I. Claire Elisabeth Jeanne Gravion De Vergennes

Claire Elisabeth Jeanne Gravion De Vergennes, countess de, a French authoress, born in Paris, Jan. 5, 1780, died there, Dec. 16, 1821. She was a grandniece of Vergennes, prime minister under Louis XVI. In her youth she was celebrated for her beauty, under the name of Clary, and was a friend and neighbor of Mme. d'Houdetot at Sannois. She married Count de Rémusat, afterward chamberlain of Napoleon, in 1796, and became an intimate friend and lady-in-waiting of Josephine. Among her writings is an Essai sur l'éducation des femmes, which was published by her son (1824; new ed., 1842).

II. Charles Francois Marie De, Count

Count Charles Francois Marie De, a French author and statesman, son of the preceding, born in Paris, March 14, 1797, died there, June 6, 1875. In 1830 he was elected to the chamber of deputies, where he became a follower of Guizot. He held office in 1836 under Molé, and in 1840 as minister of the interior under his life-long friend Thiers; and he was a member of the chamber till 1848, and of the subsequent assemblies till the coup d'état of Dec. 2, 1851, when he was banished, returning in September, 1852. In 1871 he became minister of foreign affairs. In 1873 he was defeated as a candidate for the national assembly by the workmen of Paris, and soon afterward he retired with Thiers (May 24). He was a prominent member of the academy, and Royer-Col-lard described him as " the first of amateurs in everything." His principal works are: Essais de philosophic (2 vols., 1842); Abélard (2 vols., 1845); Passé et présent (2 vols., 1847); Saint-Anselme de Cantorbéry (1853); Bacon, sa me, son temps et sa philosophie (1857); L'Angle-terre au XVIIIe siècle (2 vols., 1856); Histoire de la philosophie en Angleterre depuis Bacon jusqu'à Locke (2 vols., 1875); and Lord Herbert de Cherbury, sa vie et ses oeuvres, ou Les origines de la philosophie du sens commun et de la théologie naturelle en Angleterre (1875).