San Bernardino, a S. E. county of California, bounded N. E. by Nevada, and E. by Arizona, from which it is separated by the Colorado river; area, about 16,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,988. About three fourths of the county, comprising the N. and E. portions, consists of dry desert valleys and volcanic mountains. This region has little vegetation, and is interspersed with hot springs and deposits of sulphur and soda. There are some streams that lose themselves in "sinks." Death valley, in which the Amargoza river disappears, is from 100 to 250 ft. below the level of the sea, is destitute of good water, and is extremely hot in summer. Gold and silver are found in the Sierra Nevada mountains in the north. In the S. W. part of the county, here crossed by the Coast range, are extensive valleys having a delightful climate and a fertile soil. The mountains contain an abundance of pine, cedar, hemlock, maple, etc. In this district are found gold, copper, tin, marble, and alabaster, and silver mines are worked successfully. The largest stream is the Santa Ana, which flows into the Pacific. The chief productions in 1870 were 10,356 bushels of wheat, 12,250 of Indian corn, 51,906 of barley, 48,730 gallons of wine, 71,075 lbs. of wool, 21,780 of butter, 7,000 of cheese, and 1,808 tons of hay.
There were 970 horses, 622 milch cows, 2,498 other cattle, 18,121 sheep, and 1,066 swine; 2 manufactories of saddlery and harness, 1 flour mill, and 5 saw mills. - San Bernardino, the capital, is situated in a fine valley, about 60 m. E. of Los Angeles; pop. in 1870, 3,064. The town is supplied with water by artesian wells, and the numerous fruit and ornamental trees give it a very beautiful appearance. The view of Mount San Bernardino, the loftiest peak of the Coast range, is exceedingly grand.