Railroad, Or Railway, a road with wooden, stone, or iron sleepers supporting timber or iron ways upon which the wheels of carriages may run. The graduated earthen or stone embankment or cut which supports the road is called the road bed, while the sleepers, rails, etc, constitute the superstructure. Various devices have been employed since wheeled carriages were first used for facilitating their movements, but until modern times these have mostly consisted of levelling and hardening common roads. (See Road.) Wooden rails were first used as early as 1672 in a short road constructed by Mr. Beaumont at the collieries near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. They were laid exactly straight and parallel, and four-wheeled carts were drawn by horses upon them. Iron rails were first used at Whitehaven, England, in 1738; another iron railway was laid down by John Curr near Sheffield in 1776, but this was torn up by the colliers. In 1786 the first considerable iron railway was built at the iron works of Cole-brookdale, and had its origin partly in the low price of pig iron.

The upper rails were made of cast iron, 5 ft. long, 4 in. wide, and 1 3/4 in. thick, with holes through which they were spiked to the lower wooden rails or groundsills; they were cast with a raised lip on the outer edge to keep the carriage wheels upon the track. The success of this improvement led to its general use in and about mines and collieries, and for many years rails were made altogether of cast iron. These roads were called tramways, and were commonly built as follows: The road bed was brought to as uniform an inclination and level a surface as practicable; squared logs called sleepers or ties about 6 ft. long, 6 or 8 in. wide, and 4 or 5 in. thick, were laid crosswise, 2 or 3 ft. apart; upon these long wooden rails 6 or 7 in. wide and 5 in. thick were notched and pinned, 4 ft. apart and parallel with each other. The iron plates or rails were then spiked to the wooden rails, and the road bed was filled in with gravel, ashes, or coal waste, to form a smooth surface for the horses to walk upon. This is substantially the plan upon which railroads for collieries, quarries, mines, and streets are constructed at the present time.

The first iron railway sanctioned by parliament, except a few built by canal companies to bring in the products of adjacent mines, was the Surrey railway, running from the banks of the Thames at Wandsworth to Croydon, which was authorized in 1801. From this time forward the principal improvements in railway construction related to the perfection of the form and materials of the rails and the method of fastening them, and later to the introduction and improvement of steam locomotives and machinery. Cast-iron rails had been laid by Jessop at Loughborough in 1789, without lip or raised edge, but having a smooth upper surface, upon which the carriages were kept by means of flanges on the wheels; these were called "edge rails," and were set in cast-iron chairs, which rested upon the wooden sleepers. Edge rails of oval section, with the longer axes vertical, were again used in 1801 at the slate quarries of Lord Penrhyn; they were 4 1/2 ft. long, and each end terminated by a pyramidal or wedge-shaped block, which rested upon and fitted into an iron sill.

The carriage wheels were hollowed out to fit upon the convex surface of the rails, but as this device increased the friction by increasing the bearing surfaces, the surfaces of both rails and wheels were afterward made flat, and the wheels were made with flanges to keep them on the rails. By the use of these improvements it was found that one horse could do the work of 40 on a common road; they were rapidly adopted by the colliers, and in the north of England still further improvements were made in the form of the rails, with the view of increasing their strength without decreasing their weight. They were made still thinner, the oval cross section verging toward the pear shape, with the thicker part at the top, while the longitudinal section was straight on the top and curved downward on the bottom, the greatest depth of the rails being midway between the ends; those of this form were known as "fish-bellied" rails, and were used for some years after the introduction of wrought-iron rails. This took place in 1808, though it was not till 1820 that suitable machinery was devised for rolling rails into other than flat shapes.

This was a most important step, as cast-iron rails could not be made straight in greater lengths than 4 or 5 ft., and consequently required many cross ties and joints; whereas the introduction of wrought iron permitted the increase of the length of the rails by successive steps, till with the perfected processes of the present day they are made of iron and steel 30 ft. and even longer if required. With the improvements in the machinery for rolling rails, it became possible to make the new and improved forms of rails rendered necessary by the substitution of steam carriages for horses, which had hitherto been almost exclusively used. The force of gravity was utilized in exceptional instances where the roads sloped gradually from the collieries, and by the adaptation of ropes and wheels or windlasses the descending loaded cars were made to draw up the empty ones. - Watt suggested the possibility of constructing steam carriages in 1759, and patented one in 1784. Oliver Evans of Philadelphia patented a steam wagon in 1782, the drawings and specifications of which were sent to England in 1787, and again in 1794-'5. In 1784 Murdoch, Watt's assistant, constructed a working model of Watt's carriage.

In 1802 Trevithick and Vivian patented a high-pressure locomotive engine, and in 1804 built one for the Merthyr-Tydfil railway in S. Wales, which was found to work well with light loads upon a level surface or moderate grades, but if more severely tasked the wheels would slip without advancing. A check was thus put upon their use until some method could be devised by which they might obtain a hold upon the track or otherwise push themselves forward. A rack laid along the side of the rail, into which worked a toothed wheel fitted to the locomotive, was tried in 1811 on a colliery line near Leeds, but' the friction was too great, and it was abandoned. The next year engines were tried with eight driving wheels for securing the required adhesion; and about the same time other engines were constructed with levers projecting behind and working alternately like the hind legs of a horse. In 1814 and 1815 engines with plain wheels were found to work successfully on some of the northern roads; but no other application was made of them than for transporting the coal and ore wagons of the mines.

In 1814 George Stephenson constructed his first locomotive, which travelled at the rate of 6 m. an hour; in 1826 Seguin, a French engineer, built locomotives in which he increased the evaporative power of the engine by small tubes passing from the fire box to the chimney; in 1829 Stephenson and Booth built the engine Rocket, weighing 4 tons 5 cwt., which travelled at a rate of 35 m. an hour; in 1834 the Firefly drew a loaded train at the rate of 20 m. an hour; in 1839 the North Star moved with a velocity of 37 m. an hour; and at the present time locomotives have attained a speed of 75 m., and for short distances even greater velocities have been reached. (See Steam Carriage.) - The first railroad for carrying passengers was the Stockton and Darlington road, built by Edward Pease and George Stephenson, and opened Sept. 27, 1825. The Liverpool and Manchester road, commenced in 1826, and opened Sept. 15, 1830, was intended by its proprietors to carry passengers at a high speed. As it would be expensive to do this with horses, it was thought that stationary steam engines placed at short intervals along the road might be used for the purpose of drawing the trains; but the success of the locomotives built by Stephenson, Ericsson, and others, under the stimulus of a premium of £500 offered by the railway company, caused this plan to be abandoned, and gave rise to the establishment of a new system of locomotion of almost limitless speed and capacity.

The small engines at first used were soon found inadequate to the service demanded of them, and were replaced by others of larger size and greater weight; some now employed have 10 or 12 wheels and weigh in some cases as much as 75 tons, and there are many in all parts of the world weighing 30, 40, and 50 tons, according to their pattern and uses. Finally, owing to the great weight and high speed of these locomotives, and the consequent wear and tear upon themselves and the rails, joints, and bridges, it has come to be a grave question as to whether they have not grown beyond the limit of economy, and should not therefore be reduced in size and weight. The gauge of the Liverpool and Manchester railway was fixed by Stephenson at 4 ft. 8 1/2 in., that being about the common gauge of the ordinary road wagons of the day. It was afterward generally adopted throughout the world, partly for the same reason that influenced Stephenson, but mostly because the English were the first locomotive builders for foreign countries, and stoutly adhered to the precedent set them by their most distinguished engineer.

Later the merit of this precedent was disputed by Brunei and other able engineers, who claimed that a broader gauge would give greater speed, safety, and economy; and roads of 5 ft., 5 ft. 5 in., 6 ft., and even of 7 ft. gauge were built. But the wider gauges are gradually losing favor, and have generally been abandoned for the 4 ft. 8 1/2 in. (or the 4 ft. 9 in.), now commonly called the standard gauge. It has come to be contended by many engineers, and notably by Mr. Fairlie of England, that even the standard gauge is too wide, and that gauges of 3 ft. and less are still more economical. The success of the Liverpool and Manchester railway led to the projection of new roads in England, chiefly in the northern part, connecting together its principal cities; but the capacity of the locomotive was not yet fully developed or appreciated, and upon most of the roads it was considered necessary to overcome the heavier grades by the use of stationary engines. These and also inclined planes were gradually dispensed with, and tunnels were substituted for the purpose of reducing the grades and curvature, both of which were brought to a minimum by the expenditure of large sums of money.

As a measure of safety, the most important roads in England were from the first built with double tracks; but this practice was not followed in America till the traffic on the various lines had become so great as to render it absolutely necessary. - The first railroad constructed in America was projected by Gridley Bryant, a civil engineer, in 1825, and carried through by himself and Col. T. H. Perkins in 1826. It was designed to carry granite from the quarries of Quincy, Mass., to the nearest tide water, and is known as the Quincy railroad. It is 4 m. long including branches, and its first cost was $50,000. It was laid to a 5 ft. gauge, and was constructed as follows: Stone sleepers were laid across the track 8 ft. apart; upon these wooden rails 6 in. thick and 12 in. high were placed; upon the top of these rails wrought-iron plates 3 in. wide and 1/4 in. thick were spiked, but at all the crossings of the public road and driftways stone rails were used, and as the wooden rails decayed they were replaced by others of stone. This road was supplied with the first turn-table ever used, which was designed by Bryant and is said to be still in good order.

Bryant also invented the portable derrick and the switch or turnout, and constructed the first eight-wheeled car ever used, by combining two four-wheeled trucks for hauling long pieces of granite intended for columns; and although a more complete application of the principle was afterward made by Ross Winans of Baltimore in the construction of eight-wheeled cars used on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, the latter was unable to sustain his patent by law against the claims of others in Bryant's behalf. Winans began his experiments in 1830, with the view of designing a carriage which would easily traverse the short curves of the railroads then under construction, and ultimately produced the eight-wheeled or double bogie carriage, which is now in use throughout the United States and Canada, and is being introduced upon the Pullman carriages into Europe. The second American railroad was laid out in January, 1827, and opened in May of the same year from the coal mines of Mauch Chunk, Pa., to the Lehigh river, and with turnouts and branches was 13 m. long. This was also of 5 ft. gauge, with timber sleepers and rails, strapped with flat iron. It was operated by gravity, though the length of the road was so great that mules had to be used for returning the empty cars to the mines.

The Delaware and Hudson canal company sent Horatio Allen to Europe in 1827 to buy three locomotives and the iron for a railroad, which they built the next year from the coal mines at Honesdale to the terminus of their canal. One of the locomotives, built by George Stephenson at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, arrived at New York in the spring of 1829. Another, built by Foster, Rastrick and co. of Stourbridge, arrived shortly afterward, and went upon the railroad in the latter part of the summer. This was the first locomotive actually put into use in America. It had four wheels, a multitubular boiler, and the exhaust steam blast. In March, 1827, the legislature of Maryland granted a charter, modelled upon the old turnpike charters, to the first railroad company in America authorized to carry on the general business of transportation; its capital stock was $500,000, with permission for its increase, and both the state of Maryland and the city of Baltimore were authorized to subscribe to its shares. In the beginning no one dreamed of using steam upon the road; horses were to do the work, and even after the road was completed to Frederick relays of horses moved the cars from place to place.

From this circumstance the Relay House, at the junction of the main line and the Washington branch, took its name. This great highway, now known as the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, was begun July 4, 1828, and was gradually extended along the valley of the Patapsco 13 m. to Ellicott's Mills, thence to the Potomac at the Point of Rocks, thence along the valley of the Potomac to the Cumberland coal region, and finally across the Blue Ridge and Alleghany mountains to the Ohio river at Wheeling, with a branch toward Parkersburg in the direction of Cincinnati. At Wheeling and Parkersburg it now connects with other railroads owned or controlled by the same company, leading to Cincinnati and St. Louis, and also to Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Chicago. In 1830 a small locomotive was built in Baltimore by Peter Cooper (now of New York), who was satisfied that steam engines might be adapted to the curved roads which would have to be built in America. He also believed that the crank could be dispensed with in the change from a reciprocating to a rotary motion, and designed his engine to demonstrate both conclusions.

The boiler, which stood upright, was not so large as the ordinary boiler attached to the range of a modern mansion; the cylinder was 3 1/2 in. in diameter, and connected with the wheels by a system of gearing. The whole engine could not have weighed over a ton, hut with it he drew an open car filled with the directors of the road and some friends, at a speed which reached 18 m. an hour, from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills. This was the first locomotive for railroad purposes ever built in America, and the first one used in the transportation of passengers on this side of the Atlantic. This railroad was originally built with stone and wooden cross ties, and wooden rails strapped with flat bars of iron 1/2 and 5/8 in. thick, and from 2 1/2 to 4 1/4 in. wide. The bars were fastened down by spikes, the heads of which were countersunk into the iron. This method was generally adopted upon the early American railroads, but was soon found to be defective and dangerous. The oscillation and balloting of the engines and cars caused the ends of the rails to work loose, thus making what came to be known as "snake heads," and these were caught up by the wheels and thrust upward through the bottom of the cars.

The successful use of locomotives in Europe and America gave an extraordinary impulse to the construction of new lines of railroad upon the principal routes of intercommunication. Charters for railroads were obtained in Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and other states. Operations were begun in South Carolina in 1829 upon a railroad designed to connect Charleston with the Savannah river, six miles of which were completed and opened in the same year. The company having this work in charge, under the advice of their engineer, Horatio Allen, who had gone to England to examine the railways of that country, determined to operate their road by the exclusive use of locomotives, and offered a premium of $500 for the best plan of horse locomotive. This was awarded to C. E. Detmold, civil engineer (now of New York), who designed and constructed an engine run by a horse walking on an endless platform, which carried passengers at the rate of 12 m. an hour. The same gentleman in the winter of 1829-30 made the drawings of the steam locomotive Best Friend, designed by E. L. Miller of Charleston, which was built by the Kembles of New York and placed on the Charleston railroad late in the summer of 1835. This railroad was the first to use the important arrangement of two four-wheeled trucks or bogies for engines and passenger cars.

As before stated, this arrangement was practically wrought out by Bryant on the Quincy railroad in hauling large masses of granite, and was experimented upon and finally in 1834 patented by Ross Winans, but seems to have been first put into efficient use in accordance with designs made by Horatio Allen in 1830. The eight-wheeled double bogie carriage was first used upon the Baltimore and Ohio road in 1834, and was built from the designs of Winans. In August, 1830, the Mohawk and Hudson railroad, from Albany to Schenectady, was begun; in October, 1831, it was carrying 387 passengers a day; and in 1832 a locomotive with a load of eight tons travelled on it at the rate of 30 m. an hour. Various railroads in the Pennsylvania coal region and the Baltimore and Susquehanna railroad were begun in 1830. The railroad from Richmond to the coal mines, 13 m. distant, was finished in 1831; and on April 16 of the same year the New Orleans and Pontchartrain railroad, 4 1/2 m. long, was opened. From this time forth railroads were multiplied with great rapidity. In 1832 it is stated that 67 were in opera- tion in Pennsylvania alone; and in that year several of the most important railroads in Massachusetts and New Jersey were begun.

Indeed, so great was the enterprise throughout the United States from 1832 to 1837 in the 'projection and construction of railroads, that at the end of that period the completed lines exceeded in number and aggregate length those of any other country. Since then, with occasional interruptions arising from financial crises and the civil war, the multiplication of railroads has kept pace with the extraordinary increase of population and wealth; and now the mileage of railroads in this country is more than four times as great as in Great Britain, and far in excess of that of all the rest of the world. The American railroads have however grown up under the requirements of the various regions, and have been planned, constructed, and fostered in a great measure independently of each other and without regard to any great or national system. The charters in nearly every instance were granted by the respective states for the roads in their own territory, so that most of the through lines connecting the great cities and widely separated regions of the country grew up by the consolidation of various short sections of road into continuous lines under one management, or by the longer and more prosperous roads leasing the shorter and poorer ones, and only occasionally by agreement of connecting roads to cooperate With each other in the arrangement of their trains.

To the absence of national control over the construction of railroads is due the fact that no uniform gauge for the American system was adopted. Every state, and in fact nearly every company, was left free to fix its own gauge and decide upon the character of its own roads. The gauge of 4 ft. 8 1/2 in. first used in English locomotives was generally continued for the sake of convenience even after the locomotives came to be exclusively built in this country, but independent gauges were also introduced. The Ohio and New Jersey railroads generally adopted 4 ft. 10 in., which in connecting with the roads of the standard gauge necessitated the use of cars with the trucks adjusted to the narrower gauge, but having wheels sufficiently wide to run upon the wider gauge. These were called "broad tread" wheels, and the cars "compromise cars." The railroads of the southern states, with only a few exceptions, were laid to a 5 ft. gauge; two in Ohio to 5 ft. 4 in.; several in Maine, Missouri, and Canada to 5 ft. 6 in.; while the Erie, Atlantic, and Great Western and the Ohio and Mississippi were laid to the 6 ft. or "broad gauge." The last named road changed to the gauge of 4 ft. 9 in. in 1870, the work of moving in both rails having been completed in a single Sunday without the stoppage of trains or the slightest derangement of business. - Notwithstanding the original absence of system and national control, many important continuous lines have been developed by the consolidation of independent ones, and the construction of others necessary to connect or extend the various parts of the trunk lines.

The first great lines of this character originated in the desire of the great seaboard cities to secure a larger share of the business from the interior and western states. The railroad from Boston to Albany, the New York Central, the Erie, the Pennsylvania Central with its eastern and western connections, and. the Baltimore and Ohio, are the most notable instances illustrating the peculiar method by which the great trunk railroads have been created. The Atlantic and Great Western, the Toledo, Wabash, and Western, the Chicago and Northwestern, the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, the Michigan Central, and many others of equal or less extent, grew up in a similar manner. The money for carrying out these vast improvements was in general raised by private subscriptions to the share capital, supplemented by loans secured by mortgages upon the property created; in many instances, however, towns, cities, and even states subscribed to the capital stock, or lent their credit to the various companies. In 1848 the Mobile and Ohio railroad, designed to connect Mobile with the mouth of the Ohio river, was projected, and in the winter of 1849-50 congress passed an act giving to that undertaking about 1,000,000 acres of the public lands lying contiguous to the route.

This was the first act of the kind, and was soon followed by a grant of 2,595,000 acres to the state of Illinois, which conveyed it to the Illinois Central railroad company, for the purpose of aiding it to construct its road from Dunleith on the Mississippi river, in the N. W. corner of the state, to Cairo, 455 m., with a branch from Centra-. lia to Chicago, 249 m. By the hypothecation and sale of these lands and the mortgage of its railroad, the company secured the means of completing its lines, and, with the exception of embarrassments during its earlier days and before the country along the road had become sufficiently developed to yield an adequate traffic for its support, this has been one of the most successful railroads of the country. The policy of granting public lands to railroad companies gave an extraordinary development to railroad enterprise in the northwestern, western, and southern states, which, aided by their great fertility and other natural resources, soon surpassed the older states in the length and number of their lines. - Pacific Railroads. The discovery of gold in California and the rapid increase of wealth and population in the territory west of the Rocky mountains, together with the desire of the older states to establish closer connections during the civil war with those outlying communities, caused congress in 1862 to authorize the construction of a railroad to the Pacific ocean, with various branches to connect it with rival towns on the Missouri river.

This project was first brought into public notice by Mr. Asa Whitney, who from 1846 to 1850 advocated it in addresses to state legislatures and before public meetings, and memorialized congress on the subject. The idea was strongly advocated by Senator Breese of Illinois and by many other men of distinction both in and out of congress; but the plan first took tangible shape in the bill introduced by Senator Benton of Missouri, Feb. 7, 1849. In March, 1853, an act was passed providing for surveys by the corps of topographical engineers of the various routes, and particularly of a northern, southern, and middle one, with the view of determining which offered the greatest advantages for the construction of the railroad. These surveys resulted in the decision that the enterprise could be carried through upon either route which might be adopted; but owing to dissensions and rivalry between the northern and southern states, nothing further was done by congress till the war had removed this obstacle. Acts of congress were passed in July, 1862, and in July, 1864, providing for a subsidy in United States 6 per cent. gold bonds at the rate of $16,000 per mile of railroad from the Missouri river to the base of the Rocky mountains, $48,000 per mile for a distance of 300 m. through the mountains, $32,000 per mile for that portion between the Rocky and Sierra Nevada mountains, and $16,000 per mile for that west of the latter mountains.

In addition to this subsidy, the same acts of congress gave to the railroad companies undertaking this great work 20 sections (12,800 acres) of land for each mile of railroad built, or about 25,000,000 acres in all. The first act of congress provided that the government subsidy of bonds should constitute a first lien upon the road and its appurtenances, but it was found that the money arising from the subsidy would not secure the completion of the work. Congress therefore released the first lien of the government, and empowered the railroad companies to issue their own bonds or debentures at the same rate per mile, and to secure their payment by a first mortgage upon their property. The railroad was built from the California end eastward by the Central Pacific railroad company, and from the Missouri river westward to the common meeting point at Ogden by the Union Pacific company. Work was commenced in 1863, but it was not till 1865 that the first 40 m. from Omaha to Fremont were completed. From that time forward, however, the road was constructed and opened for traffic much more rapidly than had ever been done upon any route or in any country.

In 1866, 265 m. of the Union Pacific were completed; in 1867, 245 m.; in 1868, 350 m.; and on May 12, 1869, the railroad communication from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean was opened. The rails were laid at the rate of two and three miles a day, and in one instance the trackmen under the orders of Gen. G. M. Dodge, chief engineer of the Union Pacific, laid eight miles of track in one day. The preliminary surveys for the Pacific railroad, covering a vast extent of country, required the greater portion of four working seasons for their completion, and cost upward of $1,000,-000. The route adopted follows valleys favorably located, but crosses nine separate mountain ranges: 1, the Black Hills, at an elevation of 8,242 ft. above the sea level; 2, the Rattlesnake pass, in the range west of the Laramie plains, 7,123 ft.; 3, a range called by some "the continental divide," 7,100 ft.; 4, the summit at the head of Bitter creek (the waters of which flow into the Pacific), 6,990 ft.; 5, the eastern rim of the Great Salt lake basin, 7,458 ft.; 6, the Wasatch mountains, 6,804 ft.; 7, Promontory mountain, west of Great Salt lake, 4,889 ft.; 8, Cedar pass of the Towano mountains, 6,193 ft.; and 9, the summit of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 7,044 ft.

The points of the lowest level crossed by the railroad in the mountainous regions are: 1, the second crossing of the North Platte river, at an elevation of 6,475 ft. above the sea; 2, the Red Desert basin on "the continental divide," 6,659 ft.; 3, the Green river crossing, 6,061 ft.; 4, the Great Salt lake basin, 4,239 ft.; and 5, the Humboldt river, near the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 3,969 feet. The aggregate length of the tunnels, of which there are 15, all occurring in the Sierra Nevada or its spurs, is 6,600 ft. The gradients do not generally exceed 80 ft. to the mile, though in one instance they reach 90 ft. and in another 116 ft. to the mile. The length of the Union Pacific railroad is 1,029 m., and of the Central Pacific, exclusive of branches, 881 m.; the entire distance from New York to San Francisco, via Chicago and Omaha, is traversed in six or seven days, according to the route. The cost of the Union Pacific road, in capital stock, mortgage bonds, and land grant, income, and government bonds, was reported to the secretary of the interior at $112,259,360, or an average of $108,778 a mile; but the liabilities of the company at the date of the completion of the road were $116,730,052, or an average of $113,110 a mile.

Jesse L. Williams, one of the government directors of the company and a civil engineer of great experience, in a report to the secretary of the interior, dated Nov. 11, 1868, gave the approximate cost of the Union Pacific railroad in cash at $38,- 824,821, or an average of about $35,000 a mile, and this cannot have been far from correct. The cost of the Central Pacific railroad and branches, 1,222 m., in stock, bonds, and liabilities of every sort, was reported in 1874 at $139,746,311, or an average of $114,358 a mile. The Northern Pacific railroad company was chartered by congress in 1864, and subsidized, to construct a railroad from Lake Superior to Puget sound, 1,800 m., with a branch of 200 m. via the valley of the Columbia river to Portland, Oregon. The construction of the road was begun in 1870, but was arrested in 1873 by financial difficulties. In 1875 there were in operation 450 m. from Duluth, Minn., to Bismarck, Dakota, and 105 m. between Kalama and Tacoma in Washington territory. The Texas and Pacific railroad is to extend from Shreveport, La., and Texarkana, Ark., via El Paso, to San Diego, Cal., a distance from Shreveport of 1,514 m.

In 1875 the main line was in operation from Shreveport to Dallas, Texas, 189 m.; also the division between Texarkana and Marshall on the main line, 75 m. - Railway Statistics. Details in regard to railroads are given in the articles on the various states and countries. The following tabulated statement from Poor's "Manual" shows the number of miles of road constructed in the United States each year since 1830:

First Railroad Passenger Car.

First Railroad Passenger Car.

Central Pacific R. R.

Central Pacific R. R.

Hor: Scale: 160 Miles to 1 Inch. Ver: Scale: 2000 Feet to 1 Inch.

Union Pacific R. R. Acific Railroad.

Union Pacific R. R. Acific Railroad.

YEAR.

Miles in operation.

Annual increase, miles.

1830......

23

. .

1831......

95

72

1832......

229

134

1833......

380

151

1834......

633

253

1835......

1,098

465

1836......

1,273

175

1837......

1,497

224

1838......

1,913

416

1839......

2,302

389

1840......

2,818

516

1841......

3,535

717

1842......

4,026

491

1843......

4,185

159

1844......

4,377

192

1845......

4,633

256

1846......

4,930

297

1847......

5,598

668

1848......

5,996

398

1849......

7,365

1,369

1850......

9,021

1,656

1851......

10,982

1,961

1852

12,908

1,926

YEAR.

Miles in operation.

Annual increase, miles.

1853......

15,360

2,452

1854......

16,720

1,360

1855......

18,374

1,654

1856......

22,016

3,647

1857......

24,503

2,647

1858......

26,968

2,465

1859......

28,789

1,821

1860......

30,635

1,846

1861......

31,286

651

1862......

32,120

834

1863......

33,170

1,050

1864......

33,908

738

1865......

35,085

1,177

1866......

36,827

1,742

1867......

39,276

2,449

1868......

42,255

2,979

1869......

47,208

4,953

1870......

52,898

5,690

1871......

60,566

7,670

1872......

66,735

6,167

1873......

70,683

3,948

1874...................

72,623

1,940

The most important facts for 1874 were as follows:

Population (estimated).......................................................

42,219,000

Area in square miles, exclusive of those territories which have no railroads.....................................................

2,492,316

Miles of railroad.................................................................

72,623

Number of inhabitants to a mile of railroad.......................

581

" of square miles to a mile of railroad.....................

34.4

Capital stock..............................................................

$1,990,997,486

Funded and other debt...............................................

$2,230,766,108

Total capital account.................................................

$4,221,763,594

Cost of railroad per mile...........................................

$60,425

Receipts, total...........................................................

$520,466,016

" from passengers.........................................

$140,999,081

" " " per cent. to total................

27.1

" from freight................................................

$347,016,874

" " " per cent. to total................

64.8

Percentage of total receipts to total capital and debt..............................................................................

12.3

Receipts to each mile of railroad.................................

$7,344

" to each mile of railroad.................................

$12 32

Operating expenses......................................................

$330,895,058

Percentage to receipts...............................................

63.6

Net earnings.................................................................

$189,570,958

Percentage to receipts...............................................

36.4

" to total capital and debt.............................

4.5

Dividends paid.............................................................

$67,042,942

Percentage of dividends to capital stock......

3.37

The total mileage of railways in the United Kingdom has increased from 8,335 m. in 1855 to 13,289 in 1865,15,376 in 1871, and 16,082 in 1873. Of the mileage in 1873, 11,369 m. were in England and Wales, 2,612 in Scotland, and 2,101 in Ireland. The authorized capital for the United Kingdom in 1873 was £676,686,-586, of which £588,320,308 was paid in. The total receipts amounted to £57,742,000, including £31,821,529 from freight, £28,853,892 from passengers, and £2,066,579 from rents, tolls, etc. The working expenditures were £30,752,848, and the net receipts £26,989,152. In 1874 the Dominion of Canada had 4,099 m. of railway. The length of railways in operation in the chief countries of the European continent in or about 1872 was as follows:

Miles.

Austria, Cisleithan (1870)...........................

3,724

Baden (1870), constructed by the state...............

580

Bavaria, constructed by companies..................

609

" " by the state....................

1,221

Belgium, constructed by companies..................

1,042

" " by the state....................

962

Denmark, constructed by companies...................................................

166

" " by the state..................

374

France (1870).....................................

10,847

Hesse..............................................

246

Holland, constructed by companies......................................................

429

" " by the state....................

614

Hungary (1870).........................................

2,151

Italy...............................................

4,087

Norway, constructed by companies..................

42

" " by the state...................

265

Portugal (1870).....................................

439

Prussia, constructed by companies.......................................................

4,733

" " by the state....................

3.913

Russia (1874)..............................................

10,725

Saxony (1870), constructed by companies..........................................

140

" " " by the state..............

537

Spain (1870)........................................

3,380

Sweden, constructed by companies..................

461

" " by the state....................

737

Total..........................................

52,424

Railroad Management

The policy of governments and countries in respect to the construction of railroads at first differed as widely as the countries themselves, but now there may be said to be only two systems, the English and the French. In England and the United States the initiative is given by private enterprise, and the entire control of operations is exercised by joint-stock companies, through their officers or agents, subject only to the laws regulating and defining their powers. In France, Germany, Russia, and most countries of continental Europe, everything connected with railroads and other public works is organized on a systematic plan and conducted with complete uniformity. In England and America everything is left to experience, and no fixed practice or general principle exists. Government plays an insignificant part; when it has authorized the construction of a railroad and defined the powers of the company having it in hand, it goes no further. In France and most other countries the executive government determines the localities for which railway communication is to be provided, lays out the line, chooses the company which is to make the road, or if no company offers makes it itself, regulates the number of trains, fixes the tariffs, controls the administration, and in short attends to the minutest details of construction, maintenance, and operation.

The point of principal importance in the comparison of the English and French railway systems is that, setting out with different policies - private enterprise and free competition on one side, state control and monopoly on the other side - both have ended in the division of the two countries among a few great companies, and the consequent triumph of monopolies. Starting from diametrically opposite principles, the two contrary systems have reached nearly similar results. The construction of railways as a whole has been as rapid in France as in England; their mileage is nearly equal, with not very different fares and nearly the same number of passengers and tons of freight per mile; while in the United States the mileage is nearly five times as great as in either France or England, though the aggregate cost of the railroads in each of the three countries is nearly equal. In America the tendency is toward amalgamation and monopoly. The richer companies are gradually absorbing the weaker ones, and yet so far the general result has been to cheapen transportation and give the public greater and better facilities.

In some instances consolidations have taken place to such an extent that the public has become alarmed, and efforts have been made, especially in Massachusetts, "Wisconsin, and Illinois, through the agency of boards of railroad commissioners, to exercise such control over the railroad system of the respective states as to properly harmonize the interests of the public and the companies. Many of the state legislatures have undertaken to equalize and control the fares and rates of freight by arbitrary enactments, while others have endeavored to do so through their boards of commissioners. As yet no practical settlement of the various questions has been reached. The railroad companies make the general claim that their charters are contracts with the state, which authorize them to regulate their own charges and control their own business, and which cannot be altered or amended directly or indirectly without their consent; and finally that all efforts to do so are in contravention of the constitution of the United States, which prohibits the states from making laws impairing the obligation of contracts.

The theory of those who assert that the states have the right to regulate the rates at which passengers and freights shall be carried by railroads, is that they are public highways, controlled by corporations created by law, and therefore subject to the law-making power whenever it may choose to intervene. Still another theory has been set up and received public attention, namely, that the authority to regulate commerce between the states, given to congress by the constitution of the United States, is broad enough to cover and does cover the right to regulate and control the railroads in all matters pertaining to their operation, and particularly in fixing the rates at which freights and passengers shall be carried, notwithstanding the fact that railroads for commercial purposes were at the time of the formation of the constitution entirely unknown and unthought of. What will be the future solution of this question, now receiving the attention of many writers and thinkers in all parts of the world, cannot be predicted. In France and other countries, where a system of monopolies was deliberately established by the government, a system of checks has been or can be established in the interest of the public.

In England the purchase of the railways by the state has been urged by an influential party, on the ground that the state is the only power which can properly control an interest so great and which so vitally affects the welfare of the entire nation; and in Belgium such purchase is gradually being made by the government. From the peculiar nature of our institutions, as well as from the complexity and extent of our railroad system, the regulation of railroads by government is much more difficult, and therefore probably much more remote, than it is in Europe. On the other hand, the difficulty of consolidation and combination, owing to the extent of the country and the diversity of interests, is also greater, while the danger of monopolies is less; and hence the question will probably receive a solution in America founded upon competition. - Construction and Rolling Stock. Before deciding upon the construction of a railroad along a given route, a careful calculation of the amount of transporting business already done on the route should be made, with the view of ascertaining whether it is sufficient to justify the proposed railroad; though estimates of this kind have in general been found to afford a very uncertain indication of the amount of business which the railroad itself when constructed would obtain.

A more enlarged estimate should be made of the extent of country tributary to the proposed railroad, together with its mineral and agricultural resources, developed and undeveloped, its wealth and population, and also the influence of the new route of transportation upon those already established, as well as upon the habits and productions of the people who are expected to use it. The first question to be considered is, Will any kind of railroad pay when built? the second is, What kind of a railroad, all things considered, should be built? and the third is, Where and how can the money be got to pay for it? In one region a double track steel railway, with low grades, slight curvature, iron bridges, brick or stone station houses, and the largest and best rolling stock, all costing $100,-000 more or less per mile, may be necessary to accommodate the business; in another case, a single track, with heavier grades and sharper curvature, wooden bridges, and cheaper appurtenances of every kind, may be sufficient; and in still another case lighter rails, narrower gauge, and still lighter rolling stock and machinery, may prove to be more than is required.

No rule can be given for telling beforehand just what kind of a railroad should be built, or, when built, will prove to be the one best suited to the situation. Such questions are necessarily indeterminate. It is however a safe principle, economically considered, that no more expensive railroad should be built over any route than can be paid for out of the money which the people to be benefited by it will subscribe to the company's stock or lend upon the pledge of its mortgage bonds. This rule has not generally been kept in view in the United States and other new countries, and the consequence is that there has been a great over production of railroads at various periods, and particularly between 1863 and 1873. To such an extent has this over production gone that the financial panic of October, 1873, has been attributed by some writers exclusively to this cause. - Preparatory to the construction of a railroad, surveys are made along the several routes the road may follow, and plans are constructed representing the exact distances and grades or the amount of deviation from a level at all the points. From these plans the amount of excavation and embankment, of tunnelling, bridging, etc, necessary to bring the road within the required degree of straightness and level, are calculated.

Thus the estimates are obtained, by comparison of which, including also the ascertained amount to be paid for right of way, the construction of the road is determined. The importance of the road and the special purpose for which it is designed are to be duly considered in deciding upon saving of distance and reduction of grades by heavier expenditures. Roads upon which numerous trains are to pass daily, each one of which will incur a certain additional expense for every additional mile, and each mile will involve a certain annual expense for keeping in repair, may economically be shortened by increased outlays that would be entirely inadmissible in securing a similar reduction of distance for less travelled routes. So upon roads that are to be run at high rates of speed short curves must be avoided at any expense. It has happened, from the experience gained in the working of railroads, that some of the earlier lines have been economically reconstructed by a partial abandonment of the old routes under more judicious surveys, or from the increase in the business justifying the adoption of a more perfect line.

As already remarked, the old system of occasional inclined planes is almost wholly abandoned for roads of general travel, and the construction and capacity of locomotives and carriages are so much better understood, that a much greater range in curvatures and grades is now found practicable than was formerly ever thought of. As regards curves, it was at first recommend-ed in England to fix the minimum radius that should be allowed in one mile, and in 1846 it was one of the "standing orders" of parliament that no curve should be made with a radius of less than half a mile (2,640 ft.) without special permission of parliament. In France a minimum was established by "the administration of roads and bridges" of 2,700 ft., or about 2°. On the Hudson River railroad the minimum curve has a radius of 2,062 ft.=2.75°. But the Baltimore and Ohio road was built with several curves of 400 ft. radius (14.25°), and with one of 318 ft. (18°), and no difficulty was experienced in running over them at 15 m. an hour. The narrow-gauge railroads now coming into favor for light traffic, in thinly settled or mountainous districts, are built with curves of very much shorter radius, in some instances not exceeding 50 ft. in length.

The objectionable features of the curves are avoided by making the wheels conical, of greater diameter within than at their outer edge; the effect of this in running on a curve, when the wheels on the outer side are pushed by the centrifugal force outwardly, is to make them roll, on their larger diameter, and at the same time the wheels on the other side, drawn in toward the centre of the track, roll on their smaller diameter. On each side they are thus accommodated to the different lengths they have to traverse, without straining the axles and without greatly increased friction or slipping of the inner wheel upon the rail. The friction against the outer rail due to the centrifugal force is partially prevented by elevating the outer rail. The object of attaching the wheels to their axles, instead of letting them turn upon these, is to secure greater steadiness at high speed. The requiring of minimum degrees of curvature has been abandoned upon the English and French roads. In France, upon the Paris and Orsay and Paris and Sceaux railroads, there are curves of 82 ft. radius, and trains, the engines and carriages of which are provided with loose wheels and guide rollers, run through complete semicircles at 20 m. an hour. - Upon the earlier roads in Great Britain and in the United States grades of 30 or 40 ft. to the mile were considered heavy, at the last figure nearly tripling the power that was required to draw the load upon a level.

Grades of 70 to 80 ft. were regarded as almost impracticable, as they would compel the carrying of light loads over the whole line, and therefore, when such grades could not be otherwise avoided, inclined planes worked by stationary engines were adopted. The Hudson and Mohawk railroad, in a length of 16 m., was built with one such plane at Albany, and another at Schenectady. The Philadelphia and Columbia railroad was also built with two planes, one at Columbia and the other near Philadelphia, and there were ten on the Alleghany Portage road over the Alleghany mountains, all of which have been displaced by the substitution of heavier grades on more extended lines. But as experience was acquired in the working of railroads, it was found that locomotives rarely carried maximum loads for the moderate grades, and that a temporary slackening of the speed upon the steep grades rendered a further portion of the power of the locomotive available for overcoming the increased resistance. Thus, when the doubtful point as to the adhesion of the driving wheels to the rails was satisfactorily determined, and the common law of mechanics, that power can be gained at the expense of motion, was found to be applicable to ascending grades of a railroad, these were increased much beyond their former limits.

High grades were sooner introduced in this country than in Europe, but they have since been adopted there also. On the Mount Savage and George's Creek railroads in Maryland grades of 140 ft. to the mile have long been used; and on the Baltimore and Ohio road, through the Alleghany mountains, of 114 ft. In England those of 100 ft. to the mile are not uncommon, and there are several from 130 to 150 ft. At Sheffield is a grade of 196 ft. to the mile, and the same is seen at Oldham on the Lancashire and Yorkshire road, extending for l 1/2 m. In France on the St. Germain railroad is a grade of 123 ft. to the mile for about 1 1/2 m.; and it is now asserted by engineers that grades of 370 ft. to the mile can be worked by locomotives, but that on heavy grades the locomotive should take no • more cars in descending than in ascending. - The proper preparation of the road bed should be an object of the most particular care. Being the foundation and support of the whole superstructure, it should as a matter of economy be made as firm and durable as possible. But it is in this that the American roads are most defective. The least width of embankments for double tracks ought not to be less than the width of the two tracks, with 6 ft. between them, and 6 ft. outside of each.

In excavations the width of ditches on each side should be added. A common width of embankments in England is 33 ft., while on the principal American roads it varies with the height of the embankment. The transverse slopes of the English roads are much flatter than ours, and are commonly well protected with a good grass sod. But the most essential difference is in the drainage, upon which more than anything else depends the durability of the earthwork and of the sleepers and rails. Upon some American roads the sleepers are laid directly upon the natural soil, or upon this thrown up in a bank. Where the ground freezes, any superstructure on such a basis is certain to be more or less displaced in the spring thaws; in wet weather it must prove very insecure, and in dry weather very dusty. The sleepers soon settle irregularly, placing the rails out of line, and thus are involved rapid wear, deterioration, accidents, and loss to the rolling stock and to the road. The dust rises in clouds, to the great injury of the machinery and of the passenger cars, and seriously incommoding the passengers themselves.

The effects of water about the earthwork of railroads are regarded as so injurious that an eminent English authority says: "Wherever it is known or suspected to exist, its immediate source should be traced, and every possible means adopted for diverting it from the slopes and adjacent surfaces." Not only are capacious and permanent culverts, ditches, and drains abundantly provided, but subdrainage by tile drains is also employed to great advantage; and as a final precaution the road bed is ballasted, usually a foot deep beneath the sleepers and another foot around and over them, and for a width on double tracks of 26 ft., the quantity per mile amounting to 10,000 or 12,000 cub. ft. The material preferred for ballast is gravel containing a natural mixture of clean sand, and next to this broken stone in pieces not exceeding 2 1/2 in. in diameter. Limestone is not so good as gneiss, as it packs too densely, and trap rock also is likely to become too solid and rigid. A certain elasticity in the bed is essential for the durability of the rails; and where no other suitable material is at hand, common clay burned in lumps in great heaps intermixed with bituminous coal has been found to answer very well, especially if hard-burned. Cinders and small coal are excellent materials, and in Holland shells and broken bricks are extensively used.

The road bed through the long English tunnels, and also upon the viaducts, is well ballasted, and the wear of the rails is thereby materially decreased. The wooden sleepers on many European and some American roads are also protected by some chemical application. (See Preservation of Wood.) The ordinary duration of sleepers upon American roads is hardly 7 years, but upon English roads it is 15 years and upward. By the scrupulous attention directed to these details in building the European roads a great saving is effected in the cost of "maintenance of way," engines, and working. Only one half as much fuel is consumed to the mile run on the English and French roads as on those of the northern United States; and the consumption of fuel may be taken as a measure of the resistances overcome. If the English trains are from 20 to 30 per cent. lighter than those of American lines, they are run 25 per cent. faster, thus requiring about the same power. - The superstructure of railroads is almost universally laid upon transverse wooden sleepers, the primary object of which is to give a steady bearing upon the road bed. Seasoned white oak is preferable to any other wood for strength and for holding the spikes.

Hemlock is better than chestnut, and both these are extensively used in the United States. Their dimensions are commonly 8 ft. long with 7, 8, or 9 in. width of bearing surface, and their distance apart from centre to centre is from 2 ft. 1 1/2 in., as on the Erie road, to 2 ft. 6 in. On the English roads they are commonly 9 ft. long, 10 in. wide, often squared, and 5 in. thick. They are usually laid 3 ft. apart from centre to centre; and that a uniform bearing may be secured, particular care is taken that the sleepers are alike in size and regularly spaced in their beds. In France the experiment has been tried of cutting the sleepers in two in the middle, leaving one in every 10 or 12 ft. to bind the two rails together. The result was very satisfactory, the object being to prevent the spring of the full-length sleepers or the movement they sometimes acquire on their centre. But for these and detached rectangular blocks of any material, either transverse or longitudinal, it is essential that the supports should be well packed upon a thoroughly ballasted road bed.

In England and India, where wood is expensive and iron comparatively cheap, rectangular blocks and also inverted pots of cast iron have been tried upon some of the roads, and with good results; but the conditions of cost are altogether unfavorable to the adoption of such devices in the United States. Granite sleepers have been tried and have continued in use upon one of the tracks of the Boston and Lowell road. They make a very hard and rigid support, and cannot be used in connection with wooden sleepers interspersed or alternating with them, unevenness in the track soon resulting. The smooth face of a rock ledge has been tried upon the Manchester and Leeds road, the rails being spiked directly down upon it. It was soon found necessary to take them up on account of the excessive wear upon the rails thus placed. The Great Western road in England is constructed with longitudinal bearings or sills measuring 10 in. square, and framed together by cross ties of 6 by 4 in. every 6 ft. The arrangement is said to be easy on the rolling stock, but as regards cost of maintenance of way this is one of the most expensive roads in England. - The iron rails, which are generally straight bars of wrought iron, differ greatly in the shape of their cross section, their weight, quality, and the manner in which they are secured to the road bed.

Almost the first form was the fish-bellied rail, made about the year 1820. This soon gave place to others of more economical shape, as the T and the Railroad Or Railway 1400113 rails, and to these was added the bridge or hollow rail, the form of which is nearly that of the letter U inverted. These have been variously modified in their figures and proportions, and a great number of other forms that may not be referred to either of these have been introduced upon different roads. In the United States an inverted T rail has been in very general use, so as to be known as the American rail. It has a broad bearing base, and is easily secured to the sleepers by hook-headed spikes driven into elongated slots in the edge of tre flange, or merely over the edge, thus allowing expansion and contraction of the rail with changing temperatures without disturbing the fastenings. With this rail the cast-iron chairs employed for seating and holding almost all other rails were at first used to strengthen the joints. Up to about the year 1854 the weight of rails had been steadily increasing from about 35 lbs. per lineal yard till it had reached 85 and in some cases even 100 lbs. No advantage was found in the very heavy rails, however, but on the contrary the iron in such large piles was necessarily less worked in the manufacture and was in a poor condition for wear.

The tendency has since been to return to lighter rails, of 55 to 65 lbs. to the yard, and to require these to be made of iron originally good, the piles to be first rolled into blooms, and these to be again brought to a welding heat, and then rolled into rails. The miserable quality of much of the iron on American roads is due to the deficient working, the fibres of the iron as it wears showing that they had never been thoroughly incorporated together. In bargaining for it no test and no particular conditions of manufacture were required, as is customary in other countries. Rails of 45 lbs. have worn under the heaviest traffic for 20 years, as those laid in 1837 on the Reading railroad, while others of nearly double the weight have given out on other roads in one, two, or three years. The first rails employed on the Stonington railroad, of 54 lbs. to the yard, also lasted 20 years. Rails have gradually increased in length to 15, 16, 18, and 20 ft., and even 30 ft., which latter is now the common length made by American rolling mills and used upon American railroads. An important feature in the rail is its height or depth.

Its stiffness, if the rail could be regarded as a rectangular beam, increases as the square of the depth; thus doubling the height and retaining the same weight of material quadruples the stiffness, but doubling the height and weight also increases its stiffness eight times. The effect of a want of stiffness in the rail is deflection between the supports under the weight and a mashing of the iron into the wood of the sleepers, which continually increases the mischief. Even between rigid supports the temporary depression of the rail is such as to present a continual ascending plane in front of the wheels, which the descent of the slope from behind does not in any measure compensate, the advantage of this being wholly balanced by other considerations. In 1857 steel rails were first rolled in England, and so greatly were they found to surpass iron rails in endurance, that, notwithstanding their greater cost, the demand for them kept ahead of the capacity of the mills to make them, till Bessemer's process of producing them from the puddling furnace reduced their cost and greatly increased the demand for them. At first steel rails were used only at such points as were subjected to extraordinary usage, as at terminal stations and for switches, frogs, and crossings.

They were gradually introduced by the roads having the heaviest traffic, and finally they have come to be used in the first construction of many of the more important new roads, and by nearly all the old ones instead of the iron rails as they wear out. The following figures show the sections of rails now commonly in use in America and England. - Various devices have been invented and used from time to time in securing rails to the sleepers, and for keeping their ends together. All of them recognize the effects of expansion and contraction of the rails under the action of the weather, and in laying rails a proper allowance, varying with the length of the rail and the variations of temperature, is always made for this. By neglect of this precaution the rails heated by the sun have sometimes expanded so as to be thrust upward, lifting the sleepers one or two feet out of the ground. From this cause, a train running in June, 1856, on the Northeastern railway in England, at 40 m. an hour, was thrown off the inside of a curve, though the 82 lb. rail was fastened every three feet in heavy chairs and "fished" at the joints. Almost the universal fastenings in England used to be cast-iron chairs, made to hold the rail in an opening in the top, into which it was seated and keyed by a wooden wedge.

The chairs were themselves strongly bolted down upon the sleepers. Those for receiving the two ends of adjoining rails were much heavier and stronger than the others, weighing from 26 to 39 lbs., and others 18 to 26 lbs. It is of great consequence to keep the ends of the rails securely upon the same horizontal line. If one end is depressed by the weight coming upon it, the wheel strikes the end of the next rail with a concussion that soon shatters the rail, and being repeated at other joints seriously injures the rolling stock. Various methods of keying and fastening the ends of the rails have been used, but they have generally been discarded in favor of what is known as the fish joint, first tried in 1843 at New Castle, Del., but not finally adopted to any extent till 1847. This method was not favorably received on American roads at first, owing to the difficulty of applying it to the low rails generally in use, but in some form or other it has finally superseded all others everywhere. As first proposed, two sleepers were to be placed 6 in. apart at the joints, and two plates of iron slightly wedging were to be driven one on each side between the jaws of the chairs flat against the sides of the two rails.

Instead of this, however, a pair of iron or steel plates 18 in. long, 3/4 in. thick, and about 3 in. wide, are bolted together through the rails with 3/4 or 7/8 in. bolts, the holes in the rail being elongated to allow for contraction and expansion. Another form of fish joint is constructed by applying the bars to the flange of the rails and bolting them firmly to a suspension plate extending under the joint from one rail to the other. Nearly all the forms of the fish joint will give a smooth track when first laid, but the natural tendency of the nuts holding the fish plates to the rails is to work loose and thus to weaken the joint. Various devices more or less efficient have been invented for locking the nut and thus insuring the stiffness of the joint. In order that trains of cars may pass from one track to another an extra pair of rails are laid down, which can be moved so as to complete the connection with either one of the lines as desired and break it with the other. These movable rails are called switches, and are commonly controlled by a long bar under the surface connecting with an upright lever at the side of the road.

This is in the care of the men known as switch tenders, whose duty it is to see before the approach of every train that the rails are so placed as to carry it upon the right track. Turn-tables are platforms constructed of wood or iron which can be pushed round upon a circular track sunk below the level of the ground. A locomotive or car being run on to the platform, it is thus easily turned about or directed upon any other diverging track, numbers of which usually concentrate around the turn-tables. - The passenger cars or carriages used upon railroads are generally constructed after either the English or American plan. The former had its origin in the old-fashioned stage coach, and in many instances preserves the outlines of the stage coach body on its sides. It is generally about 24 ft. long and divided into four compartments, each carrying six passengers. Each compartment is upholstered according to the class to which it belongs, and is furnished with two doors for ingress and egress, the upper parts of which are of glass. These compartments have no communication with each other, nor is there any means of passing from one carriage to another, except by the precarious means of a foot board running along the outside of the carriages.

They are carried by four and sometimes six wheels, fastened rigidly together. The American passenger car, as before shown, had its origin in the sharp curves of the American railroads, and was originally constructed by splicing two common English carriages together and placing a pair of bogie trucks under each end. At first these trucks were made with four wheels, but now they are frequently made with six and eight, the weight of the car being equally distributed over them by means of equalizing beams. The cars are from 46 to 60 ft. long, are entered by doors at the ends, and carry from 44 to 62 passengers. They are warmed by stoves or hot-water heaters, and are furnished with water and water closets, while the English carriages have none of these conveniences. The American cars were formerly coupled into trains by means of links and pins, but these together with the weak platforms connecting them were found to be the cause of many accidents. They have been replaced to a great degree by Miller's patent buffer, coupler, and platform, which couple the cars automatically, hold them together without motion, and in case of accident, the platform being strongly trussed, the danger of crushing or telescoping is entirely obviated.

Sleeping cars were first adopted by a few of the leading American railroads about 1858, but they were for the most part crude and unsatisfactory in their arrangement and appointments. They were constructed under a variety of patents, employed various devices which had not yet been perfected by experience, were chiefly used for local travel, and did not leave the roads owning them. It soon became apparent that a class of cars that could be used both night and day, and run between distant points over several different roads, would bo necessary to supply the growing want of the public. In 1864 George M. Pullman invented and patented a car designed to meet all the requirements of the problem, and so great was its success that it grew rapidly into popular favor, and supplanted all others. In 1867 the Pullman palace car company was organized for the purpose of conducting the sleeping car business, now rapidly increasing in magnitude and importance. It contracts to furnish its cars to railroad companies for a period of 15 years, giving each company the option, if exercised within a reasonable time, of purchasing a half interest in the cars assigned to its road, and of sharing equally with the Pullman company in the results of the business.

The Pullman company furnishes the various kinds of cars required for the business, employs the servants and attendants, and maintains all the interior equipment pertaining to the sleeping accommodations. The railroad companies control the movements of the cars, carrying their passengers in them, receive the whole of the railroad fares, and maintain the outside and running gear of the cars, exactly as they do their own. Upward of 60 railroads in the United States, Canada, England, and Italy have entered into contracts with the Pullman company. Some of them are participants in the entire business, while others are joint owners with the Pullman company in the cars assigned to their respective lines. The present standard sleeping car exceeds the weight of the ordinary 12-wheeled first class passenger car used on the leading railroads by about 2 1/2 tons, the excess being due to the bedding and partitions essential to the sleeping arrangements. These cars are now used on more than 30,000 m. of railroad in America, and the advantages of the system have so recommended them that they have recently been adopted with favor in England and Italy, and will probably make their way at an early day to the railroads of the rest of Europe. The Pullman company has adopted a number of ingenious devices which very greatly increase the comfort, safety, and health-fulness, and decrease the fatigue, anxiety, and loss of time of railroad travelling.

The freight cars or carriages used upon railroads are constructed according to two distinct systems, the English and American, which like the passenger cars differ especially in reference to the trucks, the former using the rigid four-wheel system, and the latter the bogie truck system. The American railroads use wheels of cast iron or low steel almost exclusively, the surfaces of which are hardened by chilling them in cooling; while all European roads use wheels of wrought iron, steel, and wood. The former are much cheaper, but said to be more liable to accident. - In treating upon railroads numerous important considerations present themselves besides those already noticed, each of which should receive particular attention. Such especially are the viaducts, bridges, and tunnels, and the immense cuts or excavations and embankments; also the processes employed by the engineers in laying out the road, their seeking for the most level and the straightest line while restricted by the amount of means provided, and planning the excavations and embankments, so that the material supplied by the former shall amount as near as may be to that required by the latter.

The station houses, which in themselves are an important class of structures peculiar to this new improvement, are generally constructed of brick or stone in Europe, of iron in tropical countries, and in America at first of wood, for which brick, stone, or iron is nearly always substituted as soon as the change can be afforded. Railroad bridges are generally built of iron and placed upon stone or iron supports in all countries except the United States, where engineers in the first construction of railroads more commonly use timber owing to its great abundance, lightness, and cheapness. Tunnels constitute a remarkable feature in the construction of railroads. In Great Britain, where it is considered to be more economical to tunnel through rock than to make open cuts deeper than 60 ft., many tunnels have been constructed, several of them over 3 m. long. The Mont Cenis tunnel through the Alps is nearly 8 m. long; the Hoosac tunnel in Massachusetts is nearly 4 3/4 m. long; and it is now proposed to construct one under the straits of Dover, 21 m. long, to connect the English and French railway systems. (See Tunnel.) - Cost of Railway Construction and Management. The comparative economy in the construction and operation of railroads has received particular attention from many competent engineers and railroad managers.

It is well known that the English roads have been built at an extraordinary amount of first cost, but it does not appear that the expenditures for actual construction have been much larger than in the United States for works of similar character. The practice in the two countries has been entirely different. In England the plan has been to build them in the most solid and substantial manner from the start, and to supply them with every appliance necessary for their operation; while in America the general rule has been to build upon the cheapest possible plans, with light rails, narrow banks, heavy gradients, wooden bridges, and less expensive cars, buildings, and machinery, and to depend upon future earnings for the means with which to bring the works up to the standard required by the increasing business of the line. Among the large items of cost upon English lines is that of land damage or right of way, the average of which has been rated at about $45,000 a mile, or about the average cost of American railroads. The "parliamentary expenses," incurred in obtaining charters, are also very great, amounting in several instances to an average of $7,345 a mile, and in the case of the Great Northern railway to an average of $16,000 a mile.

The several items of interest, discount on loans, bonuses, and commissions, also add greatly to the aggregate cost of railroads in all countries. Larger expenditures than are usual in the United States are involved from the more unfavorable physical features of the country, the topography presenting no long lines of watercourses nor wide table lands, both which are common in this country. Boggy districts are also more frequent in England, and the construction of a permanent road across these has often cost immense sums. Even when the embankments through them have been apparently completed, as much more material has in some cases been required for their maintenance in consequence of their subsidence. The bridges, viaducts, tunnels, etc, are much more numerous and expensive structures upon English than American roads. The superior equipment of engines and carriages adds a considerable amount to cost per mile, some of the roads having even more than a locomotive for every mile, the cost of which averages about $12,000 each. Among the heavier items of expense are the approaches to the cities, London particularly, where the roads for several miles are frequently constructed upon arched viaducts of brick.

The London and Greenwich line, 3 3/4 m. long, thus built, cost $1,299,651 a mile; the London and Blackwall, of the same character, $1,406,-304. From such causes the total cost of English roads has amounted to about $170,000 a mile. The French double-track roads in 1857 were estimated to have cost $101,877 a mile; about one fourth of the whole was for earthwork and "works of art," as bridges, viaducts, and tunnels; one quarter for rails, chairs, ties, and keys; and $6,039 for ballast, much more even than upon the English roads. Few roads in the United States have reached an expenditure for construction equal to that of the least expensive roads of Great Britain; and the average cost of all those of the United States is estimated at little more than $60,000 a mile. - The effect of the superior character of English railways is shown in a remarkable manner by the low rate per mile at which the permanent Way is kept in order, and by the cheapness with which they are operated as compared with the same items for equal traffic on American lines. In Great Britain the distance run to a ton of bituminous coal or of coke varies from 75 to 118 m., the latter having been obtained with coke for a full year on the Cork and Bandon railway; 75 m. is considered to be a fair average.

In America the number of miles run per ton of bituminous coal varies with the quality of the coal, weight of the trains, and gradients of the roads, from 35 to 60 m.; 45 m. may be considered as. about a fair average. The rate at which trains are run upon the English roads is not so high as it was formerly. Passenger trains run from 18 to 40 m. an hour, the latter being the speed of some of the express trains; the average rate is about 27 m. Freight trains average about 15 m., including all stops. The highest rate for a passenger train attained for a few miles together has been 73 m. an hour. A speed of 60 m. is made daily for short distances, and sometimes even of 78 m. an hour. The average speed is considerably greater than on the French roads, and also exceeds that on the American, where it is not over 25 m. an hour, though 35 and even 40 m. are made upon some of the principal lines by the fastest trains. - According to the report of the Massachusetts board of railroad commissioners for the year 1874, it appears that one passenger was killed and seven were wounded during the year by causes over which they had no control.

The whole number of persons carried by rail during the year was reported at 42,480,000, and the average journey at 16 m.; it consequently follows "that the average journey by rail, resulting in death, during the last year, has been 679,000,000 m., and that resulting either in death or injury has been 85,000,000 m.; in other words, in estimating the chances of danger in travelling by rail in Massachusetts for any given person, the returns of the last year show that he will probably travel 85 millions of miles before sustaining any injury from an accident from causes beyond his control. The ordinary average of accidents of this description in Massachusetts, in years past, has been about one passenger to each 1,400,000 carried; during the past year it has been one only to each 5,300,000 carried, and for the previous year one to 42,400,000 carried." In contrast with this it is added that " through a period of ten years, 1859-'69, one passenger was killed or injured on the French railroads to each 674,000 carried, and in England the average has been about one in every 430,000; or, in the first case, twice the proportion of Massachusetts casualties, and in the last, three times the proportion." The foregoing is a more favorable statement than can be made by the average of the American railroads, and yet it is believed that they in turn can show a greater degree of safety in the transportation of their passengers than obtains in either England or France. - Narrow-gauge Railroads. As before stated, the standard railway gauge of the world is now 4 ft. 8 1/2 in.

In 1832 a. horse tramway, since known as the Festiniog railway, was built in Wales for the purpose of carrying slate from the quarries to Port Madoc. It was nominally of 2 ft. gauge, and was used as originally designed till 1863, when C. E. Spooner, the engineer of the line, recommended the use of locomotives. Seven of these were built, two weighing eight tons and five weighing ten tons each. In 1869 Mr. Fairlie built an engine for this road known as the Little Wonder. It is mounted on two trucks or bogies, each having four coupled wheels 2 ft. 4 in. in diameter with a wheel base of 5 ft., making the total wheel base of the engine 19 ft. The cylinders are 8 3/1 6 in. in diameter and 13 in. stroke, and the entire engine weighs 19 1/2 tons. The success of the Festiniog railway and the Fairlie engines became widely known; and the writings of Mr. Fairlie, published in 1870 and 1871, on "The Gauge for the Railways of the Future," again attracted the attention of engineers throughout the world to the question of the gauges.

The advocates of Fairlie's system claim: 1, that the cost of constructing, taking the average expense, will be found to vary as the gauge; 2, that every inch added to the width of the gauge beyond what is abtity, accurate measurements are wanting for many portions of the globe, but the following table, condensed from a larger one in Symons's treatise on rain (1867), gives an approximate presentation of the subject:

Sections of Rails.

Sections of Rails.

Pullman Parlor Car.

Pullman Parlor Car.

COUNTRIES.

Annual rainfall, inches.

EUROPE.

Austria: Vienna..............

19.6

Belgium: Brussels...........

28.6

Denmark: Copenhagen,

22.3

France: Marseilles..........

19.0

Montpellier ....

30.3

Paris................

22.9

Bayonne..........

56.2

G't Britain: London.........

24.0

Cardiff......

43.0

Glasgow...

39.0

Galway.....

50.0

Greece: Corflu.................

42.4

Holland: Rotterdam........

22.0

Iceland: Reykiavik...........

28.0

Italy: Milan......................

38.0

Malta.................

15.0

Norway: Bergen...............

84.8

Portugal: Lisbon..............

23.0

Prussia: Berlin.......

23.6

Russia: St. Petersburg......

16.2

Astrakhan.........

6.1

Sicily: Palermo................

22.8

Spain: Madrid........

9.0

Sweden: Stockholm .........

19.7

Switzerland: Geneva........

31.8

ASIA.

China: Canton..................

69.3

Peking.................

26.9

India: Bombay.................

84.7

Cherrapongee.....

610.3

Madras...............

44.6

Malay Peninsula:

Singapore............

190.0

Asiatic Russia:

Nertchinsk...........

17.5

Tiflis..........

19.3

COUNTRIES.

Annual rainfall, inches.

Turkey: Jerusalem...

16.3

Smyrna.....

27.6

AFRICA.

Algeria: Algiers......

27.0

Oran..................

22.1

Cape Colony:

Cape Town.......

24.3

Madeira..............

30.9

St. Helena............

18.8

Sierra Leone......................

86.0

NORTH AMERICA.*

British Columbia:

New Westminster.

54.1

Honduras: Balize.....

153.0

Alaska: Sitka....................

89.9

West Indies:

Barbadoes........

75.0

Havana......................

50.2

Kingstown................

83.0

St. Thomas........

60.6

SOUTH AMERICA.

Brazil: Rio de Janeiro

58.7

Venezuela: Cumaná..

7.5

AUSTRALIA.

New South Wales:

Sydney....................

46.2

South Australia:

Adèlaide

19.2

Victoria: Melbourne..

30.9

Tasmania:

Hobart Town..........

20.3

POLYNESIA.

Tahiti: Papiete.................

45.7

The extensive mass of information presented in Mr. Symons's table shows that the regular decrease of rainfall as we proceed from the equator to the pole, announced many years ago by Humboldt and others, was a too hasty generalization, and that the data on hand must be further increased, and must be studied with reference to the local influences bearing upon every station, before any exact conclusion can be arrived at, other than this, that the heaviest falls are in the tropics, and that beyond them there is no material decrease. The study of about 1,500 stations by Schmid shows that the rainfall appears not to depend entirely either upon the latitude or the season of the year, but principally upon the relations between the general system of atmospheric currents and the position of the station in reference to geographical and topographical features; thus the enormous rainfall of Cherrapongee, India, depends directly upon the ascent of the current of warm moist monsoon winds over the Cossya hills. In general the geographical distribution of rain proves that rainfall is principally due to condensation in ascending currents of air, and in a less degree to the cooling due to radiation of heat.

Concerning the annual and daily period of the rainfall, and the connection between rainfall and the direction of the wind, see Meteorology. - In regard to the frequency of rain, while in many parts of the world a broad distinction exists between the rainy and the wet season, elsewhere we are able to distinguish only between the seasons of short heavy showers and those of long continued gentle rains. A general view of this important feature of the rains throughout the globe is afforded by the accompanying chart, which is due to Wojeikof (1874). This meteorologist says that the normal condition of the oceanic portions of the northern hemisphere is a subdivision into four zones: 1. The equatorial zone of constant rains; this is shifted with the seasons N. and S. of its mean" position, and on the average extends from within a degree of the equator to 10° of N. latitude. 2. A rainless zone of trade winds, extending from lat. 10° to 25° or 30° N. 3. The subtropical zone of rain, extending to lat. 40°; into this zone during summer the trade winds extend, and but little rain falls; in winter variable winds with frequent rains occur. 4. A zone of rains with S. W. winds, whose occurrence is distributed pretty equally throughout the year, and which extend from lat. 40° N. to the pole.

On passing from the ocean to the land, we find that the third or subtropical zone almost entirely disappears, while the regions of rain at all seasons, and of summer rains, extend further southward. Other features in the distribution of rain will be seen from the map itself. In the article Meteorology will be found information concerning the general laws of rainfall in so far as they pertain to dynamical meteorology. - On the question of the secular variation in rainfall as an item of climatology (specially interesting to civil engineers in connection with the industries of any country), the most extensive investigations have been made by Symons (1870) in England, Schott (1872) in the United States, Rawson (1873) in Barbadoes, and Raulin (1871) in France. The equally, important studies of Meldrum (1872) and Köppen (1873) have relation more directly to the eleven-year periodicity. Symons, as the result of all observations in Great Britain from 1725 to 1869, shows that if we take the average of 60 years (from 1810 to 1869) as our standard, the rainfall for each decade will be relatively as in the following table:

* For Canada and the United States, see Meteorology.

DECADE.

Relative rainfall.

1730-'39

0.899

1740-'49

0.706

1750-'59

0.855

1760-'69

0.911

1770-'79

1.035

DECADE.

Relative rainfall.

1780-'89

0.935

1790-'99

0.965

1800-'09

0.882

1810-'19

0.986

1820-'29

1.032

DECADE.

Relative rainfall.

1830-'39

1.014

1840-'49

1.026

1850-'59

0.952

1860-'69

1.015

Schott, in his "Tables of Rainfall in the United States" (Smithsonian institution, 1872,) gives the result of all observations that have been made at about 1,200 stations, showing that the slight general variations in the rainfall throughout the country have somewhat of a periodical nature; thus along the seaboard from Maine to Virginia, as also in New York, and in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, there has been an increase (amounting however to scarcely 1 per cent.) in the average annual precipitation during the last 50 years; on the southern Atlantic coast it appears to have been on the decrease. The following table, condensed from those of Schott, gives the relative rainfall by decades for several sections of the United States:

Railroad Or Railway 1400116Railroad Or Railway 1400117

DECADE.

Eastern and Middle States.

New York State.

The

Northwest.

The Ohio Valley.

The Southwest.

The Gulf States.

The South Atlantic States.

California.

1810-'19..............

0.938

........

.........

.........

..........

.........

..........

..........

1820 -'29................

0.971

........

.........

.........

..........

.........

..........

..........

1830-'39..............

0.981

0.933

.........

0.926

..........

0.955

..........

..........

1840-'49..................

0.999

0.978

0.969

1.043

1.067

1.000

1.068

..........

1850-'59................

1.050

1.028

1.031

1.009

0.972

0.962

0.974

1.211

1860-'69.........

1.068

1.057

1.030

0.980

..........

1.032

..........

1.066

Both the British and American series therefore unite in showing that during 60 years there has been no appreciable change. - For further details on the subject of rain, see Wojeikof, Die atmosphärische Circulation, appendix No. 38 to Petermann's Geographi-echen Mittheilungen (Gotha, 1874). For information relating to the United States, see the above cited "Tables of Rainfall." With regard to the rainfall in Great Britain, see the annual volumes of " British Rainfall," by G. J. Symons, which contain every variety of information on this subject, including the actual measurements at 1,500 stations and numerous special investigations into sources of error.