Rohilcund, the country of the Rohillas, in British India, W. of Oude, N. and E. of the Ganges, and S. of Kumaon and Gurhwal, now comprised in a commissionership or administrative division of the Northwest Provinces bearing the same name, and in the native principality of Rampoor, which is surrounded by the six districts composing the division. These districts are Bareilly, Bijnoor, Budaon, Moradabad, Shahjehanpoor, and Terai (Kashi-poor); total area, about 11,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 5,435,550. The country is drained by several tributaries of the Ganges, of which the Ramganga is the largest. Sugar, cotton, cotton cloth, and timber are the principal articles of exportation. A good deal of rice is raised in the Terai region, which is irrigated by a large number of small canals and hill dams. - The Rohillas, from whom this territory derives its name, are descendants of the Afghan soldiery who established themselves in the vicinity of Delhi, and on the dissolution of the Mogul empire in the middle of the 18th century became independent. About 1770 they were attacked by the Mahrattas, and sought assistance from the vizier of Oude, who afforded them but little aid," and subsequently demanded an enormous sum in payment for it.

In 1774 British troops were sent against the Rohillas by Warren Hastings, to enforce this demand, and the country was brought under subjection to the vizier, who in 1801 ceded to the English the entire territory with the exception of Rampoor. In 1857 the sepoys mutinied at every station in Rohilcund, and the country was a prominent seat of military operations.