of Quebec. This region is known as the "eastern townships," though the term in strictness is confined to the district between the Chaudière and Richelieu rivers in the rear of the settlements immediately along the St. Lawrence. E. of Quebec the settlements S. of the St. Lawrence extend to and around the extremity of the Gaspé peninsula, but for the most part they are closely confined to the shore. N. of the St. Lawrence and below the mouth of the Sague-nay there are only a few scattered fishing settlements, and above that the settlements for the most part extend only a few miles from the river. In the valley of the Ottawa, however, and on the upper Saguenay and around Lake St. John, there is a considerable population. A great majority of the inhabitants speak the French language, but English may also be used in legislative and judicial proceedings, and the laws must be printed in both languages.

The greater part of the English-speaking population is in the cities of Montreal and Quebec, in the S. part of the eastern townships, and in the valley of the Ottawa. Recently efforts have been made to colonize the unsettled portions of the province; colonization societies have been formed to aid settlers, and roads have been built by the government; but the access of population from abroad has not been equal to the emigration from the province to the United States. - The region S. of the St. Lawrence is generally hilly; N. of that river the country is for the most part rocky and mountainous. The Notre Dame mountains, a continuation of the Green mountains of Vermont, stretch E. from the meridian of Quebec, passing through the interior of the Gaspé peninsula to near its extremity, and attaining in places a height of 3,000 or 4,000 ft. This elevation is reached near the Cape Chatte river, in a portion of the range called the Shickshock mountains. The Laurentian mountains, on the north of the river St. Lawrence, extend from the Labrador coast to the Ottawa river above the city of that name.

They lie near the margin of the St. Lawrence as far up as Cape Tourmente near the city of Quebec, above which they recede N., passing 60 m. behind Quebec and 30 m. behind Montreal. This range, between Quebec and Lake St. John, where the rivers are 3,000 ft. above the level of the St. Lawrence, attains an elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. above the sea, but in general its height is much less. The province has a coast line on the gulf of St. Lawrence, not including indentations of the land, of 1,164 m. There are many small bays on the coast N. of the river St. Lawrence; the principal ones S. of it are Gaspé bay and the bay of Chaleurs. The latter, lying between the province and New Brunswick, includes with the mouth of the St. Lawrence the peninsula of Gaspé. Except those in the St. Lawrence, the principal islands belonging to the province are Anticosti (2,500 sq. m.), at the mouth of that river, and the Magdalen islands in the gulf. The St. Lawrence, flowing in a N. E. direction for more than 500 m. through the province, and rendered navigable the entire distance by canals around the rapids, is the great avenue of commerce.

Vessels may ascend from the gulf of St. Lawrence to the head of Lake Superior. It contains numerous islands, the largest of which are Orleans (69 sq. m.) just below Quebec, Montreal (169 sq. m.) at the mouth of the Ottawa, and Isle Jesus (85 sq. m.) N. of Montreal and separated from it by a narrow channel. The largest tributaries of the St. Lawrence are from the north; the principal ones from the south, proceeding down the stream, are the Chateauguay, which rises in New York and is navigable for a considerable distance by bateaux; the Richelieu, also called the Chambly, Sorel, or St. Johns, 80 m. long, the outlet of Lake Champlain; the Ya-maska, 90 m. long; the St. Francis, more than 100 m. long, which receives the Magog, the outlet of Lake Memphremagog, and empties into the St. Lawrence at Lake St. Peter; the Nicolet, 60 m. long; the Bécancour, 70 m. long; the Chaudière, 120 m., emptying into the St. Lawrence a few miles above Quebec; the Et-chemin, 50 m. long; the Rimouski; the Métis; the Matane, 60 m. long; and the Cape Chatte river, entering the St. Lawrence at Cape Chatte. By means of the Richelieu river, Chambly canal, Lake Champlain, the Champlain canal, and the Hudson river, there is continuous water communication between the St. Lawrence and New York. The largest tributaries from the north, lying wholly within the province, are the Saguenay and the St. Maurice. The former flows out of Lake St. John, and after a course of upward of 100m. joins the St. Lawrence 120 m. below Quebec. It has an average width of about three fourths of a mile, with high precipitous banks.

It is navigable by the largest vessels to Chicoutimi, 75 m. above its mouth. During the summer the Saguenay is much visited by tourists, and the ancient port of Tadousac at its mouth is a favorite watering place. The St. Maurice rises in the height of land, and after a course of more than 400 m. discharges into the St. Lawrence at Three Rivers. Its banks are generally high, and it contains numerous falls, and has many important tributaries. It is navigable for a few miles at its mouth; the navigation is then interrupted for about 40 m., above which there is a navigable stretch of 75 m. Other important tributaries of the St. Lawrence from the north are the Portneuf, the Betsiamites or Bersimis (navigable for a considerable distance), the rivière aux Outardes, and the Manicouagan, below the Saguenay; the Jacques Cartier (60 m. long), the St. Anne (70 m.) and the Batiscan (50 m.), between Quebec and the St. Maurice; and the Du Loup, the Maskinongé, and L'Assomption (100 m. long), above the St. Maurice. The Ottawa river rises in the W. part of the province, and has a tortuous course, first in a N. W., then in a W. direction, of 300 m. to Lake Temisca-mingue on the Ontario border, below which, flowing S. E., it forms the boundary between the two provinces for 400 m., emptying into the St. Lawrence just above the island of Montreal. It is navigable along the border for more than 250 m., the rapids and falls being avoided by means of canals.

The only portion of the province of Quebec W. of the Ottawa is the angle made by that river with the St. Lawrence, comprising the counties of Soulanges and Vaudreuil. The chief tributaries of the Ottawa from this province are the Keepawa, 120 m. long, which enters Lake Temisca-mingue; the Du Moine, having about the same length; the Gatineau, 400 m. long, which joins the main stream nearly opposite the city of Ottawa, and is navigable by canoes for more than 300 m.; the Du Lièvre, 260 m. long; the North Petite Nation, 95 m.; the Rouge, 90 m.; and North river or rivière du Nord, 160 m. The E. part of the province is drained by numerous streams that flow into the gulf of St. Lawrence from the north. Among these, proceeding toward the east, are the Moisie, Mani-tou, Magpie, St. John, Mingan, Natashquan, St. Augustine, and Esquimaux or St. Paul. In the south, portions are drained by tributaries of the St. John and the Restigouche, the latter flowing into the bay of Chaleurs and forming a part of the boundary with New Brunswick. Its chief tributary from Quebec is the Matapediac. The chief tributaries of the St. John are the St. Francis, which forms a part of the boundary with Maine, and the Madawaska, which flows into New Brunswick. The principal rivers of the peninsula of Gaspé are the Grand and Little Cascapediac and the Bonaventure, which empty into the bay of Chaleurs; the Mal Baie, St. Johns, York, and Dartmouth, flowing into the gulf of St. Lawrence from the west; and the Madeleine and St. Anne, emptying into the gulf from the south.

There are numerous lakes, particularly in the northwest, where the country is covered by a network of them, the rivers here being little else than chains of lakes. The most important ones S. of the St. Lawrence are Mem-phremagog, partly in Vermont; Mégantic, which discharges through the Chaudière river; Témiscouata, discharging through the Madawaska river; and Matapediac, discharging through the river of the same name. The largest in the province is Lake St. John, 30 by 25 m. in extent, about 120 m. N. of Quebec, in which the Saguenay river takes its rise. This lake lies in an extensive valley, and receives numerous large streams, some of which rise in the height of land. The largest of its tributaries are the Peribonka, from the northeast; the Mistassini and Ashuapmouchouan or Chamouchouan, from the northwest; and the Ouiatchouanish, Ouiatchouan, Metabetchouan, Kushpahiganish, and Belle Riviere or Kush-pahigan, from the southwest and south. Lake St. Peter is an expansion of the St. Lawrence between Montreal and Quebec. - The geological formations that occur in the province are the Laurentian, Silurian, Devonian, and carboniferous.

The region N. of the St. Lawrence is occupied by the lower Laurentian, with small areas of upper Laurentian around Lake St. John and N. of Montreal, and a narrow belt of lower Silurian along the river bank above Quebec. S. of the St. Lawrence the country consists of different groups of the lower Silurian, followed S. E., along the borders of New Hampshire, Maine, and New Brunswick, by smaller tracts of middle and upper Silurian, with areas of the Devonian in the Gaspé peninsula. Anticosti is occupied by the lower and middle Silurian. The Magdalen islands are of carboniferous formation below the coal measures. Gold is found on the Chaudiére river, and mining has been carried on in Beauce co., but with little success. Copper is found in large quantities in the eastern townships, where mines are in operation. Iron ore is widely diffused, and is mined to some extent. An ore of excellent quality is obtained near the St. Maurice river. Lead, silver, platinum, zinc, etc, have also been found. Quebec abounds in magnificent scenery, especially on the lower St. Lawrence and Saguenay. Among objects of interest may be mentioned the Chaudière falls in the Ottawa, the falls of the Chaudière river, the falls of Montmorency near the city of Quebec, and the falls of the St. Anne 20 m. below it. - The climate is healthy, but subject to extremes of temperature.

The winters are cold, with a clear and bracing air; the summers are warm. Winter commences about the end of November and lasts till the middle of April. The plateau of Lake St. John is sheltered on the north and east by mountains, and has a climate like that of Montreal. The shores of the Gaspé peninsula are exposed to the cold winds and fogs of the gulf. In the N. E. part of the province, comprising a portion of the peninsula of Labrador, the climate is much colder than elsewhere. The following table gives the results of observations for a series of years at Montreal (lat. 45° 31') and Quebec (lat, 46° 49'):

SEASON.

MONTREAL.

QUEBEC.

Mean temperature.

Rainfall, inches.

Mean temperature.

Rainfall, inches.

Autumn.......

47.3°

10.33

44.6°

6.65

Winter........

18.1

1.91

13.8

0.25

Spring....................

42.5

5.72

37.6

2.70

Summer.................

69.5

9.30

66.0

9.66

Year........

44.3°

27.26

40.5°

19.26

The highest temperature observed at Montreal during the period was 96.1°; lowest, - 28°. The highest observed at Quebec was 94.4°; lowest, - 30.5°. The annual precipitation of rain and melted snow at Montreal is 37.54 inches; at Quebec, 31.84 inches. - The soil of the valley of the St. Lawrence and of the "eastern townships" is generally fertile. The townships are a fine grazing country, and much attention is paid to the raising of cattle and wool. On either side of the Notre Dame mountains, W. of the Gaspé peninsula, there is much good soil. The peninsula is generally rocky, but contains considerable arable land, particularly along the bay of Chaleurs. On the upper Saguenay and around Lake St. John there is an extensive region suited to agriculture, and the basin of the St. Maurice contains many fertile valleys. In the basin of the Ottawa also there are extensive tracts of good land. The Labrador portion of the province is rocky and sterile, and its climate too severe for agriculture. The greater portion of the province is covered with forests, the most common and important trees being the red and white pine. Other species are the ash, birch, beech, elm, hickory, black' walnut, maple, cherry, butternut, basswood, spruce, fir, and tamarack.

Hard wood is most common S. of the St. Lawrence. Lumbering is very extensively carried on, particularly on the tributaries of the Ottawa, St. Maurice, and Saguenay. The timber lands are leased by the government for a term of years for a certain bonus and annual rents. Oats, potatoes, and hay are the largest crops. Wheat, barley, rye, peas, beans, buckwheat, Indian corn, turnips, flax, apples, tobacco, hops, etc, are also grown. Except in the S. W. portions, the climate is too cool for Indian corn. The island of Montreal is noted for the excellence of its apples, and the island of Orleans for its plums. The wild animals are similar to those of other parts of British America. Fur-bearing animals are still trapped in the N. and N. E. portions of the province, where the Hudson Bay company has several posts. The manufactures are of considerable value, though they have not yet been extensively developed. Among the principal articles produced are flour, lumber, furniture, leather, hardware, paper, chemicals, soap, boots and shoes, cotton and woollen goods, steam engines, and agricultural implements.

Ship building is carried on chiefly at Quebec. Home-made woollen and linen cloths are extensively worn by the rural population. (For statistics of agriculture, manufactures, etc., see Appendix to vol. xii.) The gulf of St. Lawrence abounds in fish, and the fisheries are extensively pursued on the Labrador coast, around the shores of the Gaspé peninsula, and at the Magdalen islands. The value of the fisheries for the year ending June 30, 1874, was $1,608,660 20. The chief items of catch were cod, herring, salmon, seals, mackerel, and lobsters. The value of fish oil preserved, included in the above figures, was $89,211 60, viz.: cod oil, $48,854 50; seal oil, $27,047 50; whale oil, $13,296; porpoise oil, $13 60. - In respect to foreign commerce Quebec is the first province in the Dominion. The value of goods entered for consumption from foreign countries during the year 1873-'4 was $51,980,870, including $32,749,883 from Great Britain, $12,-703,967 from the United States, $1,530,152 from France, $939,451 from the West Indies, $737,-866 from Germany, $677,017 from China, $528,-232 from Newfoundland, $452,486 from South America, $352,934 from Spain, $295,958 from Japan, $283,956 from Belgium, $243,782 from the East Indies, $204,581 from Holland, and $138,712 from Switzerland. The principal articles of import were manufactures, including cottons, woollens, fancy goods, silks, iron and hardware, and machinery, besides sugar and molasses, tea, tobacco and cigars, wine, brandy and other spirits, coal, wheat, etc.

The value of exports to foreign countries was $46,393,845, of which $36,099,441 were to Great Britain, $5,812,596 to the United States, $967,615 to South America, $813,888 to Newfoundland, $255,267 to the British West Indies, $237,259 to France, $229,480 to Belgium, $169,528 to Italy, and $169,150 to Portugal. Of the whole amount $9,405,600 represented goods not the produce of Canada, $901,703 coin and bullion, $653,869 the estimated amount not returned at inland ports, and $35,462,673 Canadian produce, viz.: of the mine, $216,414; of the fisheries, $778,672; of the forest, $13,115,106; animals and their produce, $8,189,613; agricultural products, $11,256,057; manufactures, $917,404; miscellaneous articles, $162,732; new ships, $796,675. The number of entrances from sea was 1,501, tonnage 1,135,560; clearances for sea, 1,493, tonnage 1,087,151; entrances in inland navigation from the United States, 2,793, tonnage 288,862; clearances in inland navigation for the United States, 1,487, tonnage 216,990; total entrances in the foreign trade, 4,294, tonnage 1,424,422; total clearances, 2,980, tonnage 1,304,141. The number of vessels built during the year was 63, with an aggregate tonnage of 22,189; belonging in the province at the close of 1874,1,837 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 218,946. The following is a comparative statement of the foreign commerce for the six years ending June 30, 1874:

YEARS.

Imports.

Entered for consumption.

Exports.

1869........................................

$30,940,341

$29,545,177

$28,223,268

1870.........................................................

32,883,916

32,166,288

37,807,468

1871........................................

43,094,412

40,108,120

39,021,706

1872......................................

49,376,175

47,738,687

41,823.470

1873.......................................

53,715,459

54,281,158

44,408,033

1874......................................

51,557,072

51,980,870

46,393,845

The province is connected with Ontario and the United States by several lines of railway, the statistics of which for 1875 are contained in the following table:

LINES.

TERMINI.

Miles in operation in the province.

Grand Trunk, W. division..............................................................

Montreal to Detroit, Mich (564m.)..................................................................

45

" " E. division..............................................................

Montreal to Trois Pistoles................................................................................

316

" " Portland division....................................................

Richmond to Portland, Me. (221m.)................................................................

54

" " Three Rivers branch...............................................

Arthabaska to Doucet's Landing (opposite Three Rivers)...............................

35

" " Champlain division................................................

St. Lambert to Rouse's Point, N.Y...................................................................

42

" " Lachine and Province Line division......................

Montreal to Province Line...............................................................................

40

Massawippi Valley.......................................................................

Sherbrooke to Newport, Vt. (40 m.)................................................................

34

Montreal and Vermont Junction...................................................

St. Johns to Burlington, Vt. (73 m.).................................................................

26

Montreal, Chambly, and Sorel......................................................

St. Lambert to West Farnham..........................................................................

28

Quebec and Gosford.....................................................................

Quebec to Gosford...........................................................................................

26

St. Lawrence and Industry............................................................

Lanoraie to Joliette...........................................................................................

12

Southeastern..................................................................................

West Farnham to Newport, Vt. (65 m.)...........................................................

32

Stanstead, Shefford, and Chambly,...............................................

St. Johns to Waterloo.......................................................................................

43

Total...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

733

The Intercolonial railway is intended to be extended from Moncton, New Brunswick, N. and then W. to Rivière du Loup on the St. Lawrence. There are other lines projected or in progress. There were 19 banks on Sept. 30, 1874, with an aggregate paid-up capital of $42,351,464. - The executive power is vested in a lieutenant governor, appointed by the governor general of the Dominion in council, assisted by an executive council of seven members (secretary and registrar and minister of public instruction, treasurer, attorney general, commissioner of crown lands, commissioner of agriculture and public works, president of legislative council, and solicitor general) appointed by himself and responsible to the assembly. The legislative authority is exercised by a legislative council of 24 members, appointed by the lieutenant governor in council for life, and a legislative assembly of 65 members (one from each electoral district), elected by the qualified voters for four years. The right of suffrage is conferred on all male British subjects 21 years old and upward who possess a small property qualification. Voting is by ballot. For judicial purposes the province is divided into 20 districts.

The principal courts are the queen's bench, consisting of a chief justice and four puisne judges, and the superior court, with a chief justice and 25 puisné judges. These judges are appointed by the governor general of the Dominion in council during good behavior. The queen's bench sits four times a year at Montreal and as frequently at Quebec for the purpose of hearing appeals. Trial terms are held twice a year in different parts of the province by a single judge, in criminal cases with a jury. Three judges of the superior court sit in review of judgments of a single judge at the superior and circuit courts. Superior courts, with jurisdiction of sums exceeding $200, are held three times a year in each judicial district by a single judge. Circuit courts, with jurisdiction of sums not exceeding $200, are held in each county by a judge of the superior court. A vice-admiralty court is held at Quebec by a judge of vice-admiralty. Justice is administered according to the Code civil de Québec, which is based mainly upon the coutume de Paris and the edicts and ordinances of the French kings in force at the time of the cession to Great Britain. The province is represented in the Dominion parliament by 24 senators and 65 members of the house of commons (one from each electoral district). The balance in the provincial treasury on June 30, 1873, was $948,001 43; receipts during the following year, $2,041,174 71, including $1,014,-712 12 subsidy from the Dominion government, $542,140 72 from the crown lands department, $121,540 98 from law stamps, and $141,597 72 from licenses, etc.

The expenditures amounted to $1,992,594 88, including $54,822 84 outstanding warrants; balance in treasury on June 30, 1874, $1,051,404 10. The chief items of expenditure were as follows: legislation, $173,-292 98; civil government, $146,766 41; administration of justice, $364,555 29; police, $63,292 20; reformatories, $38,000; education, $320,166 07; agriculture, $61,352 15; immigration, $48,978 79; colonization roads, $114,525 76; public works and buildings, $161,147 42; charities, $218,224 85; crown lands department, $128,574 82; subsidy to Southeastern railway, $38,700. - The provincial lunatic asylum is at Beaufort, near Quebec. There are also lunatic asylums at Montreal, at St. Ferdinand d'Halifax, and at St. Johns, which receive aid from the province, the first two being under the control of the Catholics and the last of the Protestants. Aid is also granted to the Belmont Retreat inebriate asylum in Quebec, to the Catholic and Protestant deaf and dumb institutions in Montreal, to the Nazareth asylum for the blind and for destitute children in Montreal (under the control of the sisters of charity), to the reformatories at Montreal and Sherbrooke (the former Catholic and the latter Protestant), and to various hospitals and asylums conducted by religious bodies.

There is a penitentiary at St. Vincent de Paul on Isle Jesus, under the control of the Dominion. The number of convicts at the close of 1873 was 122. - The public schools of the province are under the direction of the minister of public instruction, assisted by a council of 24 members (16 Catholics and 8 Protestants) appointed by the lieutenant governor. For each municipality there are five commissioners, elected by the rate payers, having the immediate management of primary schools. In municipalities where different religious denominations exist, the minority may select syndics or trustees to direct their own schools; these are called dissentient schools. Inspectors, 32 in number, acting under the immediate direction of the minister of public instruction, are required to visit the schools of their respective districts at least twice a year and report upon their condition. The provincial grant is apportioned among the municipalities, and in each a special tax is levied. Each head of a family is also required to pay a monthly fee, varying from 5 to 40 cents, for every child between 7 and 14 years of age, whether attending school or not. Dissentient schools receive a share of these moneys.

The following statistics are for 1873:

Municipalities, number....................... 852

School districts............................... 3,870

School houses................................ 3,381

Elementary schools...................... 3,254

Pupils.......................................... 141,990

Primary superior schools for boys............. 269

Pupils........................................................................................................ 21,658

Primary superior schools for girls........................... 74

Pupils................................................................... 6,930

Protestant dissentient schools................................. 186

Pupils.......................................................................... 6,156

Catholic dissentient schools....................................................... 34

Pupils....................................................................... 1,509

Academies.................................................................................................. 83

Pupils........................................................................................................ 8,252

Colleges............................................................................................................ 37

Pupils........................................................................................................ 7,113

Normal schools..................................................................................... 4

Pupils....................................................................................................... 246

Educational convents....................................................................... 129

Pupils........................................................................................................ 24,236

Independent schools.......................................................................... 156

Pupils........................................................................................................ 6,261

Total educational institutions................................................... 4,226

" pupils.............................................................................. 224,351

Male teachers................................ 999

Female teachers................................................................................... 4,017

Provincial grant, amount............................................................. $155,000 00

Local assessments, regular and special........................... $456,194 40

Monthly fees........................................................................................... $715,661 76

Total amount available.......................................... $1,326,856 16

Public libraries, number......................................... 206

Volumes................................................................................................ 108,812.

Only the municipal or parochial libraries are given in the table. The schools for the training of teachers are the Laval normal school at Quebec, and the Jacques Cartier and McGill normal schools at Montreal. There are three universities: Laval university at Quebec (Roman Catholic), McGill university at Montreal (Protestant, but not denominational), and the university of Bishop's college at Lennoxville (Episcopal). The first, with its affiliated institutions in various parts of the province, is treated in the article on the city of Quebec. McGill university was founded by a bequest of the Hon. James McGill in 1811, was incorporated by royal charter in 1821, and reorganized by an amended charter in 1852. In immediate connection with it are the McGill normal and model schools and McGill college. The college has a faculty of arts, with a department of applied science, and faculties of medicine and law. The department of arts has a museum and a library of 16,330 volumes, and the medical department a museum and a library of 4,000 volumes. St. Francis college, at Richmond, and Morrin college, at Quebec, are affiliated with the university, the former in respect of degrees in arts and the latter in arts and law.

There are two affiliated theological colleges, the Congregational college of British North America, at Montreal, and the Presbyterian college of Montreal, the students in which have the privilege of pursuing the course of study in arts. The university receives a small annual grant from the province. Morrin college was founded in 1860 and incorporated in 1861. It has a faculty of divinity in connection with the church of Scotland. The university of Bishop's college was incorporated by royal charter in 1852. It comprises faculties of divinity, arts, and medicine, the last being at Montreal. Bishop's college, founded in 1843, and Bishop's college school, in 1857, are in immediate connection with it. The college has a museum and a library of 5,000 volumes. There is a medical school (école de médecine et de chirurgie) at Montreal affiliated with Victoria university, Cobourg, Ontario. There are 12 or 15 classical colleges besides those already named, and about the same number of industrial colleges. The number of newspapers and periodicals published in the province in 1875 was 72 (43 English and 29 French), issuing 90 editions, viz.: 14 daily, 10 tri-weekly, 3 semi-weekly, 40 weekly, 1 semi-monthly, 19 monthly, and 3 quarterly. - The following table Contains the statistics of the principal religious denominations, according to the census of 1871:

DENOMINATIONS.

Churches.

Buildings attached.

Adherents.

Baptist.................

32

44

8,686

Episcopal..............

176

308

62,449

Methodist..............

131

188

34,100

Presbyterian............

94

154

46,165

Roman Catholic...................

610

2,097

1,019,850

Other....................................

28

40

20,266

Total.................

1,071

2,831

1,191,516

Of the Baptists 3,378 were Freewill Baptists, and of the Methodists 26,737 were Wesleyans. Among denominations not named in the table were 5,240 Congregationalists, 3,150 Advent-ists, 1,937 Universalists, and 1,093 Unitarians. - Jacques Cartier took possession of this region in the name of the French king in 1534. The first permanent settlement was effected at the city of Quebec in 1608. Montreal was settled in 1642. The French ceded the territory, together with what is now Ontario, to Great Britain in 1763, and in 1774 the whole was organized as the province of Quebec. In 1791 it was divided into two provinces, Lower Canada and Upper Canada, and in 1841 these were reunited as the province of Canada. Upon the organization of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, they were again separated, and Lower Canada became the province of Quebec. An elective assembly was granted to the provinces in 1791, and in 1841 responsible government was introduced. For further historical details, see Canada, Dominion of.