Schenectady, an E. county of New York, traversed by the Mohawk river, the Erie canal, and several railroads; area, 221 sq. in.; pop. in 1875, 24,895. The soil in the valley of the Mohawk is very fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 5,006 bushels of wheat, 53,730 of rye, 103,533 of Indian corn, 233,199 of oats, 43,465 of barley, 67,651 of buckwheat, 322,902 of potatoes, 35,457 tons of hay, 4,700 lbs. of tobacco, 29,393 of wool, 557,770 of butter, and 42,020 of hops. There were 3,816 horses, 6,185 milch cows, 3,769 other cattle, 7,938 sheep, and 3,894 swine. The raising of broom corn and the manufacture of brooms are important industries; in 1870, 17 establishments produced $325,148 worth of brooms and wisp brushes. Capital, Schenectady.
Schenectady, a city and the county seat of Schenectady co., New York, on the S. bank of the Mohawk river, and on both sides of the Erie canal, 17 m. N. W. of Albany; pop. in 1850, 8,921; in 1860, 9,579; in 1870, 11,026; in 1875, 13,171. It communicates with the principal points in the state by means of the New York Central and Hudson River, the Schenectady and Saratoga, the Schenectady and Duanesburgh, and the Schenectady and Troy railroads. It is largely engaged in manufacturing, the principal establishments being numerous broom factories, extensive locomotive works, engine and boiler works, iron works, knitting mills, two manufactories of agricultural implements, one each of shawls, galvanized and corrugated iron, pumps and fire engines, steel springs and iron railing, artificial limbs, stoves, and wheelbarrows, and two planing mills. There are four banking establishments, with an aggregate capital of $400,-000, four principal hotels, three public halls, a union school and several branches, two daily and four weekly (one German)' newspapers, and 17 churches, viz.: African, Baptist, Congregational, Episcopal (2), German Lutheran, Jewish, Methodist (2), Presbyterian (2), Reformed (3), Roman Catholic (2), and Univer-salist. Schenectady is the seat of Union college, one of the oldest institutions of learning in the country.
Its buildings, three in number, are on the heights overlooking the city. (See Union University.) - The town was settled by Arent Van Corlear in 1661, and a fort was built. On Feb. 9, 1690, the Indians and French massacred the inhabitants, sparing only 60 old persons and children; and in 1748 it was again taken and a large number of persons put to death. It was incorporated as a city in 1798.