Sallust (Caius Sallustius Crispus), a Roman historian, born at Amiternum, in the country of the Sabines, in 86 B. C, died in 34. He belonged to a plebeian family, and about the age of 27 obtained the quaestorship. In politics he allied himself with the faction of Caesar, was a tribune of the people in 52, and in 50 was expelled from the senate by the censors Appius Claudius and Piso on the ground of adultery with Fausta, the daughter of Sulla, but in reality, probably, on account of his opposition to the aristocratic party. In 47 he was praetor, and in 46 he accompanied Caesar in his expedition to Africa. He was appointed governor of Numidia, and, after acquiring an immense fortune by plundering the inhabitants, devoted the remainder of his life to literary pursuits and the embellishment of his splendid gardens on the Quirinal hill. Dion Cassius and other authors ascribe to him almost every species of profligacy and crime. He wrote Bellum Catilinarium, a history of the conspiracy of Catiline; Bellum Jugurthi-num, a history of the war against Jugurtha; and Historiarum Libri V., comprising the period between 78 B. C., the year of Sulla's death, and 66, and forming, with the other two works, a connected history of Roman affairs for 45 years. The last exists only in a few fragments.
Of the numerous editions of the "Jugurthine War" and the "Conspiracy of Catiline," the first is that of Venice (fol., 1470), and one of the best that of' Gerlach (3 vols. 4to, Basel, 1823-'31), the latter containing, in addition, the fragments of the lost books. There are numerous translations of Sallust into English, the oldest by Barclay (1511), and recent ones by Watson (1852), by Dr. Giles (1862), and by J. R. Mongan (1864).