Saragossa (Sp. Zaragoza).
In Aragon A N. E. Province Of Spain, bordering on Navarre, Huesca, Lérida, Tarragona, Teruel, Guadalajara, Soria, and Logroño; area, 6,607 sq. m.; pop. in 1870 (estimated), 401,894. The surface is generally hilly. The valley of Caspe in the southeast is remarkably fertile. The Ebro flows S. E. through the province; other rivers are the Jalon, Gallego, and Jiloca. Lead, copper, tin, and sulphur are found, but few mines are in operation. Wheat, flax, hemp, silk, wine, and oil are produced. Little attention is paid to manufactures. The chief towns, besides the capital, are Tarazona, Ca-latayud, Daroca, Mequinenza, and Caspe.
A City (Anc. Coesarea Augusta), capital of the province, on the right bank of the Ebro, at the junction of the Huerba and nearly opposite the mouth of the Gallego, and on the canal of Aragon, 170 m. N. E. of Madrid; pop. about 65,000. Although one of the most important cities in Spain, it is gloomy and antiquated, with narrow, irregular, and ill-paved streets. The canal and the crossing of two main railway lines have lately given the city an increased activity. There are two cathedrals, several churches, an academy of fine arts, a large hospital, and a university established in 1474. The bridge over the Ebro was built in 1487. - Saragossa was founded by Augustus in 27 B. C, taken by the Goths about 470, by the Moors in 712, and by Alfonso I. of Aragon in 1118. It is famous for the two sieges it sustained in 1808, the first from June 16 to Aug. 14, when the French were repulsed with great loss, and the second from Dec. 20, 1808, to Feb. 21, 1809, when the city surrendered after one of the most desperate defences in history, and was held by the French till July, 1813. During the siege 54,000 persons in the city perished, of whom only 6,000 were killed by the enemy, the rest dying from an epidemic which broke out and which compelled the surrender.