Julius CaeSar, an Italian philologist, born, according to his own account, at Riva, on the lake of Garda, April 23, 1484, died in Agen, France, Oct. 21, 1558. He claimed descent from the Scaligeri (or family della Scala), sovereign princes of Verona from 1260 to 1387, and asserted that he began his classical and medical studies when he was between 30 and 40 years old. This story has been disproved by Scipio Maffei and Tiraboschi. The latter says he was the son of an illuminator of Venice, a native of Padua, named Benedetto Bordone, who assumed the name of Della Scala, and that the son studied at Padua in his youth. In 1525 Scaliger went to Agen as physician to the bishop of that city, and married into a noble family. His extraordinary fame as a scholar drew to Agen crowds of literary men. His vanity, however, was equal to his learning, and one of his first publications was a virulent attack upon Erasmus. He wrote Latin poetry and many commentaries on the classics, and translated Aristotle's "History of Animals" and other Greek works into Latin. His chief productions are: De Causis Linguae Latiuae (4to, Lyons, 1540), the first considerable modern treatise on Latin grammar, and Poetices Libri VII (fol., Lyons, 1561).
Joseph Justus, the 10th son of the preceding, born in Agen, Aug. 4, 1540, died in Leyden, Jan. 21, 1609. He studied Latin at Bordeaux and under his father, and Greek under Turnebus in Paris, and learned the principal oriental and European languages. He embraced the reformed religion in 1562, became tutor in the family of Louis de la Rocheposay, and travelled extensively. In 1578 he was teaching philosophy at Geneva, but soon afterward retired to the residence of his patron near Tours. In 1593 he succeeded Justus Lipsius as professor of belles-lettres at the university of Leyden. He was as vain and arrogant as his father, whom he surpassed in erudition, and his latter years were embittered by a controversy with Scioppius and others on the pretensions of his family, which he had revived. He was never married. His most valuable works were those on chronology, Opus de Emendatione Temporum (fol., Paris, 1583), and Thesaurus Temporum (Geneva, 1609). Two collections of his fragments and conversations were published after his death, under the titles of Scaligerana Prima and Scaligerana Secun-da. A sketch of his life and literary activity has been published by Bernays (Berlin, 1855).