I. A Province Of Brazil

A Province Of Brazil, lying between lat. 20° 50' and 23° 25' S., and lon. 40° 50' and 44° 40' W., bounded N. by Es-pirito Santo, N. W. by Minas Geraes, S. W. by São Paulo, and E. and S. by the Atlantic; area, about 18,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 1,050,000, of whom 306,000 were slaves. (These numbers, and some others, are according to the Almanack de Gotha for 1875 and other recent authorities, those in the article Brazil having been derived from earlier sources.) The surface of the province is mountainous, being traversed by the Serra dos Orgãos (the local name of the Serra do Mar), and bounded W. by the Serra Mantiquiera. In the latter chain, about 5 m. from the N. W. corner of the province, is Itatiaiossú, the highest peak in Brazil (10,300 ft.) Many isolated hills rise from the plains, which are low and marshy. The only important river, the Parahyba do Sul, rises near Paraty, and, after a circuitous and precipitous course of 400 m. between the two mountain chains (partly through the province of São Paulo), empties near the N. limit of Rio de Janeiro; it is navigable for only 50 m. from its mouth. Numerous salt lakes border the coast, and in the interior are extensive sheets of fresh water.

There are many islands on the coast, the largest of which are Ilha Grande and Marambaya. The principal ports are Angra dos Reis, São João, Mangara-tiba, Frio, Macahé, and Rio de Janeiro. The last, the only one of importance, is in the bay of the same name, and is one of the best in the world. It is an irregular basin penetrating inland 15m., with a breadth varying from 2 to 9 m. The entrance, only 1,700 yards in width, is between steep hills, the eastern about 1,000 ft., the western 1,270 ft. in height. The latter is a conical isolated mass of gneiss, called Pão de Assucar. At its base is a fort, and on its opposite side another, forming the salient points of a system of fortifications designed to be impregnable. Just within and nearly midway of the entrance is an isolated rock, also fortified. The basin soon widens, and the shores trending in deep curves form beautiful bays and coves. Many islands and islets are scattered over its surface, the largest of which are cultivated and many of them fortified. Numerous streams empty into the basin, freshening its waters and forming banks on which grow large oysters. The greatest depth of water is 150 ft., just within the entrance; thence northward it shoals gradually, and in the head of the basin there is only 6 or 8 ft.

The tides, owing to local causes, are irregular. The climate of the province is agreeable and salubrious on the high lands, but warm and unhealthy on the low lands and near the sea. Vegetation is luxuriant, and crops are abundant. The forests contain varied and excellent timber, and almost all kinds of tropical and temperate plants are found. Coffee, sugar cane, cotton, mandioca, and tobacco are extensively cultivated; tea, rice, cacao, and potatoes moderately. Coffee is the great staple, and its cultivation is steadily increasing. Nearly all the vegetables of temperate climes may be raised. Every variety of tropical fruit abounds, and flowers of rare beauty and fragrance adorn the gardens and forests. Among the native animals are the ounce, tapir, wild hog, and monkey. There are immense herds of cattle. The forests swarm with birds of brilliant plumage, and there is a large variety of beetles, butterflies, and other insects, many of them of great beauty. Fish of many varieties are found in all the waters. There is gold in the Cantagallo region near Minas Geraes, and garnets and amethysts are found. Iron is abundant, but no mines are worked; and granite, a great variety of marble, and several kinds of clay suitable for earthenware and porcelain abound.

The province is divided into 17 districts, which are subdivided into municipalities, and these into parishes. Primary education is obligatory. The state provides 164 primary and 4 advanced schools, and there are about 200 private schools in the province. The largest city, Campos, on the right bank of the Para-hyba, about 35 m. from the sea, is said to contain 40,000 inhabitants. Nictheroy or Nithe-roy, the capital, contains 25,000 inhabitants, but owing to its situation near Rio de Janeiro it is practically a suburban town. Petropolis, in a valley of the Orgãos, contains the summer palace of the emperor and many villas. Railways are constructing throughout the province, but the "Dom Pedro II." is the only completed road of importance. The chief cities are connected by telegraph. The commerce of the province is absorbed by the city of Rio de Janeiro. II. A municipality (Muni-cipio Neutro) enclosed by the province of the same name, bounded N. by the rivers Guandú-Minin and Mirity, W. by the Guandú, S. by the Atlantic, and E. by the bay of Rio de Janeiro, the islands therein forming a part; extreme length from E. to W. 36 in., extreme breadth 24 m.; area, about 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 274,972, of whom 48,939 were slaves.

There are several groups of mountains within its limits, among the highest peaks of which are Tijuca, 3,447 ft., Gavia, 2,575 ft., and Corcovado, 2,272 ft. These, viewed from the sea, present a remarkable outline known as the "sleeping giant." Large bowlders are scattered everywhere. In the plains and valleys are lakes of considerable size, only a few feet above the sea level, and there are numerous small streams and torrents, and many mineral springs. The coast is bordered with islands. Agricultural industry is devoted chiefly to the cultivation of fruit, vegetables, cereals, and grass to supply the markets of Rio de Janeiro; but there are several extensive coffee and sugar plantations, and large fields of mandioca. The municipality, which embraces the capital of the empire with a number of small communes, is governed directly by the executive and legislative authorities of the empire; it is divided into 19 parishes, and sends three deputies to the national assembly. There are 185 public and private schools for primary education, with an average daily attendance of nearly 15,000.

III. The Capital Of Brazil

The Capital Of Brazil, and the largest city of South America, situated in the Municipio Neutro, on the W. shore of the bay of Rio de Janeiro, in lat. 22° 54' S., lon. 43° 10' W.; pop. about 260,000. It is of irregular shape, being built chiefly on a narrow undulating plain extending for 6 m. along the bay. Several rocky hummocks, which rise from the low ground, give the city a picturesque appearance. The older streets are very narrow, and the older houses, generally of two stories and without architectural beauty, are badly arranged and poorly ventilated. The newer streets are wider, and the houses are of improved design, but wanting in modern conveniences. Many are painted in gaudy colors, some are ornamented with variegated tiles, and others are covered with stucco; only a few are of granite or brick. The suburban dwellings are usually surrounded with gardens. The business streets are paved with cobblestones, and the others macadamized. Extensive sewers, of the aggregate length of 75 m., have recently been constructed throughout the city. At their three outlets attempts are made to disinfect and filter the sewage before it passes into the bay. Water is brought from Mt. Corcovado by means of an aqueduct which is more than 100 years old.

It is 12 m. long, and crosses a valley 90 ft. deep and 740 ft. wide, upon two tiers of arches, one above the other. The water is distributed throughout the city to fountains, from which it is drawn for use. The supply is insufficient for the increasing demand. The streets, especially those of the suburbs, are lighted better than those of any other city in the world. The principal public edifices are the chamber of deputies and city palace of the emperor, in one spacious unattractive building fronting Palace square; the imperial chapel, of no architectural merit and unadorned, on the same square; the exchange, a low building divided into stalls which are rented to brokers, and containing a good reading room; the post office, unworthy of the business transacted through it; the custom house, perhaps the finest structure in the city; and the marine arsenal, also a fine building, at the end of the rua Direita, in which are all the preceding. The rua Ou-vidor, leading out of this, is the principal street of Rio de Janeiro; from it leads the largo do São Francisco, on one side of which is the church of the same name and on the other the military academy.

A narrow street leads thence into the largo do Rocio, in which is the theatre of São Pedro d'Alcantara. In the middle of this square is an equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I., the pedestal of which is ornamented with Indian figures emblematic of the great rivers of Brazil. The Campo Santa Anna, the largest square of the city, is unadorned and filthy; on one side of it is the senate, on another are military barracks and the offices of the minister of war, on a third those of the minister of commerce, and on the fourth the Italian opera house and a museum. Among the remaining public buildings are the hospital of Misericordia, the mint, the academy of fine arts, the observatory, and the palace of São Christovão. Among the charitable institutions are several hospitals for natives, one for Portuguese, one for English, and others for French and Spaniards. The educational institutions are a national college, a military and engineering school, a naval academy, a commercial school, a school of medicine and surgery, a geographical and historical institute, a polytechnic and an agricultural school, several night schools for adults, and many other schools. The city contains 30 churches and chapels, and six convents and monasteries.

Besides an Anglican chapel there are several congregations of other Protestant denominations, composed chiefly of foreigners, the natives being nearly all Roman Catholics. The hotels, with one exception, furnish wretched accommodations. There are several libraries, only one of which, the imperial, contains books in different languages, the others being small and purely local. The imperial library, formerly the royal library of Portugal, brought from Lisbon by the emigrating royal family, has now upward of 100,000 volumes. Among other treasures it possesses the only complete series of Dürer's woodcuts of the "Passion of Christ." There are a government printing establishment and about 50 private publishing and printing houses; 70 native periodicals of little merit, a well conducted English daily newspaper, and a French and a German daily. There is one large market, plentifully supplied with great varieties of fish, poultry, fruit, and vegetables, but deficient in good meat and game. Of the two public gardens, the Passeio Publico is within the city, and the botanical just beyond its limits.

Several lines of street railway traverse the city and its suburbs; omnibuses run to all the neighboring villages; two lines of steam ferry boats cross the bay; the Dom Pedro railway connects with the Pa-rahyba river; and a steamer runs to the terminus of the Petropolis railway at the head of the bay. Steam communication with the seaports of the empire is frequent, European steamships arrive and depart almost daily, and there is telegraphic connection with Europe. A sea wall is now (1875) under construction along the water front of the city, beside which the largest vessels may lie. On the N. side of the Ilha das Cobras, off the N. E. extremity of the city, is a dry dock excavated from the solid rock, capable of admitting a vessel 280 ft. long and of 28 ft. draught; and a much larger one is in course of construction near it. There are numerous ship yards, and factories for the manufacture of cotton, tobacco, paper, soap, glass, and carriages, but none of the factories are very extensive. The climate is damp and un-healthful, and the city is seldom free from yellow fever, but this rarely assumes a malignant form. Diseases of the respiratory organs are very common.

The mean annual temperature is 82° F.; the mean annual rainfall, 42.5 in. - The trade of Rio de Janeiro is hampered by the national export tax, which averages 13 per cent. on all articles of home production. The exports for the fiscal year 1872-'3 were valued at $52,643,275, as follows: coffee, $48,-048,725; gold in bars and dust, $2,108,462; diamonds, $587,424; tobacco, $521,990; hides, $484,080; cotton, $408,480; timber, $275,165; sugar, $133,559; rum, $68,784; horse hair, India rubber, and wool, $6,606. The United States takes about 58 per cent. of the coffee and half of the timber (fancy woods); Great Britain takes about half of the remaining exports; the residue is chiefly sent to France and Germany. The imports are very varied; the value for the fiscal year 1872-'3 was $36,-511,450; more than one half are from Great Britain, about one fourth from France, the remainder chiefly from the Plata, Germany, and Portugal. Flour, kerosene oil, lumber, lard, rosin, and turpentine are almost the only articles received from the United States, the value of which in 1873 was $2,415,000. The customs receipts of the port for the two financial years 1870-'72 were $27,648,429. The import tax ranges from 40 to 50 per cent.

The arrivals from foreign ports during the year 1873 were 4,431 vessels, of 2,639,362 tons; the departures 3,358, of 2,807,299 tons. The arrivals from Brazilian ports were 6,421 vessels, of 1,051,928 tons; departures, 7,203, of 1,345,648 tons. The total movement of shipping for 1873 was 7,844,237 tons. The trade of the port increases slowly, owing to exorbitant charges and unnecessary delay, which greatly diminish legitimate profits. - Although the bay of Rio de Janeiro was undoubtedly visited soon after the discovery of Brazil, and as early as 1502, it remained without name until Juan Diaz de Solis entered it on Jan. 1, 1515; thinking it the entrance to a river, he named it Rio de Janeiro (river of January). The first settlement was in 1531, but it was abandoned at the end of four months. The province having been conferred by John III. of Portugal as a gift on Martim Affonso de Souza, a small fort was built and a settlement formed near the entrance by him in 1552. This was neglected and appears to have been abandoned, for some French Huguenots under the command of Admiral Villegagnon formed the first permanent settlement in 1555, and erected a fort on the islet which now bears the name of their leader.

The French were well received by the Indians, the Tamoyes, who were at enmity with the Portuguese; they carried on a lucrative trade with them, and named the colony Henriville, and the adjacent country Antarctic France. John III. ordered their expulsion, which was accomplished in 1565 by the governor of Bahia, who in 1567 founded another Portuguese colony near the present site of the Misericordia hospital, naming it São Sebastião. The history of the first century of the colony is replete with wars of extermination against the Indians, civil dissension among the colonists, and cruelty, oppression, and assassination. In 1710 the French made an unsuccessful attempt to take possession of the bay; their commander was taken prisoner and assassinated. The attempt was renewed in 1711 with success, but the commander, Duguay-Trouin, accepted a ransom and abandoned the bay. In spite of mismanagement and difficulty, the colony as well as the whole province prospered; and in 1763 Rio de Janeiro was made the capital of the viceroyalty.

In the beginning of 1808 the royal family of Portugal came to Brazil on account of the occupation of the mother country by the French; their presence gave an impetus to the growth of the city, which has ever since remained the first in commercial importance in Brazil. After the return of King John VI. to Portugal (1821) the Brazilians declared their independence and established an empire, with Dom Pedro I., the son of the king of Portugal, as emperor (1822). Thenceforward the history of the city is that of the empire. The capital of the province was transferred to Nictheroy and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro created in 1834.