Rush (written by the old authors risk, resh, and rashes, probably from the A. S. risc), the common name for species of juncus, but used in combination, as bog rush and scouring rush, for plants of other genera. Juncus (Lat. jun-gere, to join, the stems having been used for tying) is the typical genus of a small family of endogenous plants, the juncaceoe, which, while they have the glumaceous (husk-like) flowers and general appearance of the sedges and grasses, are closely related to the lily family, the structure of the flowers, though greenish and glume-like, being much like that of a minute lily. Dr. George Engelmann, in his monograph of the genus juncus (St. Louis academy of sciences, 1868), finds about 50 species in all North America, of which 17 occur also in other parts of the world; four species are found all over the country, and five others everywhere east of the Mississippi; others are very local, especially the maritime and arctic species. The rushes are mostly perennials, growing in water or in wet soil, with pithy or hollow, rarely branching stems, which in some are without leaves, in others with leaves flat and grass-like, while a number have cylindrical leaves, marked by cross partitions.
The flowers are in panicles, which are terminal, or in some appear lateral, as the involucral sheath continues beyond the panicle like a prolongation of the stem; the flowers, arranged on the branches of the panicle singly or in little clusters, are from one to three lines long, greenish or brownish, the six-parted perianth with three outer and three inner divisions; stamens six, sometimes reduced to three; pistil with three styles, the many-seeded pod one-or three-celled. Some species are only 1 to 3 in. high, and the larger ones reach as high as 4 ft. Though interesting plants to botanists, the rushes are of little economical importance. The sea and sharp rush (J. maritimus and J. acutus) of Europe grow in the maritime sands, and are sometimes planted in order that their roots may retain the earth of embankments in place; the common or soft rush (J. effu-sus) is disposed to spread and be a weed in wet pastures, and is troublesome in southern rice fields; the toad rush (J. bufonius), the only annual species in the eastern states, is very common along roadsides and on the edges of footpaths, it seeming to flourish best where it is trodden upon.
The most important species is that popularly called black grass, J. Gerardi (given in some works as J. bulbosus, which is a European species not yet found in this country), abundant in salt marshes the whole length of the Atlantic coast, where it is conspicuous by the dark brown color of its flowers; when cut early it makes a hay that is much relished by animals, and salt-marsh hay is regarded as valuable in proportion to the amount of this it contains. - Formerly rushes were used as a substitute for carpets; the floors of public buildings and of the houses of the wealthy were strewn with them, a practice which was continued as late as the 16th century. The Japanese use the common rush for making mats, which serve for carpets and for beds; light mats of the same material and covered with transparent paper are used as window curtains. The use of rushes and flags for bottoming chairs was formerly common, and the material serves for weaving small baskets; the street flower venders sometimes offer their wares arranged in neat baskets made from green rushes.
The Chinese use the pith of some species for candle wicks, and the rush lights formerly in use by the poor classes in England were made of the pith of the common rush, peeled in such a manner as to leave a narrow strip of the rind on each side as a support. - Bulrush is one of the sedges (scirpus lacustris); scouring rushes are equisetums. (See Horsetail).
Common or Soft Rush (Juncus effusus).
A S. E. County Of Indiana, drained by Blue river and Flat Rock creek; area, 410 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,626. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. It is intersected by the Columbus branch of the Jeffer-sonville, Madison, and Indianapolis railroad, and by the Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Indianapolis railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 667,007 bushels of wheat, 1,333,421 of Indian corn, 69,236 of oats, 58,359 of potatoes, 11,038 tons of hay, 63,227 lbs. of wool, 389,552 of butter, 21,576 of maple sugar, and 16,989 gallons of sorghum and 20,359 of maple molasses. There were 7,799 horses, 5,123 milch cows, 10,994 other cattle, 15,921 sheep, and 40,552 swine; 10 manufactories of bricks, 15 of carriages and wagons, 5 of saddlery and harness, 5 flour mills, 15 saw mills, and 3 woollen mills. Capital, Rushville.
A W. Central County Of Kansas, intersected by Walnut creek, an affluent of the Arkansas, and watered by other streams; area, 900 sq. m. It is not included in the census of 1870. The surface consists chiefly of undulating prairies, and the soil is productive.
Benjamin, an American physician, born in Byberry township, near Philadelphia, Dec. 24, 1745, died in Philadelphia, April 19, 1813. He graduated at Princeton college in 1760, studied medicine, chiefly at Edinburgh, and was elected professor of chemistry in the medical college of Philadelphia. In the provincial conference of Pennsylvania he was chairman of the committee which reported that it had become expedient for congress to declare independence. When congress had decided on taking that step, five members from Pennsylvania withdrew, whereupon Rush and four others were elected to fill their places; and he was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. The same year (1776) he married Julia, daughter of Richard Stockton of New Jersey, also one of the signers. In April, 1777, he was made surgeon general of the army for the middle department, and in July physician general. He wrote four letters to the people of Pennsylvania on their constitution of 1776, which he censured, and which was soon superseded by a new form of government. In February, 1778, he resigned his post as physician general, on account of the wrongs done to the soldiers in regard to the hospital stores. In the latter part of his life he was a professor in the Philadelphia medical college.
In 1793, during the ravages of the yellow fever, he rendered extraordinary services. His bold and original practice, however, made him enemies, and a paper edited by William Cobbett, called "Peter Porcupine's Gazette," was so violent in its attacks that it was prosecuted, and a jury rendered a verdict of $5,000 damages. From 1799 till his death he was treasurer of the United States mint. He published "Medical Inquiries and Observations" (5 vols. 8vo, 1789-'98; 3d ed., 4 vols., 1809); "Essays, Literary, Moral, and Philosophical" (1798; 2d ed., 1806); "Sixteen Introductory Lectures," etc. (1811); "Diseases of the Mind" (1812; 5th ed., 1835); and editions of Sydenham's and other medical works. His "Medical Tracts," containing a variety of essays upon health, temperance, exercise, etc., appeared in a separate volume at an early period of his life. In 1791 he wrote an able defence of the use of the Bible as a school book. He was one of the founders of Dickinson college, and was president of the society for the abolition of slavery, and for some time of the Philadelphia medical society, and was vice president of the Philadelphia Bible society, and of the American philosophical society.
Richard, an American statesman, son of the preceding, born in Philadelphia, Aug. 29, 1780, died there, July 30, 1859. He graduated at Princeton college in 1797, studied law, and was appointed attorney general of Pennsylvania in 1811, and soon after comptroller of the United States treasury. From 1814 to 1817 he was attorney general of the United States. In 1817 he was temporary secretary of state, and was then appointed minister to England, where he remained till 1825, negotiating several important treaties, especially that of 1818 with Lord Castlereagh respecting the fisheries, the N. W. boundary line, conflicting claims beyond the Rocky mountains, and the slaves of American citizens carried off in British ships contrary to the treaty of Ghent. In 1825 President Adams made him secretary of the treasury. In 1828 he was a candidate for the vice presidency on the same ticket with President Adams and received the same number of electoral votes. In 1829 he negotiated in Holland a loan for the corporations of Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria. In 1836 President Jackson appointed him commissioner to obtain the Smithsonian legacy (see Smithson, James), then in the English court of chancery; and in August, 1838, he returned with the entire amount.
In 1847 President Polk appointed him minister to France, and in 1848 he was the first of the foreign ministers at the French court to recognize the new republic, in advance of instructions from his government. At the close of President Polk's term he asked to be recalled, and spent the rest of his life in retirement. In 1815 he compiled an edition of the laws of the United States; in 1833 he published "Memoranda of a Residence at the Court of St. James," and in 1845 a second volume of the same work, "comprising Incidents, Official and Personal, from 1819 to 1825; among the former, Negotiations on the Oregon Territory" (3d ed., under the title "The Court of London from 1819 to 1825," with notes by the author's nephew, London and Philadelphia, 1873). In 1857 he published " Washington in Domestic Life." His sons published in 1860 a volume of his "Occasional Productions, Political, Diplomatic, and Miscellaneous, including a Glance at the Court and Government of Louis Philippe and the French Revolution of 1848".