Roumania, a state of S. E. Europe, tributary to Turkey, consisting of the united Danu-bian principalities Wallachia and Moldavia (including that portion of Bessarabia which was annexed from Russia in 1856), situated between lat. 43° 38' and 48° 16' N, and lon. 22° 20' and 30° 15' E. It is bounded by Hungary, Transylvania, Bukowina, the Russian province of Bessarabia, the Black sea, Bulgaria, and Servia; area, 46,708 sq. m.; pop. about 4,500,000, mainly Roumans, but including many eastern and European nationalities, besides about 150,000 Jews and 200,000 gypsies; capital, Bucharest. (For a description of the physical geography, see Moldavia, and Wallachia; see also Wallachian Language and Literature.) About two thirds of the population depend on agriculture and cattle breeding. The soil is very fertile, and yields rich harvests, but of the total area only 68.7 per cent. is productive, comprising 20.4 per cent. in farm, garden, and wine land, 7.6 per cent. meadows, 16.6 per cent. forests, and 24.1 per cent. pastures. The chief agricultural products are corn, average yield about 122,000,000 bushels; flax and hemp, 480,000 cwt.; tobacco, 10,000 cwt.; and wine, 39,000,000 gallons.

The number of cattle in 1873 was 3,600,000, of horses 600,000, of hogs 1,200,000, and of sheep 5,000,000. Rock salt, a monopoly of the state, abounds in the Carpathian mountains; the annual yield is about 1,370,000 cwt. Much petroleum is also produced. In 1872 the imports amounted to $16,400,000, and the exports, chiefly grain and flour, to $30,700,000. The principal ports are Galatz and Braila. The aggregate movement of shipping at all the Roumanian ports in 1873 was 13,003 arrivals, tonnage 1,818,371, and 12,772 departures, tonnage 1,764,377. The aggregate length of railways in 1874 was 600 m. - The constitution of Roumania is a limited monarchy, the head of which bears the title of prince, with male succession. The legislative body consists of a senate and a chamber of deputies. The senate consists of the heir to the throne, the metropolitans and eparchial bishops, representatives of the universities of Bucharest and Jassy, deputies of the large holders of real estate, and 33 chosen by the towns paying the highest amount of taxes. The chamber of deputies consists of 157 members, 82 for Wallachia and 75 for Moldavia. The deputies are chosen for four years, the senators for eight years; the former must have completed their 25th, the latter their 40th year.

Every tax payer has the right to vote; but the electors are divided into several groups, one of which, containing the lowest tax payers, chooses its deputies by indirect election (through electors), while the others vote directly. Each of the two chambers elects its own president; the sessions are public. In 1874 the ministry consisted of the departments of the interior, finances, war, foreign affairs, justice, agriculture, commerce and public works, and public instruction and worship. The minister of the interior was president of the council. For administration purposes the country is divided into 33 districts, each of which has a prefect and an elective district council; the districts are divided into 162 sub-districts, at the head of which are subpre-fects. Every commune has an elective communal council; the heads of communes are elected in the rural communities by the people, and in the cities are appointed by the prince. The judiciary, as reorganized in 1865, includes the court of cassation in Bucharest, the courts of appeal in Bucharest, Jassy, Krayova, and Fok-shani, the courts of assizes for criminal affairs, 32 tribunals of justice, and local courts. The finances are in an unsettled condition, and the annual deficits are much larger than is appar-ent from the official records.

The budget for 1875 estimated the expenditures at $18,700,-000, and the revenue at only $17,600,000. An increased revenue is expected from the tobacco monopoly, which was established in 1872. The public debt in 1874 amounted to $37,000,000, exclusive of $3,000,000 in government bank notes. The military forces, reorganized in 1869 and somewhat modified in 1872, consist of four large divisions: 1, the standing army and its reserve; 2, the territorial army and reserve; 3, the militia; 4, the civic guard of the towns and the gloata (general levy) of the rural communities. The territorial army comprises those from 21 to 29 years of age who are not drafted for the annual contingent. The militia comprises all from 21 to 37 years who have not been called to either the standing or the territorial army, or have completed their service in either. The fourth division, comprising men from 37 to 46 (in the cities, from 36 to 45), is only called out for the defence of the country. The standing and territorial armies in time of peace number about 60,000; on the war footing, 95,000. The total active national force, including the militia, is 150,000, without the fourth division, which is not yet fully completed.

A cadet force was organized in 1874 in all the public schools. - About 90 per cent. of the people belong to the Greek church, at the head of which are the metropolitan and primate of Roumania at Bucharest, the metropolitan of Moldavia at Jassy, and six bishops. The number of priests is about 9,700; the number of monks and nuns has greatly decreased in consequence of the secularization in 1864 of all monastic property. The Roman Catholics, represented by two vicars, are estimated at from 50,000 to upward of 100,000, and the Protestants from 25,000 to 50,000; there are but few Mohammedans. There are two universities, at Bucharest and Jassy, each with faculties of philosophy and literature, law, medicine, and mathematical and natural sciences. There are eight Greek theological seminaries and one Catholic. The number of town schools in 1873 was 2,616, and of rural schools 1,975. - For the history of the country previous to the union in 1859 of the two principalities under the name of Roumania, see Moldavia, and Wallachia. Alexander John I., of the house of Cuza, elected prince of Moldavia on Jan. 17, 1859, and of Wallachia on Feb. 5, obtained the recognition of the sultan in 1860, and on Dec. 23, 1861, formally proclaimed the permanent union of the two principalities.

He was forced to abdicate on Feb. 23, 1866 (see Alexander John I.), and was succeeded by a provisional government. Prince Charles I. of Hohenzollern was elected prince by the people on April 14, and confirmed by the legislature on May 12, and in July took the oath of fidelity to the constitution. His reign has been disturbed by partisan animosities and by financial troubles arising from the failure of the Prussian railway contractor Strousberg to fulfil his obligations in the construction of railways for which the government had given heavy guarantees. In 1871 the Germans at Bucharest celebrated the restoration of peace, on which occasion there were disturbances. The prime minister, Prince Ghika, was obliged to resign for not preventing them, and Prince Charles himself would have resigned if the people had not urged him to remain. Persecutions of the Jews, who are obnoxious to the poorer classes on account of their great success in trade, led to remonstrances from abroad, and in 1874 municipal rights were granted them, on condition of having attained the grade of under officer in the army, or of producing a diploma of a Roumanian or foreign university, or of owning a manufactory employing not fewer than 50 persons; but as hardly any of the Jews can comply with these conditions, the rights conferred are purely nominal.

Roumania pays an annual tribute to Turkey, which in 1874-'5 amounted to $181,-825, of which $113,650 was for Wallachia, and the rest for Moldavia; but in most other respects the country is virtually independent. Yet in 1875 the sultan and his allies contested with Prince Charles the right of concluding commercial treaties, and Roumania, though diplomatic and consular agents are accredited at Bucharest, is not permitted to appoint ministers at foreign courts. The relations with the Porte are extremely delicate. The relationship of Prince Charles with the emperor of Germany imposes a certain restraint upon the sultan; and while the latter is jealous of maintaining his suzerainty, the Roumanians avail themselves of every opportunity to claim and to exercise sovereign power.