I. William

William, an English navigator, born at Cropton, Yorkshire, May 3, 1760, died in 1829. He was bred a farmer, and at the age of 29 entered on a seafaring life; and he became an adventurous and successful whaling master, having held command in 30 voyages. He made numerous improvements in whale-fishing apparatus and operations, and invented the observatory attached to the maintopmast, called the "round topgallant crow's nest," which was generally adopted by arctic navigators.

II. William

William, an English arctic explorer and clergyman, son of the preceding, born at Cropton, Oct. 5, 1790, died in Torquay, March 21, 1857. At the age of 10 he ran away to sea in one of his father's ships, and in his 16th year attained the rank of chief mate. He was second officer of the Resolution, commanded by his father, which in 1806 sailed to lat. 81° 30', the northernmost point that had then been reached. After several years spent in study, partly at the university of Edinburgh, he became in 1810 captain of the Resolution. Some communications which he made to Sir Joseph Banks resulted in the series of explorations in the north which have distinguished the present century. He was the first to attempt scientific observations on the electricity of the atmosphere in high northern regions. He explored in the ship Baffin in 1822 the E. coast of Greenland, and after his return devoted himself to study, graduating at Cambridge as bachelor of divinity in 1834, and subsequently received the degree of D. D. After serving as chaplain of the mariners' church in Liverpool, he was appointed in 1839 vicar of Bradford in Yorkshire. Here he labored until his failing health obliged him to retire to Torquay, where he engaged in scientific and philanthropic labors.

He visited the United States in 1847, and shortly before his death made a voyage round the world, reaching home Aug. 14, 1856. He was a member of the royal society. His principal works are: "An Account of the Arctic Regions" (2 vols. 8vo, 1820); "Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery" (1823); "Discourses to Seamen" (1831); "Magneti-cal Observations" (3 parts, 8vo, 1839-'52); "American Factories and their Female Operatives" (1848); "Zoistic Magnetism" (1849); "Sabbaths in the Arctic Regions" (1850); "The Franklin Expedition" (1850); "My Father" (1851); and "Voyage to Australia and round the World for Magnetical Research," edited by Archibald Smith (1859). His life has been written by his nephew, R. E. Scores-by-Jackson (London, 1861).