A Central State Of Mexico, bounded N. by San Luis Potosi, E. by Hidalgo, S. by Mexico, S. W. by Michoacan, and W. by Guanajuato; area, 3,429 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 153,286. It occupies a part of the plateau of the Cordillera, and is traversed by numerous mountain spurs, but contains much fertile land. The rivers are all small, and the Rio de Montezuma and Lerma, on the frontiers, are the only streams that deserve notice. Gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, tin, lead, and antimony are found. Grain, tobacco, and the sugar cane are extensively cultivated; cotton is grown in some districts; and considerable numbers of cattle are reared. The forests abound in fine timber and precious woods. Woollen and cotton goods, earthenware, and saddlery are manufactured, from materials produced mainly within its limits. The state is divided into . the districts of Querétaro, San Juan del Rio, Amealco, Jalpan, Toliman, and Cadereyta; the chief towns besides the capital are San Juan del Rio and Toliman.
A City, capital of the state, on a plateau upward of 6,000 ft. above the sea, 110 m. N. W. of Mexico; pop. in 1869, 48,237. It occupies the sides and summits of several hills, and is separated from its suburbs by a small stream. The streets are well laid out, the houses regular, and the city is one of the finest in the republic. The two parish churches are magnificently decorated, and there are 13 other churches. There are a college, a school of art, and an academy of design. The city is supplied with water by an aqueduct 2 m. long, which crosses a plain upon arches, some of which are 90 ft. high, and in connection with a tunnel brings the water a distance of 6 m. The manufactures consist chiefly of woollen and cotton goods, leather, soap, cigars, and pulque. Two miles from the city is the largest cotton mill in the country, employing 2,500 hands. In 1848 the Mexican congress ratified the peace between Mexico and the United States at Querétaro. In February, 1867, the emperor Maximilian having taken refuge in Querétaro, the town was besieged by Gen. Escobedo; on May 15 the emperor was captured, and on June 19 he and his two generals, Miramon and Mejia, were shot, on the Cerro de las Campanas, or hill of the Bells, which overlooks the town.