Rome (Lat. and It. Roma), the chief city of ancient Italy, ultimately the capital of the Roman empire, and now the capital of the kingdom of Italy. Its origin is lost in the mists of antiquity, for modern criticism has dispelled nearly all belief in the legends which for many centuries passed as historic testimony respecting the primitive city. There are grounds for the supposition that small fortified towns or villages stood on each of the seven hills now comprised within the walls of Rome. On the Palatine hill there were probably two such fortresses in prehistoric times, one Etruscan, the other either Pelasgic or Sabine. The more fully developed city and state seems to have risen from a union of the inhabitants on the Palatine with the Etruscans, Sabines, and Pe-lasgians, and perhaps also with other peoples, long previously settled on the adjacent hills. (See Italic Races and Languages.) This union seems to have reached a state of political and constitutional perfection about 5 1/2 centuries B. C, in the reign of that monarch who is known as Servius Tullius, and toward the close of the regal period.
During that period a Roman state had grown up (according to the legends, ruled successively by Romulus, the reputed founder about 753 B. C, Numa Pompi-lius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquin the Elder, Servius Tullius, and Tarquin the Proud), which seems to have been a powerful monarchy, and which may have been, as Müller thinks it was, in the times of the Tar-quins and Servius, ruled by an Etruscan dynasty, by whom Etruscan usages were introduced into Rome. Its mythology resembled that of the Greeks. (See Mythology, vol. xii., p. 118.) This monarchy embraced a portion of southern Etruria and the whole of Latium.
Plan of the Roman Hills.
What is known as the fall of the Tarquins was probably the overthrow of the Etruscan power. The population of Rome then consisted of the patricians and their clients, and of plebeians. The patricians were the original Roman people, and were divided into three tribes, the Ramnenses, the Titienses, and the Luceres, who represented the Latin, the Sabine, and the Etruscan elements of that population. The clients were the dependants of the patricians. The plebeians, or commons, were freemen, but had originally no political rights. They owed their existence to conquest and other causes, and they were mostly of Latin origin. By the Servian constitution they were incorporated into the state. This change was long regarded as the subversion of a' popular constitution, by the substitution of an aristocrati-cal polity; but Servius, or whoever it was by whom the change was made, did really, by establishing the constitution of the centuries, and constituting the order of equites, a distinct political body, of mixed patrician and plebeian elements, break up the patrician monopoly of power, and prepare the way for those further political reforms by the success of which Rome became mistress of the ancient world.
The change was liberal, and opposition to its facts and its principles was never permanently successful. That regal Rome was powerful, and possessed an extensive territory and a large population, is established by the greatness of its public works, some of which endure to this day; and also by the terms of the treaty between Rome and Carthage, which, made in the first year of the republic, shows that the whole Latin coast was subject to Rome. The republican polity is supposed to have been established about the year 510 B. C. The most ancient history of Rome of which we have any knowledge was written in Greek by Fabius Pictor, a Roman citizen who served in the Gallic war, 225 B. C. No fragment of it remains. We know only by vague report of a similar work in Greek by Timaeus, a Sicilian, who brought his history down to about 261. The earliest history of Rome in Latin is by Cato the Censor, who died in 149. The Servian constitution, as a whole, was lost as one of the effects of the overthrow of the monarchy; but it was gradually restored in part, its principles characterizing all the subsequent struggles of the plebeians to obtain power in the republic. Early republican Rome was a weak state, and for a century and a half it exercised little influence at home, and none abroad.
Not only the kings fell, but the country fell with them. Rome is believed by modern historians to have been conquered by Porsena, and when she recovered her freedom, she was no longer the head of Latium; and during the next 150 years she was employed in recovering the ground she had lost. This slow advance was owing to internal convulsions. The political contests between the patricians and the plebeians were bitter, and more than once they threatened the utter destruction of the state. The plebeians seceded from Rome about 494, with the intent to found a new city; but a compromise was effected, and plebeian tribunes were created, for the purpose of protecting members of their order against the cruel and unjust action of patrician magistrates; during their year of office, the persons of these tribunes were to be sacred and inviolable. The number of tribunes was increased, until they became ten; and they possessed the veto power, which enabled them to stop any law, or to annul any decree of the senate, without assigning any cause for their action. They were the representatives and protectors of the plebeians, and none but plebeians could be made tribunes.
The plebeians were at the same time allowed to elect two aediles. By the Publilian law it was provided that these tribunes and aediles should be chosen by the tribes in the forum, and not at the assembly of the centuries in the Campus Martins. The first free election was held about 470. Spurius Cassius, who was finally put to death by the patricians because he had successfully advocated a popular agrarian law, formed leagues with the Latins and Hernici, by which the Volsci and AEqui were prevented from conquering Rome and Latium. The legends of the elder Brutus, Lucretia, Valerius Publicola, Horatius Cocles, Mucius Scaevola, Menenius Agrippa, Coriolanus, the dictator Cincinnatus, and the Fabii belong to this first period of the republic. Historically, Cincinnatus appears as a stern oligarch. The decem-virate was established in 451 (according to the commonly adopted chronology), and lasted but two years, the period of its existence being a patrician despotism, to which belongs the legend of Virginia. The consuls elected in 449 (according to some the first, the supreme magistrates of the republic having previously been called praetors) were L. Valerius Potitus and M. Horatius Barbatus. Several popular laws were passed under their lead, by which an appeal to the people was secured to every citizen, the people including the plebeians, and the assembly of the tribes was endowed with full legislative power.
The Canuleian law provided that patricians and plebeians might intermarry. A proposition to throw the consulship open to the plebeians led to the establishment of military tribune's, to which offices plebeians were eligible. The censors were now first appointed. The quaestorship was thrown open to the commons in 421, and this opened the senate to them. Veii was conquered in the beginning of the 4th century B. C. by Camil-lus. About 390 Rome was taken by the Gauls under Brennus, after a battle on the banks of the Allia, and destroyed, with the exception of the citadel on the Capitoline hill, which was bravely defended through a siege of seven months. According to one account, the dictator Furius Camillus defeated Brennus and totally destroyed his army; but the better sustained tradition is that the Gaul quitted Rome as a conqueror, after receiving 1,000 lbs. of gold as a ransom for the defenders of the fortress. The people then wished to settle at Veii, but their design was prevented through the influence of Camillus. They were reduced to great misery, and to this time belongs the story of Manlius Capitolinus, who, like earlier popular leaders, was charged by the patricians with aspiring to kingly power and put to death.
The Licinian rogations were brought forward in 376, by the tribunes C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius; they provided that debtors should be relieved, that the occupation and use of the public domain should be limited, and that one of the consuls should be a plebeian. After a contest of about ten years, these rogations became law; and during the contest a law was passed committing the charge of the sibylline books equally to plebeians with patricians, an invasion of the monopoly of the religious ministry of the state which the latter had long held. L. Sextius was the first plebeian consul, chosen at the election next following the triumph of the measures of himself and his colleague. At this time the judicial power was taken from the consuls, and placed in the hands of the proetor urbanus, a newly created patrician magistrate. The curule aedileship was created, to which members of both orders were eligible. These changes were the most important events of Roman history. Not only did they go far to unite the two orders, and so put an end to those civil contests which had prevented the military advance of the Romans, but by enlarging the sphere and elevating the spirit of citizenship, they created the citizen legions by whom the conquest of Italy was effected.
But for this, the Samnites would probably have become masters of the Italian peninsula. The patricians did not immediately submit to the Licinian laws, both consulships being at times held by members of their order down to 343; but after that time they were divided regularly. In 172 both consulships were opened to the plebeians. The first plebeian dictator was C. Marcius Rutilus (356), who was chosen censor five years afterward. For many years after the restoration of Rome under Camillus, the wars waged by the Romans were carried on against Volscians, AEquians, Etruscans, and Gauls, and were successful contests, the victors behaving with much liberality to those of the vanquished whom they incorporated into the state, making them citizens, and increasing the number of the tribes. Fears of the Gauls led to the renewal of the Latin league in 358. The first Samnite war began in 343, and the immediate occasion of it was the demand for assistance by the Capuans against the Samnites, they surrendering their city to Rome. It lasted little more than a year, when peace was made in consequence of the renewal of internal troubles; and the settlement of those troubles was followed by the Latin war, which ended (339) in the complete triumph of the Romans. The second Samnite war was begun in 326, and lasted about 22 years.
Its fortunes were various, including the disaster of the Caudine forks, but the Romans were finally victorious. The Etruscans made war upon Rome, but were defeated. The third Samnite war opened in 298, and Samnium submitted to Rome in 290. The Gauls and Etruscans were also defeated in the same war. During the time of these wars several political measures were carried at Rome which tended to establish equality between the plebeians and patricians; and by the Ogulnian law the pontificate and the au-gurate were opened to the plebeians. The passage of this law, in 300, is considered as the establishment of the Roman constitution. "What is called the constitution of Rome," says Arnold, "as far as regards the relations of patricians and plebeians to each other, was in fact perfected by the Ogulnian law, and remained for centuries without undergoing any material change. By that law the commons were placed on a level with the patricians, and the contests between these two orders were brought to an end for ever.
The comitia too had assumed that form, whatever it was, which they retained to the end of the commonwealth; the powers of the magistrate as affecting the liberty of the citizen underwent but little subsequent alteration." The subsequent civil troubles were social, or were brought about by the ambition of able men who sought to make use of " the forum populace," a class entirely distinct from the plebeians, with whom they are often confounded; or they were caused by attempts to effect great reforms, like those of the Gracchi, which sought the restoration of the old constitution after its provisions had long been neglected or violated by the ruling classes. The last secession of the plebeians took place in 286, and was appeased by the enactment of the Horten-sian laws, which reduced debt, divided lands among the needy, and provided that all the resolutions of the tribes should be law for the entire people. This last measure clothed the people with supreme legislative power, and took from the senate its veto on their action. The dictator Hortensius put an end to that dispute in which the people had been supported by Curius Dentatus, one of the most popular Roman characters, both with his contemporaries and in history. He had previously conquered the Sabines of the mountains.
The extension of their dominion to the south now brought the Romans into collision with the Italian Greeks, at the same time that they were defeating the Gauls in northern Italy. They aided the Thurians, who were of Greek origin, against the Lucanians and others, who were believed to be incited by the people of Taren-tum, one of the most opulent and powerful of the Hellenic communities. A Roman army was marched to Tarentum, and the Tarentines called Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to their aid. This was at the close of the year 281. Pyrrhus landed in Italy with more than 20,000 men, and defeated the Romans at Heraclea, and afterward at Asculum. He was not well supported by the Italians; and in consequence of an alliance between Rome and Carthage, he made peace with the Romans, who had an excellent consul in Fabricius, and went to Sicily, where he pursued a brilliant but unsuccessful career till 276, when he returned to Italy, where he was defeated in the following year by Curius Dentatus, near Beneventum. The Romans now pursued their course of Italian conquest, and about 264 they had become masters of all ancient Italy. In that year the first Punic war broke out.
The Romans resolved to assist a body of mercenaries, called Mamer-tines, who had possession of Messana in Sicily, against Hiero, king of Syracuse. Hiero was defeated and retired, but the victors then attacked a Carthaginian force, which also had been sent to the assistance of the Mamer-tines, and defeated it. War was then declared against Carthage. It lasted 23 years, with various fortune. Though ignorant of naval matters, the Romans soon learned to defeat the Carthaginians at sea, after rapidly effecting the conquest of nearly all Sicily, making peace with Hiero, and leaving him in possession of his small but rich kingdom. Their first naval victory was won by C. Duilius in 260. It was followed by other successes, and Sardinia and Corsica were invaded. The Carthaginians were reduced to the defensive in Sicily, holding there only a few strong places. In 256 M. Regulus and his colleague Manlius defeated the Carthaginians in the greatest sea fight of those days, and then landed in Africa, which was incapable of making any resistance. Regulus was left to continue the work of conquest, with only 15,000 men; he was at length defeated, and his army destroyed and himself taken captive, by an army commanded by the Greek Xanthippus. The Romans also lost two fleets by storms.
They were more fortunate in Sicily, capturing Panormus, and totally routing the Carthaginian army that sought to recover the town. The Romans began the siege of Lilybaeum in 250, building a third fleet to blockade it, but this was destroyed by the Carthaginians. Another fleet was lost at sea. Hamilcar now took command of the Carthaginians, and though but feebly supported he carried on the war with considerable success, the Romans still maintaining the siege of Lilybaeum. A fourth Roman fleet was prepared, which destroyed that of Carthage. Peace was then made, on harsh terms to Carthage, and Sicily became the first Roman province. Taking advantage of the war that Carthage was compelled to wage with her mercenary soldiers, Rome demanded of her the cession of Sardinia and Corsica, and the sum of 1,200 talents, to which no resistance could be made. For some years there were but few campaigns, and in 235 the temple of Janus was closed. Colonies had been founded during the war with Carthage, and the number of tribes was increased to 35. The Romans first crossed the Adriatic in 229, when they conquered the Illyrians, and sent envoys to Greek states to explain their proceedings, who were well received.
They were threatened with a Gallic war, which was to them always the source of peculiar terror, and it was ascertained that the whole number of available men was 750,000. The war began in 225 and lasted four years, the Gauls being beaten, and the Roman arms carried far toward the Alps. At this time were to be seen the beginnings of that popular party which was in later times to have so important a place in the republic, but the growth and action of which were stayed for a century by the operation of external events. A new war with Carthage was impending. The conquests of Hamilcar and Has-drubal in Spain alarmed the Romans; and in 228 they concluded a treaty with Hasdrubal, by which it was arranged that the Carthaginians should not go beyond the Ebro. Hasdrubal was killed seven years later and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Hannibal, who completed the Carthaginian empire in Spain to the south of the Ebro and the Douro. He besieged and took Saguntum, a Greek city in alliance with Rome. The Carthaginian government having refused to deliver up Hannibal for this action, Rome declared war in 219. The next year Hannibal marched to Italy, through Spain and Gaul, and reached that country in about seven months, with 26,000 men, having lost or dismissed nearly three fourths of his army, but many Gauls soon joined him.
He defeated the consul Scipio on the Ticinus, his colleague Sempronius on the Trebia, and in 217 Flaminius at Lake Thrasy-menus. He made captives of the Romans who were taken, but dismissed the Italian allies, his war being directed against Rome only. The Romans made Q. Fabius Maximus prodictator, and Hannibal, who marched south, was baffled by his strict defensive; but in 216 the consuls, Varro and L. AEmilius Paulus, gave battle at Cannae, and were routed with immense slaughter. The Romans showed much firmness, and took their measures with such promptitude and vigor that immediate danger was soon removed; but they never thereafter dared to meet Hannibal in a pitched battle while he remained in Italy. Most of southern Italy now declared for Hannibal. The great city of Capua, which was almost capable of being the rival of Rome, opened her gates to him, and welcomed him as a deliverer. Had he been reënforced from home his purpose might have been accomplished; but at first it was impossible to send him assistance, and when it was sent the time for success had passed away. The Romans gradually recovered ground. They retook Capua after a long siege, which Hannibal could not raise, though he marched to Rome for that purpose, and threatened the city.
Marcellus reconquered Sicily. In Spain, which they had invaded, they were less fortunate, the brothers Scipio being there defeated and slain. Wherever Hannibal was present he was almost invariably successful. In 207 his brother Hasdrubal, following his route from Spain, entered Italy, but he was defeated and killed on the Metaurus. Hannibal was forced to remain in Bruttium. In Spain the war was renewed with great vigor and complete success by P. Cornelius Scipio, then a young man. He was elected consul, with Sicily for his province, and had permission to carry the war into Africa, in accordance with the policy which he supported, but which was opposed by the old Roman leaders. Nothing happened in his consulship, but at its close he was appointed proconsul, and it was resolved that he should retain hi3 command until the end of the war. In 204 he invaded Africa, and his successes were so decisive that Hannibal was recalled, and the war was ended by the victory of the Romans at Zama in 202. Peace was then made, Carthage accepting humiliating terms (201). - Rome.had now become a conquering nation, and in 200 she made war on Mace-don, the king of which country had endeavored to assail her while she was engaged in the contest with Hannibal. She was victorious, Flamininus routing the army of Philip at Cynoscephalae; she granted the vanquished moderate terms of peace, and nominally restored the Greeks to freedom, but really established her influence over Greece. A Syrian war was begun in 191, and ended with the defeat of Antiochus the Great at Magnesia, the Romans having entered Asia in 190. The AEtolians were reduced to submission, and the Galatians conquered without a declaration of war.
The Italian Ligurians were also subdued, and the province of Cisalpine Gaul was created. In Spain the Roman dominion was greatly extended, so that nearly the whole peninsula acknowledged it for many years. Istria was reduced in 177. The last Macedonian war began in 171, and was closed in three years, by the victory of L. AEmilius Paulus over Perseus at Pydna. Rome was now virtual mistress of the East and the West, and protected Egypt against Syria, and ruled Greece through the tyrants that were established in her states. The legions crossed the Maritime Alps in 166, and took the first step toward the conquest of Gaul 12 years later. The Dalmatians were subdued in 155. A Macedonian rebellion was promptly quelled.. The Achaean league was conquered in 146, and Corinth taken and destroyed; and Greece became a Roman province, called Achaia. The third Punic war, long urged by the elder Cato, was begun in 149 and ended in 146, when Carthage was taken and destroyed by the second Scipio Africanus. The wars in Spain, renewed in 149, were brought to a close at the end of 16 years, by the siege and destruction of Numantia, the work of Scipio. Lusitania, too, was annexed after the assassination of its gallant defender Viriathus in 140. The servile wars of Sicily broke out in 134, and the first continued two years.
In Asia the Romans gained the kingdom of Per-gamus, by will of its last monarch Attalus III. The tribune Tiberius Gracchus entered upon his course of agrarian legislation in 133. His object was to create a new body of Roman commons, by reviving the Licinian laws, with some modification. Though this was in fact a war against property holders, it was not a war against property, as the rich had obtained a monopoly of the public lands in defiance of law. Some of the best of the Roman statesmen supported Gracchus, but the evil he wished to cure was too deep-seated to be removed by legal means. Nothing less than a revolution could have effected the proposed change. During the long time that had elapsed since the passage of the Hortensian laws, there had grown up in Rome the party of the opti-mates, which was an exclusive aristocratical party, composed of both patricians and plebeians, and which enjoyed all the power of the state. The success of Gracchus would have been the destruction of this party; and its leaders opposed him until he was driven to the adoption of unconstitutional means of resistance, when he was slain by some of their number, in an outbreak which they had caused. The contest between the aristocracy and the people had now begun.
The younger Scipio for a time acted as a moderator between parties, but he was assassinated; and Caius Gracchus resumed the projects of his brother, with additions, such as his law to distribute corn to the people, and another to transfer the judicial power from the senate to the equestrian order. He also purposed extending the Roman franchise. But he too failed, and was murdered in 121, while his adherents were put to death with every circumstance of illegality and cruelty. From this time reform became impossible, and revolution, through the aid of the legions, was inevitable. The few years that followed the triumph of the optimates form the most corrupt period of Roman history. The effect of this corruption of the aristocracy was seen on the breaking out of the Jugurthine war in 111. The Roman armies were baffled through the arts of Jugurtha, who found their commanders accessible to his bribes, until first Me-tellus, and then Caius Marius, were appointed to conduct the war against him. The election of Marius to the consulship was a triumph of the people over the optimates, and he opened the legions to a lower class of men, which was an important step toward that change which made them the instruments of successful leaders.
Numidia was conquered in 107, and Jugurtha was starved to death (104). The invasion of the Cimbrians and Teutons led to the repeated reëlection of Marius; and he justified his countrymen's confidence by exterminating those barbarians (102, 101), after they had destroyed many Roman armies. The second servile war in Sicily, after lasting three years, was brought to an end in 99. The political contests of Rome now assumed a decisive character, and the failure of the Italians to obtain enfranchisement led to the social or Marsic war (90-88), in which the Romans were victorious, but voluntarily granted the franchise to the Italians. The appointment of Sulla to the command in the war against Mithridates, king of Pontus, caused the rivalry between that chief and Marius to assume the form of a bloody civil war, the result of which was to throw the whole power of the republic into the hands of Sulla, who was appointed perpetual dictator, which office he resigned after reconstructing the constitution according to aristocratic ideas. Sertorius, a partisan of Marius, having fled to Spain, for years braved there the best Roman generals, until removed by assassination (72). Sulla died in 78, and the changes that he had made lost their vitality with their creator.
In the mean time the conquests of the Romans had been carried on in the East by Sulla, and subsequently by Lucullus and Pompey, who overthrew Mithridates, and defeated the king of Armenia. Pompey converted Syria into a Roman province, and made Judea virtually dependent upon the republic. The great servile war, in which the Thracian gladiator Spartacus headed the slaves, began in 73, and lasted nearly three years, much of Italy being in the hands of the slaves; and it was not until several powerful armies had been beaten, and forces of the greatest magnitude had been employed, that the insurgents were overthrown. Before his expedition to the East, Pompey subdued the Mediterranean pirates. The greatest man in Rome, Pompey had soon to encounter the rivalry of Julius Caesar, while Cicero's services in baffling the conspiracy of Catiline (63) gave him a high degree of consideration, and the wealth and civil and military talent of Cras-sus enabled him to control a powerful party. Through a coalition known as the first triumvirate, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey became virtual masters of their country (60); but the defeat and death of Crassus, in an expedition against Parthia, left supreme power to be struggled for by his associates.
Caesar had been appointed to the command in Gaul, the conquest of which country he completed, while he also invaded Germany and Britain. Nominally as the champion of the senate, Pompey broke with Caesar, who in 49 advanced upon Rome at the head of some of his legions, and compelled his enemies to fly. In the contest that followed Caesar was victorious, defeating his enemies, including Pompey, Ptolemy of Egypt, Pharnaces of the Bosporus, Juba of Mauritania, the younger Cato, M. Scipio, and the sons of Pompey, in Italy, Spain, Greece, Egypt, Asia, and the province of Africa. He had concentrated all power in his person when he was assassinated in 44. His power passed into the hands of his nephew Octavius, who, with the aid of Lepidus and Antony, triumphed over the republican party, whose chief leaders were Brutus and Cassius. Octavius soon mastered his associates, and became lord of the Roman world, the most important addition to which made by himself was the kingdom of Egypt. Drusus and Tiberius, his stepsons, conquered in Germany, but Varus perished there with his legions. Octavius (or Octavianus) is generally considered the first of the emperors, and his undivided rule dates from 30 B. C. He assumed the title of Augustus, by which he has ever since been known.
All the powers of the state were vested in him. His reign, which embraced a part of the golden age of Roman literature (see Latin Language and Literature), lasted until A. D. 14, and he was succeeded by Tiberius, his adopted son, who was of the Claudian gens, and in whose reign disappeared the last remnants of the old Roman constitution. Tiberius was succeeded in 37 by his grandnephew Caius, known as Caligula. After him reigned Claudius, and then Nero (54-68), the last of the emperors who could make any claim to connection, either by blood or by adoption, with the founder of the Julian imperial line. Tyranny and shameless corruption had reached their height. In the reign of Claudius Britain was conquered. The emperors Galba, Otho, and Vitellius followed each other in rapid succession, until the throne was occupied by the Flavian family in the person of Vespasian (69), who was succeeded by his son Titus (79-81), the conqueror of Jerusalem, whose successor was his brother Domi-tian. On this tyrant's assassination (96), the humane Nerva was made emperor.
His successor was Trajan (98), who added Dacia to the empire, and who carried the Roman arms to the Persian gulf, conquering many countries of the East; but these conquests were abandoned by the next emperor, Hadrian (117-38), who restored the Euphrates as the eastern boundary of the empire. Hadrian was succeeded by Antoninus Pius, whose heir was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (161-'80). The 84 years of the reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines are considered the happiest period of the Roman empire; and from the year of the accession of Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, A. D. 180, Gibbon dates the commencement of that empire's decline. At that time the empire consisted of Italy, Spain, Gaul, Britain, Rhaetia, Noricum and Pannonia, Dalmatia, Moesia and Dacia, Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece; Asia Minor, Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine; Egypt and all the north of Africa, and the Mediterranean with its islands. The population is estimated at 120,000,000. The emperor Commodus became one of the worst of the imperial tyrants, and was assassinated (192). His successor, Perti-nax, was murdered by the praetorians, who sold the empire to Didius Julianus, to whom succeeded Septimius Severus (193). Severus's son Caracalla, and the successor of the latter, Elagabalus, rivalled Caligula and Nero in infamy.
Most of the emperors who subsequently reigned were men of little ability down to Diocletian, including Maximin, the three Gor-dians, Philip, Balbinus, Valerian, Gallienus, Claudius II., Tacitus, Probus, Carus, Carinus, Numerian, and others, and their conduct accelerated the decline of the empire. Alexander Severus (222-'35), Decius, and Aurelian are the principal exceptions, the last named conquering Zenobia and destroying Palmyra (273). Under the rule of Diocletian (284-305) the empire was so strengthened that its power enjoyed a certain revival; but its constitution was essentially changed by that sovereign. The principles of a despotism yet unknown were adopted and carried into effect by him, together with the usages and pomps of oriental courts, totally foreign to the ancient simplicity with which all but the more lascivious and vicious emperors had contented themselves. Diocletian associated with himself a colleague on the throne, Maximianus; and subsequently two others with the subordinate rank of Caesar, each of the supreme rulers being henceforth styled Augustus. Rome then ceased to be the seat of government, Diocletian residing principally at Nicomedia in Bithynia, and Maximianus at Milan. The senate sunk into total insignificance, and from this period the emperors rarely appeared in the ancient capital, except on occasions of grand festivals or triumphs.
Constantine the Great, the son of Constantius Chlorus, the first of the Christian emperors, after the death of the associate or rival rulers Maxentius, Galerius, Maximinus, and Licinius, formally transferred the capital to Byzantium, thenceforth called Constantinople, though its founder meant that it should be called New Rome. From that time, A. D. 330, should be dated the cessation of the Roman ascendancy, though the remains of the empire continued to influence the world down to the middle of the 15th century, when Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks. The Roman element was little known in the empire after the abandonment of the city on the Tiber, and that abandonment was the consequence of the change that had come over the world since the fall of the republic. Constantine only did that which other rulers had contemplated, in transferring the seat of empire permanently to some other place than Rome, that transference simply rounding and completing the imperial policy which had been inaugurated by the first of the Caesars. He divided the empire on his death between his three sons.
Constantine II. inherited Gaul, and attempted to seize Italy, which had fallen to the share of his youngest brother Constans, but was slain in the attempt, and Constans, master now of both Italy and Gaul, was subsequently assassinated by his general Magnentius. The whole empire finally came into the possession of the second brother, Constantius (351), who on his father's death had been assigned the provinces of the East. The northern barbarians, having penetrated into northern and eastern Gaul, were driven out by Julian, who succeeded to the purple in 361, restored paganism, and fell in 363 in an expedition into Persia. Paganism fell with him. The army conferred the crown upon Jovian, who bought a disgraceful peace and died before he reached Constantinople, leaving the selection of an emperor again to the soldiers. The choice fell upon Valentinian I., who appointed his brother Valens his colleague, and left to him the government of the East, with a part of Illyricum. The weak and unfortunate reign of Valens (364-378) was signalized by the overthrow of the Goths by the Huns, and the establishment of the defeated tribe within the limits of the empire.
Revolting in consequence of their ill treatment by the Romans, they were attacked by Valens in person, defeated him at Adrian-ople, and forced him to take refuge in a hut, where he perished by fire. More than 60,000 Roman soldiers fell in this battle, and the Goths ravaged the whole country from the scene of the conflict to the walls of Constantinople. In this moment of danger the hopes of the East were turned on the court of Treves, where Gratian, the son of Valentinian I., ruled over the western division of the empire, while his younger brother, Valentinian II., governed Italy and Africa. Gratian chose as his colleague Theodosius, and caused him to be proclaimed emperor of the East (379). He himself, after a not inglorious reign (367-83), was assassinated in a military insurrection, and succeeded by Maximus, who soon turned his arms against Valentinian II. and drove him out of Italy. Theodosius in the mean time had restored peace to the East, and was now enabled to attack the usurper, defeated him on the banks of the Save (388), and caused him to be put to death. Valentinian perished soon after by the hand of a Frankish assassin, and Theo-dosius, who merited from posterity the surname of Great, was acknowleded in 394 without a rival or colleague throughout the whole Roman empire.
His death the following year plunged everything again into confusion. The sovereignty was divided between his sons Ar-cadius and Honorius, and thenceforth there were two distinct empires, the further history of which will be found in the articles Byzantine Empire and Western Empire. (For Roman antiquities, see the general or special articles on the various subjects, such as Aqueduct, Army, Augurs, Bath, Calendar, Circus, Civil Law, Comitia, Consul, Forum, etc.) - Description of Ancient Rome. The ancient city of Rome was situated principally on the left bank of the Tiber, about 16 m. from the sea, and just on the N. border of Latium. From the Palatine hill, where it was originally founded, it spread over several adjacent eminences and the valleys between them, and became known as urbs septicollis, the "city of seven hills;" these were Mons Palatinus, Capi-tolinus, Esquilinus, Caelius, Aventinus, Quiri-nalis, and Viminalis. The Quirinal, Viminal, and Capitoline hills were occupied by the Sa-bines, and the Caelian, together with Mons Cis-pius and Mons Oppius, which are parts of the Esquiline, by the Etruscans. The Aventine hill was for a time not included within the po-moerium (limits which could not be built upon, extending along the walls both on the outer and the inner sides, and in which auguries were taken). Ancus Martius is said to have built the first fortress on the Janiculan hill, on the right bank of the Tiber, beyond the limits of the ancient city.
The walls ascribed to Servius Tullius enclosed all the seven hills, and were about seven miles in circumference. These fortifications had, as generally reported, 17 gates, though ancient writers are not all agreed concerning the number. In some places the steep sides of the hills were a sufficient protection without artificial fortification; in others the wall is known to have been over 60 ft. high and 50 ft. wide, faced exteriorly with flag stones and bordered by a ditch, and traces of it are still visible. The city was divided by Servius Tullius into four regiones, corresponding to the four tribes in which the citizens were classed; they were named Suburana, Esquilina, Collina, and Palatina. The Capitoline, as the seat of the gods, was not included in them. Augustus increased the number of regiones to 14, comprehending besides the city of Servius Tullius the suburbs which had since grown up. Each regio was subdivided into vici. At what time the Mons Janiculus, on the right bank of the Tiber, was encompassed by walls seems doubtful; it was fortified and connected with the left bank by a bridge as early as the time of Ancus Martius. The emperor Aurelian (270-75) began the new walls, which were completed under Probus, in 276. These fortifications, restored and perhaps amplified in circuit by Honorius in 402, formed the actual defences of the city, not however including the Trans-tiberian quarter, on the right bank, which was first enclosed with walls by Pope Urban VIII. (1623-'44). The region called Borgo, on the same side, which contains St. Peter's church and the Vatican, was protected by other walls built long anterior by Pope Leo IV. (847-'55); and this quarter, like a separate city, was called after him Civitas Leonina, or the Leonine City. The walls of Aurelian and Honorius, as they now exist, are between 11 and 12 m. in circuit, and have 16 gates, three of which are now walled up as useless, and one, the Porta Septimiana, on the Transtiberian side, is surrounded by streets.
Within this fortified circuit are five bridges spanning the Tiber (besides the ruins of two others), three of which are ancient: the AElian, now the Ponte Sant' Angelo; the Fabrician, now the Ponte Quattro Capi; and the Cestian, now the Ponte San Bartolommeo. The last two connect the small island in the Tiber, now called Isola di San Bartolommeo, with the opposite banks. The number of streets is said to have been 215, the principal avenues being called vice and vici, and the narrow ways angi-portus. The main thoroughfare was the Via Sacra, which began in the valley between the Caelian and Esquiline mounts, and wound in a rather devious course westward, past the Flavian amphitheatre and under the arch of Titus, through the centre of the city to the capitol. The Via Lata and its continuation the Via Flaminia extended from the N. side of the capitol to the Porta Flaminia near the N. W. angle of the city. The Vicus Tuscus, running out of the Forum Romanum, contained many of the shops, and was celebrated by Horace for the rascally character of its inhabitants. The Vicus Sandalarius was the place where shoemakers congregated, and also the quarter of some of the booksellers.
The whole valley between the Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal hills, a little N. E. of the centre of the city, was called the Subura, and through it ran a street of the same name. This was the scene of most of the bustle and wickedness of the city, and the seat of the principal shops and brothels. The Carinae, a district just without the limits of this noisy region, was the residence of Pompey, Cicero, and many other distinguished persons. Here and there were open places called fora and campi, the former being intended for the transaction of business, and the latter for pleasure grounds. The fora were level oblong spaces, paved, and surrounded with buildings of various kinds, and were either fora civilia, where justice was administered and other public matters were attended to, or fora venalia, which answered very nearly to modern market places. The Forum Romanum, sometimes called simply the forum, or forum magnum or vetus, occupied a space between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, and was the most important of the 19 Roman fora. (See Forum.) Among the others were the Forum Julium or Caesaris, close behind the former; the Forum Augusti; the Forum Nervae or transitorium, intended merely as a passageway from the two preceding to the temple of Peace; and the Forum Trajani. But little of the splendid forum of Trajan is now visible, except the celebrated column.
Most of the magnificent buildings founded by that emperor within the limits of his forum were left for ages in ruin and buried under earthworks. Excavations begun by the French early in the present century, and continued by the pontifical government after the restoration of Pius VII., resulted in the discovery of some remains of the Ulpian basilica, so called from the family name of the founder (Ulpius Trajanus), and other fragments of antique structures, strewn over an area not more than one twelfth of the space occupied by Trajan's buildings. In this narrow place, below the level of the surrounding piazza Traiana, is all that now remains visible of the ruins of those magnificent structures. The Campus Martius, at the N. W. side of the ancient city, was almost entirely occupied by public buildings, temples (among which was the Pantheon), the mausoleum of Augustus, and pleasure grounds. This region is now covered by the modern city, and contains those streets and piazzas where the population is most dense. (See Campus.) The Campus Sceleratus was the spot where vestals who had violated their vows were buried alive, and the Campus Esqui-linus was originally used for the execution of criminals and the burial of the poor, though the greater part of it was afterward converted into pleasure grounds.
Besides these places of public resort, there were beautiful private parks and gardens on the hills around the city. - The houses of Rome were divided into two classes, the domus, or residences of the nobles, corresponding to the modern palazzi, and the insuloe or dwellings of the middle and lower classes, which were often let out by floors or apartments after the modern fashion. These insulae were sometimes carried up so many stories that a law was passed forbidding any house to be built more than 70 ft. high - a regulation all the more necessary as every house was surrounded by an open space of at least 5 ft. The domus had porticoes in front and inner courts called atria. The insuloe perhaps had smaller courts within, and in place of the porticoes they had open spaces which served for shops and workshops. The common building material was brick, at least before the time of Augustus; the upper story of the domus was generally of wood. Under the emperors more costly materials, such as marble and other stone, came into frequent use; and when Nero rebuilt the city after the great fire, he employed a kind of volcanic rock now called peperino, formed by the cementing together of sand and cinders. He also dispensed with the wooden upper story, and took pains to make the streets wide and straight.
Most of the domus were situated at the E. end of the city on the Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline hills; they did not form streets, but were built in the midst of large gardens and fields. The city is supposed to have reached its greatest size in the time of Vespasian, when it was 13 m. in circuit, and embraced a population probably not much under 2,000,000, of whom about half were slaves. The public edifices during the palmiest days of the empire were of almost unparalleled magnificence. The high grounds of the Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, and Aven-tine hills were mostly occupied by the populous quarters of the ancient city, but were covered in some parts by private gardens, as those of Mecaenas on the Esquiline. The Cap-itoline hill was almost entirely covered by public edifices, with the arx (citadel) on its highest point, the Tarpeian rock. The most splendid of the many temples on this hill was that of Jupiter Capitolinus, the exact site of which is still in dispute among antiquaries. (See Capitol.) Latin writers, when using the name "Capitolium," usually imply this great temple, the most important and magnificent in Rome. The residence on the Palatine hill, which finally became developed into the vast palace of the Ca?sars, was originally the private house of the orator Hortensius, which was inhabited by Augustus and rebuilt for his use at the public expense.
New buildings were raised for themselves by successive emperors, till the greater part of the hill was covered by their splendid structures. Nero built more than any other emperor, and after his first great palace had been destroyed by the most disastrous conflagration that ever visited Rome (A. D. 64), he began another, the edifices, gardens, and pleasure grounds of which extended over the Palatine, Esquiline, and Caelian hills, and the intervening valleys. This immense palace, the Domus Aurea of Nero, was almost totally demolished by Vespasian. There were several curioe, or senate houses, and the senators sometimes assembled in temples, especially in that of Concord, on the southern slope of the Cap-itoline hill. The Curia Hostilia, the most ancient senate house, said to have been founded by Tullus Hostilius, was burned down during the tumultuous funeral of the tribune Clodius in 52 B. C, and was first restored by Faustus, the son of Sulla. This later building having been taken down, a new curia was begun, or at least projected, by Julius Caesar, and after his death completed, if not actually founded, by Augustus, who dedicated it, in his great uncle's name, as the Curia Julia. Its exact site cannot be determined, but Roman antiquaries recognize it in the ruins of a large structure, built in brickwork like that of the Augustan age, below the N. E. declivity of the Palatine, and therefore in the immediate vicinity of the forum at its S. W. limit.
The Curia Pora-peiana, which was abandoned after it had been stained by the blood of Caesar, who was there assassinated, was one among many superb edifices raised by Pompey the Great. This, together with a theatre, a temple of Venus, and a portico with 500 columns, stood between the western side of the Campus Martius and the Tiber. A few remains of this temple and theatre were visible, till concealed by recent buildings, in the cellars of a modern palace. The basilicas were chief courts of justice presided over by the urban prefects, in which the emperors themselves often heard causes and administered justice. Among these, the most splendid one founded under the republic was the Basilica AEmilia, so called after its founder AEmilius Paulus, 179 B. C. It is supposed that a remnant of it is preserved in the outer walls of Sant' Adriano, a church on the N. E. side of the forum. Three other basilicas founded under the republic (in the 2d century B. C.), the Porcian, the Sempronian, and the Opimian, have totally disappeared. The Julian, founded by Augustus and dedicated to Julius Caesar, still exists in extensive but low and roofless ruins on the W. side of the principal forum.
These ruins were brought to light through works undertaken by the pontifical and recently finished under the royal government. Among favorite places of resort for business or recreation were the porticoes, several of which, with far-extending colonnades, ornamented ancient Rome. One, built by Agrippa in the Campus Martius, was called Porticus Argonautarum, from a picture or series of pictures on its walls illustrating the Ar-gonautic expedition. The only one of these porticoes the ruins of which are still considerable is that built by Augustus and named after his sister Octavia. Within the quadrangle of colonnades forming this portico stood temples of Jupiter and Juno, both wholly destroyed. We find mention of only two prisons in ancient Rome, the oldest being that founded by Ancus Martius and said to have been enlarged by Ser-vius Tullius. Two dark subterranean chambers of these ancient prisons, known as the Mamertine, and entered below a church on the principal forum, were long ago consecrated and are still used as chapels, because supposed to have been the place where St. Peter and St. Paul were confined, and from which they were led to death.
Five other vaulted chambers, mostly built of similar stonework, have recently been cleared out (one of them had long been used as a safe for butcher's meat), and are now recognized as pertaining to the same prisons, and ascribable therefore to the time of the kings. Another ancient prison was destroyed and a temple of Piety raised on its site, in commemoration of the act of the Roman daughter who saved the life of a parent condemned to die in that dungeon; a well known story narrated by Pliny the Elder and by Valerius Maximus. The military were quartered in two great camps, walled around and defended like fortresses, beyond the limits of the primitive city, the castra proetoria at the N. E. extremity of the city, beyond the walls of Servius Tullius, and the castra pere-grina, on the Caelian hill. The former, built by Tiberius, was occupied by the praetorian guards, and the latter by foreign legions. The aqueducts, the most stupendous works of their kind in the world, and the sewers, the chief of which, called cloaca maxima, is still in excellent preservation, are described elsewhere. (See Aqueduct, and CloacAE.) Scarcely surpassed by any of the public edifices were the thermoe or baths, whose name conveys but a very imperfect idea of the various uses to which they were devoted.
Besides the apartments for bathing (see Bath), they contained places for athletic exercises, public halls, vestibules and porticoes for lounging and conversation, shaded walks and gardens, fountains, libraries, and collections of paintings and sculptures. The thermoe of Antoninus, built principally by Caracalla and completed by Alexander Severus, had accommodations for 2,300 bathers at the same time, and the thermoe of Diocletian for 3,000. The latter was the most extensive building of the kind in Rome. Those of Agrippa or Alexander Severus, Nero, Titus, Trajan, Commodus, and Con-stantine were also celebrated; and there were several smaller ones, besides a great number of balnea or Common baths. There were only three theatres proper, those of Pompey, Cornelius Balbus, and Marcellus. The first was in the Campus Martius, and had seats for 40,000 spectators; the second, near the Tiber, where the Cenci palace how stands, could contain 11,600 people; and the third, in the S. part of the Campus Martius, between the Capitoline and the river, could hold 20,000. The first theatres were mere temporary structures of wood, though even these were sometimes of extravagant splendor, like that upon which M. AEmilius Scaurus wasted an enormous fortune, and which was large enough to seat 80,-000 spectators.
The stage was decorated with 360 columns, arranged in three stories, the lowest of white marble, the middle of glass, and the uppermost of gilt wood. The odeum in the Campus Martius was a sort of music hall, and was capable of accommodating 11,-000 persons. The circus dates its introduction into Rome long prior to the erection of permanent theatres. (See Circus.) Amphitheatres, for gladiatorial combats and shows of wild beasts, were at first built of wood and taken to pieces after the performances were over (see Amphitheatre); the first stone edifice of the kind was erected by Statilius Taurus in 30 B. C. Another was begun by Caligula, but never finished. The great Flavian amphitheatre, founded by the emperor Vespasian (of the Flavian family) about A. D. 72, dedicated by his son Titus in 80, and called the Colosseum from its vast size, is still in its ruinous state among the most imposing of Roman antiquities. Excavations carried on in its interior by the government since 1873 have brought to light many complicated structures, elliptic arcades, chambers, and long vaulted corridors, about 22 ft. lower than the level formerly supposed to be that of the ancient arena. (See Colosseum.) Among the numerous temples of the city, the two most magnificent were those of Jupiter Capitolinus and of Venus and Rome; the former, on the Capitolinehill, founded by Tarquinius Priscus, and several times rebuilt, the last time by Domitian, being undoubtedly the larger; the latter, founded by Hadrian, probably the richest in decoration.
The temples still conspicuous in ruin in the forum and on the slope of the Capitoline hill are those of Castor and Pollux, of Saturn, and of Vespasian and Titus. That dedicated by Antoninus Pius to his deceased wife Faustina still partially exists in a magnificent peristyle with monolithic columns, and the massive stone walls of the cella, or sanctuary, near the S. E. angle of the forum. The circular temple with a graceful marble colonnade of the Corinthian order, close to the Tiber, which was long miscalled the temple of Vesta, is now generally assigned to Hercules, to whom many temples in Rome were dedicated. The real temple of Venus, said to have been founded by Numa, is now recognized in the low, massively constructed remnant of a circular building at the S. W. extremity of the forum, brought to light by excavations made in 1873. Most interesting is another discovery, in the same vicinity, of an edifice so ruinous that even the style of its architecture is not distinguishable, but which may be recognized beyond doubt as the AEdes Caesaris, a temple raised by Augustus on the spot where the body of Julius Caesar was consumed in the flames after his funeral. In front of this building is still seen the Rostra Julii, a semicircular platform of stone which Augustus erected before the threshold.
The temple of Pallas, in the forum of Nerva, existed, still beautiful in ruins, till 1612, when it was taken down in order to use its columns and marbles for the construction of a large fountain erected by Pope Paul V. on the Janiculan hill. The Pantheon was dedicated, according to common belief, to all the gods, though Dion Cas-sius says it was sacred to Mars and Venus. (See Pantheon.) Prominent among the other remarkable features of the city were the triumphal arches thrown across the principal streets in commemoration of victories; 21 are mentioned, of which the most important are the arch of Titus, on the Via Sacra, of Pen-telic marble, built to celebrate the capture of Jerusalem, and still standing; the arch of Septimius Severus, of the same material, at the entrance of the Via Sacra into the forum; the arch of Constantine, at the mouth of the valley between the Palatine and Caelian hills, with three archways, adorned with beautiful columns, bass reliefs, and statues, erected to commemorate the victory over Maxentius; and the arches of Dolabella, Gallienus, and Drusus. The most interesting of the columns erected in various parts of the city is that of Trajan, in the forum of Trajan, which was dedicated to that emperor by the senate and Roman people in commemoration of his victory over the Dacians. It is composed of 34 pieces of white marble, 9 of which form the base, 23 the shaft, and 2 the torus and capital.
The height of the entire column, exclusive of the statue on its summit, is 127 1/2 ft., and of the shaft alone, 97 1/4 ft. The base and capital are of the Tuscan order, the shaft Doric, and the mouldings of the pedestal Corinthian. A series of bass reliefs form a spiral around the shaft from the base to the summit, representing the military achievements of the emperor. There are 2,500 human figures in the sculptures, and many horses, military engines, and weapons. The column was formerly surmounted by a statue of Trajan, but its place is now occupied by one of St. Peter, which was erected by Sixtus V. In the interior of the column is a spiral staircase of 1 84 steps. The column of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, in the piazza Colonna, erected A. D. 174, is similar to that of Trajan, but inferior in design and execution. Its height is 122 ft. 8 in., the shaft being 97 1/4 ft. On the summit is a statue of St. Paul, placed there by Sixtus V. Of the many obelisks in Rome, the highest is that of the Lateran, the shaft of which is 105 ft. 7 in.
It was brought from Heliopolis to Alexandria by Constantino the Great, and removed by his son Constantius to Rome. The obelisk of the Vatican was brought from Heliopolis by Caligula. The obelisk of Santa Maria Maggiore is one of the two which formerly stood at the entrance of the mausoleum of Augustus; they are supposed to have been brought from Egypt by Claudius. The obelisk of the piazza del Popo-lo once stood before the temple of the sun at Heliopolis, whence it was removed to Rome by Augustus. Another obelisk, that of Monte Citorio, was also brought to Rome from Heliopolis by Augustus. The mausoleum of Augustus, in the Campus Martius, surrounded by a large park, was built by that emperor as the burial place of the imperial family, and was one of the most magnificent edifices of his reign. The mausoleum of Hadrian is now the castle Sant' Angelo. The tomb of the Scipios was discovered in 1780; and among the other most imposing sepulchral monuments were the tombs of Caecilia Metella, Cestius, and Septi-mius Severus. - Modern Rome. The modern city occupies very nearly the same space as the ancient; lat. of the observatory of the collegio Romano, 41° 53' 52" N., lon. 12° 28' 40" E.; pop. in 1846, 180,000; in 1852, 175,838; in 1858, 180,359; in 1872, 244,484. Since the change of government in 1870, the population has rapidly increased, but many new streets opened since then are yet scarcely inhabited.
The Tiber has a course within the walls of about 3 m., and is crossed by five bridges, viz.: the Ponte Sant' Angelo, the ancient Pons AElius, opposite the castle of Sant' Angelo at the N. W. end of the city; the Ponte Sisto, built by Sixtus IV. in 1474 on the ruins of the Pons Janiculensis, connecting the city proper with the quarter of Trastevere; the Ponte di Quattro Capi (so called from a four-headed statue of Janus), the ancient Pons Fabricius, and the Ponte San Bartolommeo, the ancient Pons Cestius, connecting the Isola di San Bartolommeo, the former with the city, and the latter with the Trastevere; and the Ponte Rotto, on the site of the ancient Pons AEmilius; this last was partly washed away in 1598, and a suspension bridge now extends from the remaining portion to the shore. The ruins of the old Pons Triumphalis and Pons Sublicius are visible when the water is low. The walls are nearly 13 m. in circuit, those on the left bank of the river following the line of the wall of Aurelian; they have been so often repaired that it is difficult to assign a date to any portion of them. On the outside they are 50 ft. high, on the inside generally less than 30. They have no ditch, but are crested with about 300 towers and pierced by 13 gates still in use.
The general level of the city has been considerably raised by the rubbish accruing from long habitation and from the ruins of ancient edifices, so that the lower parts are estimated to be at least 15 ft. higher than they were in the days of the Caesars. The modern city is chiefly on the low land, the hills being mostly covered with vineyards, cornfields, and villas. The closely built part is about 2 m. in length, with a breadth of from 1 to 1 1/2 m. Many of the streets are long, but they are mostly narrow and crooked. They have seldom any foot pavement, and are often filthy, and present in their architecture a mixture of magnificence and meanness, stately palaces and churches alternating with miserable huts. The three finest streets diverge from a square called the piazza del Popolo near the N. gate. These are: 1, the Corso, which extends to the foot of the capitol and is a mile long, perfectly straight, 50 ft. wide, with foot pavements on each side; it is the great public walk of the city; 2, the strada del Babbuino, which runs to the piazza di Spagna; 3, the strada di Ripetta, which leads to the Tiber. The houses of Rome are generally lofty, and are mostly built of brick and tufa, marble being less commonly used than in the cities of northern Italy. The city is divided into 14 rioni or quarters, corresponding to the 14 regions of Augustus, but not resembling them in size or situation; 12 of these divisions are on the left bank and 2 on the right bank of the river. 1. The rione de' Monti is the largest quarter, containing, among other public buildings and monuments, the column of Trajan; the church of St. John Lat-eran, the chief church of the city in point of antiquity and ecclesiastical dignity (see Lateran); the church of Sta. Bibiana, which covers the relics of 5,260 martyrs; the splendid church of Sta. Maria Maggiore, with the Sistine and Bor-ghese chapels; the villas Albani and Bor-ghese, and the ruins of the baths of Titus and Diocletian. 2. The rione di Trevi contains the Corso; the piazza di Monte Cavallo, in which stand two colossal antique statues of horses; the Quirinal, formerly the pope's ordinary residence, now the royal palace; the palazzo della Consul-ta; and the magnificent Barberini palace, rich in treasures of art and literature. 3. In the rione di Colonna stand the column of Antoninus, the Pantheon, the palace of the propaganda, and the piazza di Spagna, one of the finest squares of the city. 4. The rione di Campo Marzo comprises most of the area of the ancient Campus Martius, the porta del Po polo (the chief entrance to the city on the N. side), the mausoleum of Augustus, the Pincian hill with the public gardens on its terraced summit, and about one third of the Corso. 5. The rione di Ponte contains one of the finest streets in Rome, the strada Giulia. 6. The rione di Parione contains the Orsini and Pam-fili palaces, and the place Pasquino, where formerly stood the statue of Pasquin. 7. The rione della Regola contains the churches of San Girolamo della Carità and San Tommaso, the English college, and the celebrated Farnese palace. 8. The rione di Sant' Eustachio contains the church of that saint and the university. 9. The rione della Pigna contains the beautiful Dominican convent and church of La Minerva. 10. The rione Campitelli contains the forum, the Colosseum, the basilica of Maxentius, and the Capitoline hill, on which stand the three modern palaces appropriated for the assemblies of the magistrates, the observatory, and the fine art collections.
The gallery of sculpture in one of these palazzi contains many of the most precious antiques, among which are the so-called "Dying Gladiator," now recognized as a Gallic chief dying in battle, the statues of Marcellus and Agrippina, the Venus of the capitol, and the complete series of busts of the Roman emperors. 11. The rione Sant' Angelo contains the beautiful ruins of the portico of Octavia, and the Ghetto, or the quarter in which the Jewish inhabitants were confined under the papal government, though allowed to have shops elsewhere. 12. The rione Ripa contains the immense thermoe of Antoninus (Cara-calla), the temple of Fortuna Virilis, the temple of Hercules, long miscalled that of Vesta, the Tiber island, on which are some remains of the temple of AEsculapius, the Monte Testaccio, the pyramid of Cestius, and the burial place of Protestants. 13. The rione Trastevere, the ancient Janiculum, on the W. side of the Tiber, contains the great fountain of Aqua Paula, a botanical garden, the villa Corsini, and the church of San Pietro in Montorio. 14. The rione di Borgo contains the castle of Sant' Angelo, the citadel, the centre or nucleus of which was the mausoleum of Hadrian. This castle is now of little importance as a fortress, and is chiefly used as a state prison.
It communicates by a long covered gallery with the palace of the Vatican, an immense edifice, almost unrivalled for its internal splendor and magnificence. Among its treasures of literature and art are the great library, chiefly rich in rare manuscripts; the tapestry chambers, hung with tapestry copied from the cartoons of Raphael; picture and sculpture galleries filled with masterpieces of the highest order; the camere and loggie, painted in fresco by Raphael and his pupils; and the Sistine and Pauline chapels, painted in fresco by Michel Angelo. (See Vatican.) Celebrated statues and pictures also adorn other palaces and churches of the city; and besides the great collection of the Vatican there are 10 or 11 public libraries, two of which, the Angelica and the Casa-natense, have more than 100,000 volumes each and many valuable manuscripts. There are in the city about 360 churches and 180 conventual edifices; but many of the convents and monasteries have been suppressed since the occupation of the city by the Italian government, and the buildings converted to public uses.
Preeminent among the Christian temples of the world is St. Peter's church, the work of many popes and architects, finally consecrated by Urban VIII. in 1626, which Gibbon calls "the most glorious structure that has ever been applied to the use of religion." (See Cathedral.) Externally the work, though magnificent in materials and dimensions, is disfigured by the prominence of the front added by Maderno, which almost hides from the near spectator the principal feature, the vast and towering dome; while, had the original plan of Bramante and Michel Angelo been followed, the whole dome would have been visible from the square before the church. But the dome itself and the interior of the edifice are held to be unrivalled in magnitude, proportion, and decoration. The church of St. Paul "outside the walls," destroyed by fire in 1823 and rebuilt and dedicated in 1854, is also a masterpiece of magnificence in architecture and decoration. Like the ancient St. Peter's, it was originally founded by the emperor Constantine. The first English Protestant church ever erected within the walls of Rome was opened Oct. 26, 1874. It is a handsome edifice, built of pietra serena on the basilica plan, but without aisles, and is situated on the piazza San Silvestro, E. of the Corso. The former English church, outside the porta del Popolo, still continues its services.
The palaces of the Roman nobles are numerous and large, but are generally more remarkable for internal than for external splendor. Their walls are usually of brick stuccoed, and their chief external ornament is a rich cornice. The principal of these mansions are the palazzi Doria, Ruspoli, Corsini, Orsini, Giustiniani, Altieri, Cicciaporci, Farnese, Barberini, and Colonna. There are several palaces which, from being surrounded by extensive gardens, are called villas. Of these the principal is the villa Bor-ghese, whose gardens, nearly 3 m. in circuit, are open to the public, and form the most fashionable promenade in Rome. - There are many squares in the city, consisting of small paved areas, generally adorned with fountains and monuments. The large oval area in front of St. Peter's is surrounded by a superb colonnade, and in the middle between two fountains is an Egyptian obelisk 78 ft. in height. The square next in size is the piazza Navona, which is about 840 ft. in length, and has in the centre an elegant fountain, the finest in Rome.. Fountains are numerous throughout the city, and form one of its most striking and attractive features.
They are copiously supplied with water by three aqueducts which still remain in operation, of the many that poured their streams into the ancient city. Among the most curious remains of ancient Rome are the • catacombs. (See Catacombs.) - The manufactures of Rome are various, though not extensive. The principal are of woollens, silks, velvets, hats, gloves, stockings, leather, glue, glass bottles, liqueurs, pomade, artificial flowers, mosaics, jewelry, and articles connected with the fine arts. The city is a great resort for foreigners, of whom the English, French, and Americans are the most numerous, and is a favorite place of residence and study for foreign artists. The climate is mild, but relaxing and oppressive in summer. Rains are frequent and heavy in November and December, and there is usually a little snow in the winter, which seldom remains more than a few hours. The tramontana, a disagreeable cold north wind, sometimes blows for several days at a time. The malaria fever, so much dreaded, may be avoided by proper precautions, and may be expected ultimately to disappear, through the cultivation of the Campagna, improved drainage, and increase of population both within the walls and over the surrounding districts, hitherto left uncultivated and uninhabited. (See Campagna di Roma, Latium, and Pontine Marshes.) A new city is now springing up on the higher grounds on the Esquiline and Viminal hills.
The official report for 1873 shows that the sanitary condition of Rome is better than is generally supposed, the average death rate being about 34 in 1,000. The people of Rome, at least the middle and working classes, are stout and well formed, the women being remarkable for beauty and a certain majesty of air and mien. The public amusements are theatrical performances, concerts, and religious celebrations. The most noted festival is the carnival, which immediately precedes the season of Lent. The chief educational institution is the university, which has professors in theology, law, medicine, philosophy, the fine arts, and the Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic languages. It had 470 students in 1875. The college de propaganda fide has a rich library and a printing office which contain works in 30 languages. There are several other colleges and many learned societies, the principal of which are the academies of Roman history, of geography, of ecclesiastical history, of antiquities, and of the Arcadians. Much has been done for public education by the new government. At the close of 1873 there were 14,389 pupils in the new elementary schools.
A female seminary was opened in 1874. - During the turbulent and ignorant ages which succeeded the downfall of the western empire (see Italy), the city of Rome slowly sank to a state of degradation and decay, which reached its greatest depth about the end of the 8th century, when little more remained than is now visible, while the modern city had not yet begun to be constructed. The population at this period is supposed to have dwindled to about 13,000. The popes, however, soon began to assert their supremacy over the potentates around them, and exerted themselves to restore and enlarge their capital. (See Papal States, and Pope.) Leo IV. made a large accession to the city about 850, and under the influence of peace and stable government the population rapidly increased. In the 11th century the city suffered severely from the attacks of the emperor Henry IV. in his wars with Gregory VII.; still at the end of this century its population had grown to 35,000. In the 14th century the prosperity of the city was checked by the removal of the papal see to Avignon, and was not materially promoted by the brief splendor of the rule of Rienzi. After the return of the popes in 1377, a long period of turbulence and civil strife succeeded, in which the Colonna and Orsini families were the principal actors; but at length, about 1417, the authority of the popes prevailed, and during the 15th and 16th centuries the city was enlarged to nearly its present dimensions and adorned with its principal churches and palaces.
By the middle of the 17th century it had attained its highest state of population and magnificence in modern times. The only great calamity which befell it during these last three centuries was the storming and pillaging by the army of the constable de Bourbon in 1528. In 1798 Rome was occupied by the French, who sent the pope to France, and proclaimed a republic, which was suppressed by the allies in 1799 and the pope restored. In 1808 the city was again occupied by the troops of Napoleon, and in the following year annexed to his empire. The pope was restored on the downfall of Napoleon in 1814, and the city remained in peace till in 1848 revolutionary movements began, which resulted in the expulsion of the pope and the establishment of a republic in February, 1849, at the head of which were Mazzini, Armellini, and Saffi. The new republic, though bravely defended by Garibaldi, was speedily suppressed by the French army, which, after a siege of two months, compelled it to surrender on July 1. The French occupation lasted till the close of 1866, when the troops were almost entirely withdrawn from the Papal States by Napoleon III. In 1867 the occupation was resumed in consequence of an invasion of the papal territory (reduced since 1860 to little more than one third of its previous extent) by an army of Italian volunteers led by Garibaldi. The siege and capture of Monte Rotondo, a small town 14 m. from Rome, by Garibaldi, was soon followed by the defeat of the volunteers at Mentana, Nov. 3, 1867, through French intervention, which secured victory for the pontifical cause, and for the time rescued that government from its opponents.
After these events a French force continued to occupy Cività Vecchia, but not the city of Rome, until 1870, when the troops were again withdrawn on account of the Franco-German war. Soon after the deposition of Napoleon III., Rome was occupied (Sept. 20, 1870) by an Italian army, after a very brief resistance. A plebiscitum held in the following October declared, by an immense majority, the will of the citizens to submit to the constitutional government of the king of Italy. The temporal sovereignty of the pope was in consequence abolished. (See PIUS IX.) Rome was declared the capital of the Italian kingdom, and became thenceforth the seat of the new government, where the royal court has its residence, and the Italian parliament holds its sessions. The first session of parliament was opened on Nov. 27, 1871. On Sept. 20, 1874, a stone in commemoration of the occupation of the city by the Italian troops was erected near the porta Pia. It contains the names of 33 soldiers who fell in the conflict with the papal forces. - Among the principal modern books on ancient Roman history are Niebuhr's Römische Geschichte (3 vols., Berlin, 1811-'32; 2d ed., 1827-'42); Arnold's "History of Rome" (3 vols., London, 1838-'42); Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," edited by Milman (12 vols., 1838-'9; 2d ed., 1845); Merivale's "Fall of the Roman Republic" (1853) and "History of the Romans under the Empire" (7 vols., 1850-'62); Mommsen's Römische Geschichte (3 vols., Berlin, 1854-'6; translated into English, 1862-'3); and Ihne's Römische Geschichte (Leipsic, 1868 et seq.). For fuller descriptions of the city of Rome see Franz Reber, Die Ruinen Roms und der Campagna (Leipsic, 1863); Robert Burn, "Rome and the Campagna, an Historical and Topographical Description of the Site, Buildings, and Neighborhood of Ancient Rome" (Cambridge and London, 1871); Augustus J. C. Hare, "Walks in Rome" (London, 1871); Francis Wey, "Rome" (1872); and Charles Isidore Hemans, "Historic and Monumental Rome" (1874). See also Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom in Mittelalter (8 vols., Stuttgart, 1859-'72; 3d ed., 1874).
Rome and its Vicinity, Ancient and Modern.
Arch of Titus.
Arch of Constantine.
Forum and Column of Trajan.
Babbuino. Corso. Ripetta.
Piazza del Popolo.
Bridge and Castle of Sant' Angelo, with St. Peter's in the distance.
St. Peter's Church and the Vatican Palace.