Richmond, a city and the county seat of Wayne co., Indiana, on the E. side of the east branch of Whitewater river, 68 m. E. of Indianapolis; pop. in 1850, 1,443; in 1860, 6,603; in 1870, 9,445; in 1875,11,579, of whom 1,581 were Germans and 422 Irish. It is built on rolling ground 700 ft. above tide water, and is surrounded by a fertile agricultural district, with which it has an important trade. There is a good fire department. Horse cars traverse the principal streets. In the N. E. corner of the city are fair grounds 33 acres in extent. Richmond is an important railroad centre, the Little Miami, the Cincinnati, Richmond, and Fort Wayne, and the Cincinnati, Eaton, and Richmond railroads, as well as several divisions of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis railroad, centring here. There is good water power. The number of manufacturing establishments in 1874 was 127; number of hands employed, 1,507; capital invested, $1,807,785; value of raw materials used, $795,784; of products, $2,729,346. The chief articles of manufacture are threshing machines, portable engines, ploughs, flour and saw mill works, school and church furniture, and burial caskets of wood.

The slaughtering of hogs is extensively carried on, the number slaughtered in 1874 being 27,700. There are three banks, with an aggregate capital of $900,000. The taxable value of property in 1875 was $8,383,767. The principal charitable institutions are the orphans' home and the home for friendless women. There are nine public school houses, with a high school and inferior grades, having 37 teachers and an enrollment of 1,900 pupils. There are also two Lutheran and two Roman Catholic schools and a business college. The Friends' academy is an important institution. Earlham college, also under the auspices of the Friends, was founded in 1859. It has preparatory and collegiate departments, and admits both sexes. In 1874-'5 it had 14 instructors, 221 students, and a library of 3,500 volumes. The buildings are about half a mile W. of the city. Richmond has two theatres, two daily and six weekly (two German) newspapers, a public library of 10,000 volumes, and 20 churches: 2 Baptist, 1 Christian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Evangelical Association, 3 Friends', 2 Lutheran, 4 Methodist, 1 New Jerusalem, 2 Presbyterian, 2 Roman Catholic, and 1 Wesleyan.

Richmond #1

Richmond, a town of Surrey, England, 10 m. W. S. W. of St. Paul's, London; pop. in 1871, 15,113. It is built on the side and summit of an eminence on the Thames, and is famous for its scenery. It is well paved, lighted with gas, accessible by rail and steamboats hourly from the capital, and connected by bridge with Twickenham. It has a theatre, lecture hall, and numerous places of worship; and near by are Pembroke lodge, the seat of Earl Russell, within the park, and many other splendid residences. The Wesleyan theological seminary, on the hill, is a fine specimen of the Tudor style. The parish church contains monuments to Thomson, Edmund Kean, Dr. John Moore, Gilbert Wakefield, and other noted men who are buried here. The Star and Garter hotel, near the park, is celebrated alike for its dinners and for the unrivalled prospect it commands. Originally built in 1738, it has been repeatedly enlarged, was partially destroyed by fire in 1870, and was rebuilt in 1872. Here the annual dinners of the bank of England directors and of many of the great commercial companies of London are given. - Richmond was originally called Schene or Scheen, afterward Sheen, and was a royal residence under Edward I. and II. Edward III. died here in 1377. Chaucer was surveyor of the works of the palace in 1389. Anne, queen of Richard II., died here in 1394. In 1414 Henry V. founded a Carthusian priory, which was appropriated by Henry VIII. in 1540, restored by Mary in 1557, and suppressed by Elizabeth in 1559. The palace was burned down in 1498, but was rebuilt immediately after by Henry VII., who changed the name of Sheen to Richmond, from his title of earl of Richmond in Yorkshire before his coronation, and he died here in 1509. Mary temporarily imprisoned here Elizabeth, who afterward made it her favorite residence, and died here in 1603. Richmond park, originally New park, comprising 2,253 acres, surrounded by a brick wall 8 m. in circumference, was enclosed by Charles I. about 1636, and was thrown open to the public in 1752. The palace was partially destroyed under the commonwealth, and was pulled down in the next century.

George III. joined the old palace park to Kew gardens. Sir W. Chambers built the Richmond observatory in 1769.