Rutland, a W. county of Vermont, bordering on New York, from which it is separated partly by Lake Champlain, and drained by Black, White, Quechee, and Paulet rivers, and Otter creek; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 40,651. It has an elevated surface, in some parts mountainous, and a fertile soil. Iron ore abounds, and a range of marble quarries extends along its whole length. The marble as well as the iron is excellent. It is intersected by several railroads, centring in Rutland. The chief productions in 1870 were 23,191 bushels of wheat, 180,780 of Indian corn, 246,092 of oats, 22,127 of buckwheat, 617,094 of potatoes, 110,624 tons of hay, 425,-216 lbs. of wool, 1,190,645 of butter, 1,369,-844 of cheese, 522,177 of maple sugar, and 25,504 of honey. There were 5,623 horses, 19,594 milch cows, 1,227 working oxen, 12,208 other cattle, 83,870 sheep, and 4,566 swine; 6 manufactories of agricultural implements, 2 of boats, 3 of boots and shoes, 19 of carriages and wagons, 8 of cheese, 11 of men's clothing, 13 of furniture, 2 of forged and rolled iron, 4 of castings, 14 of leather, 4 of machinery, 13 of marble and stone work, 6 of tombstones, 1 of lead and zinc, 1 of slate pencils, 28 of roofing materials, 1 of scales, 15 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 2 of woollen and 1 of worsted goods, 38 saw mills, and 14 flour mills.
Rutland, a town and village, county seat of Rutland co., Vermont, on Otter creek, at the junction of the Rutland, the Harlem Extension, the Rutland and Washington, and the Rensse-1aer and Saratoga railroads, 50 m. S. S. W. of Montpelier; pop. of the town in 1850, 3,715; in 1860, 7,577; in 1870, 9,834, of whom 2,963 were foreigners. The village (pop.»in 1875, about 9,000) is built in the valley of the creek near the centre of the town, and is the second place in importance in the state. It is pleasantly situated between two lines of hills, the Green mountain range on the east and the Taconic range on the west. The Clarendon springs are 6 m. distant, and there are several prominent peaks in the vicinity. The village is laid out at right angles. The business blocks are of brick and marble; the residences principally of wood. The public buildings (of brick) are the post office and United States court house, the county court house, and the town hall. There are three large brick hotels; three national banks, with an aggregate capital of $1,000,000; a savings bank, with about $700,000 deposits; two daily and weekly newspapers, one of which, the "Herald," was established in 1794; and ten churches.
The town is divided into 18 school districts, including the graded district in the village, having 25 school buildings, with 60 teachers and 2,300 pupils. There are several private schools, including the Rutland military institute, with 100 students. There are no large manufactories. The production of marble is the chief industry, employing about 1,500 men. The annual yield is about 400,000 cubic feet. The quarries, first opened about 1840, are the largest and most valuable in the state, furnishing large and sound blocks of white marble quite as fine as the statuary marble of Carrara. Beautiful specimens of variegated and brecciated marble are also found. - The town was chartered in 1761 and settled in 1770. A centennial celebration was held in October, 1870. It was one of the capitals of the state from 1784 to 1804. The village was incorporated in 1847.