I. A Duchy And Crownland Of Austria

A Duchy And Crownland Of Austria, bordering on Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Bavaria; area, 2,767 sq. m.; pop. at the end of 1869, 153,159. It is almost entirely surrounded by Alpine mountains. The Noric Alps extend through the country under various names, and the Gross-Glockner, their highest peak (12,776 ft.), is on the southern border, on the confines of Carinthia and Tyrol. The principal river is the Salzach, an affluent of the Inn, which rises in the S. W. corner, flows E. by N. to the centre of the duchy, and then N. N. W. to the Bavarian frontier. Among other rivers are the Enns and the Mur. The Zeller lake is the largest of the numerous Alpine lakes. The Krimler Ache waterfall is the most imposing in Austria. The principal mineral springs are at Gastein. Hallein, on the Salzach, is noted for its production of salt. The climate is generally cold, but not unhealthful, although there are many cretins in the high mountain region. Salt, copper, iron, lead, and arsenic abound, but the production of precious metals has fallen off. Cattle and horses are plentiful. Hosiery is the principal article of manufacture. - The country formed a part of the Roman province of Noricum, and after the fall of the empire rapidly recovered from the invasion of the barbarians.

The duchy owes its origin to a bishopric founded in the 6th century by the Bavarian duke Theodo, with St. Rupert as first incumbent. Considerably enlarged, it was raised in 798 to an archiepiscopal see. The archbishop Gebhard became in 1088 legate for all Germany. His successors were perpetually involved in hostilities with the emperors and other princes and their own subjects. In 1498 Archbishop Leonard II. expelled the Jews and all his enemies among the nobles. In 1731-'2 all the Protestants, numbering about 30,000, were expelled by Archbishop Leopold Anthony for refusing to abjure their faith. Most of them found a hospitable refuge in East Prussia, offered to them by Frederick William I. Previous to its secularization in 1802, the see had a population of nearly 200,000. It was then ceded with other territory to the grand duke Ferdinand of Tuscany, and in 1805 to Austria. By the peace of 1809 it was ceded to Napoleon, who in 1810 gave it to Bavaria. Most of the territory was restored to Austria in 1814. In 1849 it became a separate crown-land, and the first Salzburg diet was held in 1861.

II. A City (Anc. Juvavia Or Juvavum)

A City (Anc. Juvavia Or Juvavum), capital of the duchy, on the Salzach, 156 m. W. by S. of Vienna; pop. in 1870, 20,336. The situation is one of the finest in Europe. On the left bank of the Salzach is the Mönchsberg, and on the right bank the Kapuzinerberg, and the town stands within the narrow defile formed by these hills, the outlying houses in the suburbs being built around rocks. The Salzach is spanned by three bridges. The streets are generally crooked, but there are several large squares and many handsome edifices. The principal churches are the fine cathedral, St. Peter's with Haydn's monument, St. Sebastian's with that of Paracelsus, St. Margaret's, restored in 1864, and the university church; and there are 15 other places of worship, including one for Protestants, opened in 1865. The monument of Mozart, who was born here, adjoins a high fountain on a principal square; and that of the archbishop Sigismond stands near the new gate (Neuthor). The university, founded in 1620, was suppressed early in the present century. An archbishop resides here, and there is a theological faculty and seminary for priests. In 1818 Salzburg was partly destroyed by fire, but was soon rebuilt.

The emperor of Austria and the king of Prussia met here, Aug. 19, 1865, to ratify the convention of Gastein with regard to Schleswig-Holstein and Lau-enburg. In 1874 Roman golden ear rings and other relics, including a marble coffin and a milestone of the time of Septimius Severus, were dug up in the city.