Scotland, the N. part of the island of Great Britain, and one of the three kingdoms of the British empire in Europe. It consists of a mainland and several groups of islands on the N. and W. coasts, and is bounded N. and E. by the North sea, S. by England, from which it is partly separated by the river Tweed, and the Irish sea, and W. by the Atlantic ocean. The mainland extends from lat. 54° 38' to 58° 40' 30" N., and from Ion. 1° 45' to 6° 15' W. The extreme N. point of the islands is Unst, in the Shetland group, lat. 60° 50', and their most westerly point St. Kilda, in the Hebrides, Ion. 8° 35'. The greatest length of the mainland, from Dunnet Head in the north to the Mull of Galloway in the south, is about 280 m.; and its greatest breadth, from Buchan Ness in the east to Ardnamurchan point in the west, about 170 m. The seacoast is extremely irregular, and so frequently and so deeply indented that its total extent is estimated at 3,000 m. By these indentations the breadth of the mainland is in some places greatly reduced, the distance between Alloa on the E. coast and Dumbarton on the W. coast being only 32 m., and between Loch Broom on the west and the Dornoch frith on the east only 24 m.

On the north are the Orkney and Shetland islands, each group containing a population of about 31,000. On the west are the Hebrides or Western islands, divided into the outer and inner groups, with a total population of about 99,000. (See Hebrides, Orkney Islands, and Shetland Islands.) The island of Stroma lies between the Orkneys and the mainland. On the E. coast are May, Inch-keith, and Inchcolm islands, in the frith of Forth, and Inchcape or Bell Rock, off the frith of Tay. - The mainland of Scotland is geographically divided into two distinct regions, the highlands N. of the Grampian mountains, and the lowlands S. of that range; but there is scarcely any part of the country in which mountain ranges are not visible. There are five principal chains nearly parallel to each other, and having a general direction from N. E. to S. W. 1. The northern highlands commence in detached groups at the southern border of Caithness, and cover a large portion of the counties of Sutherland, Ross, and Inverness. They separate the streams which flow into the Atlantic from those that reach the North sea through the Moray frith.

The principal summits are Ben Attow, 3,998 ft.; Ben Wyvis, 3,420; Ben Dearg, 3,656; Ben More, 3,230; Ben Clibrich, 3,165; and Morven, 2,331. 2. The Grampians, extending from Loch Awe on the Atlantic coast to near Stonehaven and Aberdeen on the coast of the North sea, with their ramifications, form in general the boundary between the highlands and lowlands, with a height of from 2,000 to 4,000 ft. The principal summits are Ben MacDhui, 4,296 ft.; Cairntoul, 4,245; Cairngorm, 4,090; Ben Avon, 3,826; Ben-y-Gloe, 3,690; Schiehallion, 3,564; and Ben Lomond, 3,192. Ben Nevis, N. of the W. extremity of the Grampians, and sometimes reckoned as belonging to them, is 4,406 ft. (according to older measurements 4,370 ft.) high. 3. The Ochil and Sidlaw range is separated from the Grampians by the valley of Strathmore, and consists of three small chains which extend from Forfarshire to Stirlingshire, and form the N. watershed of the basins of the rivers Tay, Forth, and Clyde. The Sidlaw hills extend from the river Dean to Perth on the Tay. Their highest summit, King's Seat, is 1,149 ft. high.

The Ochils, between Stirling and the frith of Tay, attain an elevation of 2,350 ft., and the Campsie Fells in Stirlingshire are 1,500 ft. high. 4. The Lam-mermoor and Pentland range is separated from the third range by the frith of Forth, and forms the S. boundary of the Forth basin. This range consists of the Lammermoor hills between Haddington and Berwick, with an elevation of 1,750 ft.; the Moorfoot hills, a western continuation of the Lammermoors; the Pentland hills in Midlothian, 1,838 ft. high; and lastly Tinto hill in Lanarkshire, 2,308 ft. high. 5. The Cheviot and Lowther range, or the southern highlands, extends from the English border to Loch Ryan, and separates the basins of the Clyde and the Tweed on the north from those of the Solway and the Tyne on the south. The highest summits of this range are Broadlaw, 2,741 ft.; Cheviot peak, 2,677; Hart Fell, 2,638; and Lowther hill, 2,520. The glens or deep and rocky valleys among the Scottish mountains are famous for the wild beauty and grandeur of their scenery.

Chief among them is Glenmore, the "great glen," which extends in a straight line nearly 60 m. from Loch Eil on the W. coast to Beauly frith on the E. It contains three long fochs or lakes, whose aggregate length is 37 m. - The rivers are comprised in nine principal basins, those of the Tweed, the Forth, the Tay, the Dee and Don, the Spey, the Ness and Nairn, the Linnhe, the Clyde, and the Solway. The first six discharge their waters into the North sea, and the remaining three into the Atlantic. The principal rivers are the Tay, Clyde, Forth, Tweed, South Esk, and Dee. They are not navigable by large vessels for any considerable distance above their estuaries, with the exception of the Clyde, which has been rendered navigable to Glasgow by artificial deepening and embankment. The lakes (or lochs, as they are called in the Scottish dialect) are numerous, and are mostly in the glens of the highlands. They are generally of a length altogether dis-proportioned to their breadth, and the scenery around them is celebrated for grandeur and beauty.

The following are some of the most noted, with the number of square miles in the area of each: Lomond, 45; Ness, 30; Awe, 30; Shin, 25; Maree, 24; Tay, 20; Archaig, 18; Shiel, 16; Lochy, 15; Laggan, 12; Mor-rer, 12; Fannich, 10; Ericht, 10; Naver, 9; Earn, 9; Leven, 7; Ken, 6; and Katrine, 5. A still more characteristic feature of the country are the sea lochs, or friths or firths as they are called, deep inlets which indent the coast. The most extensive on the E. coast are the friths of Forth, Tay, Moray, and Dornoch. Between the last two is Cromarty frith, celebrated for its beauty and for its excellence as a harbor of refuge. On the NT. coast is Loch Eriboll, also a good harbor, and on the W. coast the two lochs Broom, Loch Ewe, Loch Torridon, Loch Carron, Loch Alsh, Loch Su-nart, and Loch Linnhe. The frith of Clyde is the largest and most useful of these inlets, of which only a few have been mentioned. - Geologically Scotland is divided into three distinct regions: 1. The southern or older palaeozoic, which includes the region between the southern boundary and a line running E. N. E. from Girvan on the frith of Clyde to the Sic-car point on the E. coast.

It consists chiefly of lower Silurian strata, which have been forced up in various anticlinals and convolutions, and broken through in several places by feldspar porphyries, trap rocks, granite, and syenite. The mountain range called the southern highlands, which crosses the island from St. Abb's Head on the North sea to Loch Ryan, is formed by these strata. These mountains seldom rise above 2,000 ft., and are clothed to the summit by grass or moss. On the English border are the Cheviots, a group consisting of feldspar porphyry and trap rocks. The principal valley of this region is that of the Tweed, which embraces some very fertile land. West of the valley of the Tweed are the vales of the Liddel, Esk, and Annan, the lower portions of which are peat bogs, the site of ancient forests, which have been in great part drained and cultivated. 2. The central or newer palaeozoic region embraces the basins of the friths of Clyde, Forth, and Tay, and has an area of about 5,000 sq. m. It consists of the Devonian or old red sandstone and the carboniferous formations, with the surface extensively covered by trap rocks. The coal measures are largely productive in rich beds of bituminous coal, iron ores, and fire clay.

Much of the coal is cannel, and is largely exported for gas works and domestic consumption in other countries. The boghead cannel is especially famous for producing gas and coal oil. The iron ores are worked on an immense scale, especially the variety known as the black band; and the product of the blast furnaces of this region has long been exported in large quantities to the United States, where it is known by the name of Scotch pig. South of the Forth are the Pentland hills, and north of it the Kilpatrick, Campsie, Ochil, and Sidlaw hills, a range of trap rocks. Among the remarkable isolated trap hills in this district are Arthur's Seat and the Lomond hills, and the rocks on which are built the castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, and Dumbarton. 3. The northern division, or the region of the crystalline and metamorphic rocks, comprises the whole of Scotland N. and W. of the central division, or beyond a line drawn from the frith of Clyde on the S. W. to Stonehaven on the opposite coast. This region has an area of 19,000 sq. m., and comprises the highlands. Its southern boundary is a narrow zone of clay slate, which is extensively quarried for roofing slates.

North of this is an irregular band of mica slate, which begins in the peninsula called the Mull of Cantyre, and extends in a N. E. direction to the E. coast. Beyond this is an extensive formation of gneiss covering about 11,000 sq. m. This is throughout broken by granite, sometimes in small veins and in other places in huge mountain masses, forming some of the highest summits in Scotland. Among the other igneous rocks of this region, the most important is porphyry, which forms the mountains of Glencoe and the summit of Ben Nevis, the highest point of the British islands. Next on the W. coast is the red sandstone formation, with the superposed quartzite and limestone, constituting a series of lofty mountains, of which the principal peaks are about 3,000 ft. high. The N. and E. extremity of the mainland is mostly covered by the old red sandstone or Devonian formation, which spreads N. over the Orkneys and part of Shetland. On the N. E. coast are newer secondary deposits of limited extent, the most important of which are patches of lias and oolite in Aberdeenshire, Elgin, Cromarty, and Sutherland, and greensand and chalk flints in Aberdeenshire. Lias and oölite beds are widely diffused on the W. coast and around the shores of some of the islands.

In the islands of Skye, Mull, and Morven, and in Lorn on the mainland, these beds are covered by trap rock, showing that for a long period this part of Scotland was subject to volcanic action. - The climate is so tempered by the influence of the ocean that, notwithstanding the high northern latitude of the country, the thermometer rarely falls to zero, nor does it often rise above 80° in summer; the mean temperature is 47°. The prevalent winds are from the west, and the record of meteorological observations shows that during more than two thirds of the year the direction of the wind is from N. W. or S. W. In some places among the mountains the annual fall of rain is nearly 100 inches, while in other parts of the country it is only 24 inches. Observations made at 55 stations during 1872 showed the following results: highest temperature in the shade 85.3°, lowest 10°; mean day temperature 52.6°, mean night temperature 41.1°, mean temperature 46.9°; number of rainy days, 217; rainfall, 54.15 inches; mean barometer, 29.698. Easterly winds prevailed 112 days, and westerly 147 days. - The flora of Scotland does not differ materially from that of England, though there are some peculiar plants which grow only in certain restricted localities.

The number of flowering plants and ferns is estimated at 1,200. Among those of a peculiarly Scottish type are the globe flower, crowberry, trientalis Europoea, primula farinosa, haloscias Scoticum, and Mer-tensia maritima. There are 37 species of indigenous land quadrupeds, among them the red, fallow, and roe deer, the hare, rabbit, fox, badger, otter, wild cat, weasel, and hedgehog. Bears and wolves have been exterminated, the last wolf having been killed in 1680. A few specimens of the native wild cattle are preserved in a park belonging to the duke of Hamilton. Of birds about 270 species have been noted, one half of them water' birds, of which great numbers are found on the coast. The golden eagle inhabits the mountains, and the pheasant, ptarmigan, blackcock, grouse, and partridge are abundant. Reptiles are almost unknown. Fish abound in the lakes, rivers, and adjacent seas, and a great variety of shell fish occurs, among which is a mussel found in the rivers containing in some cases tolerably large pearls. - Politically, the kingdom is divided into 33 counties, grouped in eight geographical divisions.

The population of these counties according to the official census returns of 1871, and their shire towns, are given in the following table:

Scotland 1400302

COUNTIES.

Pop. In 1871.

SHIRE TOWNS.

NORTHERN.

Shetland......................................

31,608

Lerwick.

Orkney........................................

31,274

Kirkwall.

Caithness.....................................

39,992

Wick.

Sutherland....................................

24,317

Dornoch.

NORTHWESTERN.

Ross and Cromarty......................

80,955

Dingwall and Cromarty. Inverness.

Inverness......................................

87,531

NORTHEASTERN.

Nairn............................................

10,225

Nairn.

Elgin (or Moray)..........................

43,612

Elgin.

Banff............................................

62,023

Banff.

Aberdeen.....................................

244,603

Aberdeen.

Kincardine...................................

34,630

Stonehaven.

EAST MIDLAND.

Forfar...........................................

237,567

Forfar.

Perth.......................

127,768

Perth.

Fife........................

160,735

Cupar.

Kinross.........................................

7,198

Kinross.

Clackmannan...............................

23,747

Clackmannan.

WEST MIDLAND.

Renfrew........................................

98,218

Stirling.

Ayr..............................................

58,857

Dumbarton.

Argyle..........................................

75,679

Inverary.

Bute..............................................

16,977

Rothesay.

SOUTHWESTERN.

Renfrew.......................................

216,947

Renfrew.

Ayr........................

200,809

Ayr.

Lanark..........................................

765,339

Lanark.

SOUTHEASTERN.

Renfrew........................................

40,695

Linlithgow.

Dumbarton...................................

328,379

Edinburgh.

Argyle..........................................

37,771

Haddington.

Berwick.................................

36,486

Greenlaw.

Peebles.........................................

12,330

Peebles.

Selkirk.....................

14,005

Selkirk.

SOUTHERN.

Roxburgh...................

53,974

Jedburgh.

Dumfries....................

74,808

Dumfries.

Kirkcudbright...............................

41,859

Kirkcudbright.

Wigtown......................................

33,830

Wigtown.

The total area is 30,463 sq. m., of which the islands comprise about 5,000. The population has been steadily increasing for more than a century, chiefly by natural growth. In 1700 the number of inhabitants was estimated at 1,000,000; in 1755, at 1,265,000. The first government census was in 1801, and the result was 1,608,420 inhabitants. By the successive censuses at intervals of 10 years it was found that the population increased in each decade from 10 to 13 per cent. The enumeration of 1811 gave 1,805,864; of 1821, 2,091,521; of 1831, 2,364,386; of 1841, 2,620,184; of 1851, 2,888,742; of 1861, 3,062,294; and of 1871, 3,360,018, of whom 1,603,143 were males and 1,756,875 females; 161,909 lived on the islands. Scotland contains 168 cities and towns, of which 70 are royal and 79 municipal burghs. Edinburgh is the capital and the seat of the chief courts, but Glasgow is the largest city. Besides these the following, arranged in the order of their populousness, had each in 1871 more than 25,000 inhabitants: Dundee, Aberdeen, Greenock, Paisley, Leith, and Perth; and the following more than 10,000 inhabitants: Kilmarnock, Arbroath, Kirkcaldy, Ayr, Coatbridge, Airdrie, Dumfries, Dunfermline, Montrose, Inverness, Stirling, Hamilton, Dumbarton, Hawick, Port Glasgow, and Galashiels-. The kingdom in 1872 contained 887 parishes.

The people are divided into two great and distinct stocks, differing in language, manners, and dress, viz.: the highlanders and the lowland-ers, the former living in the mountainous north and the latter in the south. The highlanders wear a short coat, a vest, and a kilt or filli-beg, a kind of petticoat reaching scarcely to the knees, which are left entirely uncovered, the lower part of the legs being covered with short hose. These garments are usually of tartan, a kind of checkered stuff of various colors. On the head is worn a peculiar covering called a bonnet. Sometimes the plaid, a large piece of tartan, is worn around the body in the manner of the Roman toga. The language of the highlanders is the Erse or Gaelic, a Celtic dialect bearing no analogy to the English. (See Celts, Languages and Literature of the.) Both the peculiar language and the peculiar costume of the highlands are gradually falling into disuse, the people adopting the manners, dress, and dialect of the lowlands. The clans or tribes into which they were formerly divided have also ceased to have any legal existence, and the hereditary chiefs who once governed them with almost absolute sway have no longer any authority.

The highlanders, who at no very remote period were noted for their warlike and predatory habits, have ceased to carry arms about their persons, and are as peaceable and orderly as any other part of the British population. But they are still fond of military life, and enlist in great numbers in the British army, of which they form some of the most distinguished regiments. The peculiar language of the lowland Scots closely resembles the English, though some regard it as a dialect of the Scandinavian. It is mixed with Anglo-Saxon words and idioms, and with a few French terms which have not found their way into English. This dialect prevails not only in the lowlands, but in Caithness, Orkney, and Shetland in the north. The lowlanders, especially those of the towns, do not differ much from the English, and the two nations have been rapidly assimilating during the present century. Among the peasantry, however, many traits are preserved of a character essentially Scotch. They are marked by an athletic, bony frame, broad and high cheek bones, and a hard, weather-beaten countenance. No people have shown a more resolute determination in defence of civil and religious freedom.

Their chief vices are intemperance and un-chastity. In 1872, out of a total of 118,873 births in the kingdom, 10,817 or more than 9 per cent. were illegitimate; and in eight counties, Kincardine, Kinross, Aberdeen, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Elgin, Dumfries, and Banff, the proportion was above 12 per cent. In Banff it was 16.4 per cent. Notwithstanding the smallness of its population, Scotland has produced an array of names eminent in literature and science which scarcely any other nation can boast of surpassing. - The agriculture of Scotland has attained to a high pitch of excellence, and in many parts of the country is conducted with a skill and energy not surpassed anywhere in the world. The climate is in many respects unfavorable to agriculture, its chief defects being the low summer temperature, the lateness of the spring, the occasional prevalence of N. E. winds and fogs, and heavy rain in the latter part of summer, which often causes great damage to the crops, and a cold, wet harvest. Still, the Lothians, the carses of Stirling, Falkirk, and Gowrie, the Mearns, Clydesdale, and Strathearn, large portions of Fifeshire, Strathmore, Annandale, Nithsdale, Kyle, Cunningham, and of the low grounds along the Moray and Cromarty friths, are so well tilled and productive that they bear comparison with the best lands in England. The whole system of cultivation in them is generally very perfect.

The grain is usually sown by the drill, and much of the crop is reaped and all of it threshed by machinery. In the rich and level plains of the Lothians and Stirlingshire, where the climate is comparatively dry, the land is worth more in crop than as pasture, and the following is the common rotation: 1, oats; 2, beans or potatoes; 3, wheat; 4, turnips; 5, wheat or barley; 6, grass. In these districts guano and other light manures are liberally applied to the crops. In the higher and more moist districts a different system prevails; the land lies longer under pasture, the following being the rotation of a six years' course: 1, oats; 2, turnips; 3, oats or barley; 4, 5, and 6, grass. Bearing and feeding of cattle are carried on to a large extent in these districts, as the most profitable way of consuming the grass and green crops. In the mountains, heaths and natural grasses occupy the soil, affording a scanty herbage for sheep or cattle. Much care has been taken and great skill shown in improving the breeds of stock and in distributing them over the most eligible pasture lands. The black-faced highland sheep is kept in the wildest and stormiest mountain region of the north, as best suited to withstand the climate.

The Cheviot breed is little inferior in the same respect, and has been largely introduced into the north. These animals are exposed to great hardships during snow storms, and usually receive no other food than what they find on the hills. In 1871 the total number of acres under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, and grass, was 4,516,090. The number of live stock was as follows: horses used solely for agriculture, 174,434; cattle, 1,070,107; sheep, 6,882,747; pigs, 195,-642. - The mineral wealth of Scotland consists chiefly of coal and iron. In 1870 there were 411 collieries at work in the counties of Lanark, Ayr, Fife, Clackmannan, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, Dumbarton, Renfrew, Dumfries, Peebles, and Perth, the aggregate product of which was 14,934,553 tons of coal. In the same year the iron works, mostly in Lanark and Ayr, produced 1,206,000 tons of pig iron. There were also in 1870 six lead mines in Argyle, Kirkcudbright, Lanark, and Dumfries, which yielded 2,390 tons of lead and 5,680 oz. of silver. Granite is largely quarried and exported from Aberdeen, Peterhead, and the coast of Mull. - The fisheries constitute a very important branch of Scottish industry.

Before the export of salmon to England grew to be considerable, in some parts of the country domestic servants were accustomed to stipulate that they should not be compelled to eat it more than two or three times a week. The fishery is now chiefly in the Tweed, Forth, Tay, Dee, Don, Findhorn, Spey, Ness, and other rivers on the E. coast. The herring fishery has long been important. In 1870 the total product of this fishery was 928,613 bbls., of which 833,160 were cured. In the same year the cod and ling fisheries yielded 227,224 cwt. The herring, cod, and ling fisheries in 1870 employed 14,935 boats, of the aggregate tonnage of 103,946. The whole number of persons engaged in these fisheries was 89,790. The total value of the boats, nets, and lines employed was £953,814. - The linen manufacture was the earliest and once the most important branch of the manufacturing industry of Scotland. Its principal seats are in the counties of Fife, Forfar, and Perth. In 1870 there were 191 factories, with 330,599 spindles, and 17,419 power looms; hands employed, 49,917, of whom 13,555 were males and 36,362 females. In recent years the cotton manufacture has excelled that of linen in extent and value.

It is carried on chiefly in the counties of Lanark and Renfrew, and it all centres in or is dependent upon the city of Glasgow. In 1870 there were 98 cotton factories, with 1,487,871 spindles and 25,903 power looms, employing 30,960 hands, of whom 5,148 were males and 25,812 females. The woollen manufacture, though less considerable than either the linen or the cotton, is more widely diffused, being carried on in 27 of the 33 counties, but most largely in Aberdeen, Ayr, Clackmannan, Dumfries, Lanark, Peebles, Perth, Renfrew, Roxburgh, Selkirk, and Stirling. The cloth made is chiefly coarse. In 1870 there were 218 factories, with 469,-524 spindles and 10,543 power looms, employing 23,000 hands, of whom 8,515 were males and 14,485 females. In the same year there were 28 worsted factories, with 71,556 spindles and 1,201 power looms, employing 5,968 hands, of whom 2,605 were males and 3,363 females. There were also four silk factories in Paisley and Glasgow, with 12,643 spindles and 243 power looms; and 2 hemp, 48 jute, 3 hosiery, and 5 hair factories. Whiskey and ale are manufactured to a large extent. In the year ending in March, 1871, 14,501,983 gallons of spirits were distilled, and 2,435,247 bushels of malt were consumed by brewers.

Edinburgh is the chief seat of the beer manufacture, and Campbeltown in Argyleshire, Glenlivat, and Lochnagar of the distillery business. Other important manufactures are paper, leather, soap, earthenware, glass, hardware, hats, and combs. Ship building is carried on extensively, and large numbers of steamboats, steam engines, and other machinery are made, especially on the Clyde. The principal ship yards are at Aberdeen, Banff, Dundee, Glasgow, Greenock, and Port Glasgow. In 1872 there were built, exclusive of foreign orders, 216 vessels of 145,181 aggregate tonnage, of which 159 were of iron, 53 of wood, and 4 composite; 60 were sailing vessels of 19,414 aggregate tonnage, and 156 steamers of 125,767 tons. Besides these there were built for foreigners 39 vessels of 33,810 tons, all but two of which were steamers. - The shipping of Scotland on Dec. 31, 1872, comprised 2,568 sailing vessels of 689,768 tons burden, and 657 steam vessels of 267,337 tons. The number of sailing vessels entered coastwise in 1872 was 12,881, tonnage 987,304; steam vessels 8,658, tonnage 2,022,801. The number of sailing vessels entered from the colonies in 1872 was 546 (49 foreign), tonnage 369,187; cleared, 623, tonnage 380,113. In the same year 48 steamers, of 45,139 tons, entered from the colonies; cleared 116, of 101,-976 tons.

The number of sailing vessels entered from foreign ports in 1872 was 6,402 (1,685 British), of 1,071,762 tons; cleared for foreign ports, 6,721 (1,866 British), of 678,687 tons. The number of steamers entered from foreign ports the same year was 1,368 (183 foreign), tonnage 684,383; cleared for foreign ports, 1,509 (206 foreign), tonnage 744,139 - Scotland is well supplied with roads, canals, and railways. Her turnpike roads, of which more than 7,000 m. are open, are among the best in the world. The greatest of her canals is the Caledonian, which affords a passage for ships from the North sea to the Atlantic ocean. (See Canal.) Another canal connects the opposite coasts of the island, and extends from Glasgow to Edinburgh in two divisions: the Forth and Clyde canal, finished in 1790, 38 m. long; and the Union canal, finished in 1822, 31 m. long. Paisley canal, from Glasgow through Paisley to Johnstone, is 11 m. long; Monkland canal, between Glasgow and Airdrie, 12 m.; Glenkens canal, from the mouth of the Dee through Loch Ken to Dairy, 26 m. The first railway in Scotland was opened in 1810 between Kilmarnock and Troon, 10 m. On Dec. 31, 1873, 2,612 m. of railway were in operation.

The aggregate authorized capital of all the companies was £76,461,819. During 1873 the passage receipts amounted to £1,963,979; freight receipts, £4,343,809; total, £6,307,788. The total working expenditure for the same year was £2,943,518. Most of the smaller railway lines are leased or worked by the great trunk lines, of which there are five: the Caledonian, which monopolizes half the trade of Scotland, particularly on the E. side, and controls 11 branch roads; the Glasgow and Southwestern, between Carlisle and Glasgow, with several branches; the Great North of Scotland, from Aberdeen to Torres, where it connects with the Highland, and which works four other roads; the Highland, from Perth to Inverness and Golspie, which is extending its line further north, and which works three other roads; and the North British, from Carlisle to Edinburgh via Hawick, which works six other lines and has many branches. The principal ports are connected by lines of steamers with each other and with many ports of the world. - In general government Scotland forms an integral part of the United Kingdom, and stands on the same footing with England except in regard to law and law courts and the form of church government, upon which points express stipulations exist in the articles of union between the two kingdoms.

To the imperial parliament the Scottish nobles elect of their own number 16 peers to represent them in the house of lords. In 1874 Scotland was represented in the house of commons by 60 members, of whom 32 were elected by the counties, 26 by the parliamentary burghs, and 2 by the four universities. The number of electors on the register in the same year was 280,308, of whom 82,807 were county voters, and 187,991 borough electors. At the head of the judiciary in Scotland is the court of session, which is supreme in civil matters, and consists of 13 judges. The court holds two terms annually, during which it sits five days in the week. The court of justiciary, which is supreme in criminal causes, consists of five of the judges of the court of session. The high court of justiciary sits in Edinburgh, but circuit courts are held to the number of four in Glasgow and two in the other circuit districts annually. This court has jurisdiction in all important criminal charges, and the decisions of its high court are without appeal. Its presiding officer is the president of the court of session, who when sitting in this court is termed the lord justice general.

Causes are tried by the verdict of a jury of 15 persons, who are not required to be unanimous, and who, when the case is not clear, can bring in a verdict of "not proven," which leaves the accused liable to be tried again for the same offence should additional evidence be found. The judges of this court when upon circuit possess a civil jurisdiction by way of appeal. The chief local courts are those of the sheriffs, of which there is one in each county, the business of the court being conducted before an officer called the sheriff substitute, acting for a sheriff principal, who has within certain limits a power to revise his proceedings, while there are certain acts both judicial and executive which must be performed by the sheriff principal. The counties have been grouped into districts, and one sheriff principal serves for all the counties in a district. The sheriff's court has no jurisdiction in questions of land rights nor of personal status, as marriage or legitimacy, but in other matters of civil right there is no limit in pecuniary value to the causes that may come before it. The proceedings in the civil department of this court are chiefly conducted in written pleadings. The sheriff has a separate court for the recovery of small debts, in which the procedure is oral and summary.

The magistrates of municipal corporations and justices of the peace appointed by the king have jurisdiction both in civil and criminal matters in a limited sphere. In many particulars the law of Scotland differs from that of England, and bears much affinity in theory and practice to the systems of the continent, especially to the old systems of judicature in France, on which it was modelled. - The public revenue of Scotland for the year ending March 31, 1874, was £7,138,543, and was derived from customs, excise, stamps, land and assessed taxes, property and income tax, and the post office. The assessed taxes comprise duties on inhabited houses, servants, carriages, horses, dogs, game, etc., for the support and relief of the poor. In 1872, out of a total of 117,611 poor persons, 74,752 were classed as paupers and 42,859 as dependants. The whole amount received from poor rates was £888,002, of which £862,171 was expended in relief. In the same year 3,042 criminals, of whom 2,354 were males and 688 females, were committed for trial. Of these 2,259 were convicted, and 744 acquitted. - The established church of Scotland is the Presbyterian, from which there are several seceding bodies, the most important of which are the Free church and the United Presbyterian church.

In 1874 the established church had 16 synods, 84 presbyteries, 1,280 congregations, and about 1,300 ministers; the Free church, 16 synods, 77 presbyteries, 954 congregations, and 957 ministers; and the United Presbyterian, 31 presbyteries and 611 congregations (including those in England). The Independents had 119 ministers; Episcopalians, 6 bishops and about 220 clergy; and Roman Catholics, 3 vicars apostolic and 228 clergy. In 1695 it was enacted "that there be a school founded and a schoolmaster appointed in every parish by advice of the presbyteries; and to this purpose that the heritors do in every congregation meet among themselves and provide a commodious house for a school, and modify a stipend to the schoolmaster, which shall not be under 100 merks (£5 11s. 1 1/3d.), nor above 200 merks (£11 2s. 2 2/3 d.), to be paid yearly at two terms." This was the foundation of a system of common schools, under which the Scottish people in the 18th century became more generally educated than any other in Europe. In 1803 the salary of the schoolmaster was raised so that it should not be less than £16 13s. 4d. per annum. In 1828 it was again raised so that it should not be less than £25 13s. 3 3/8. A further increase was made in 1859, dependent somewhat on the price of oatmeal.

In addition to the salary fixed by law, the teachers receive fees commonly averaging for each pupil not more than 5s. a year. Besides the parish schools there are many schools maintained by the "Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge," and by the established church and other denominations. There are also a large number of private schools. In the cities and larger towns there are grammar or high schools and academies, and there are several normal schools for the training of teachers. In 1873 the number of primary schools inspected by the government inspectors was 2,108, of which 1,379 belonged to the established church, 577 to the Free church, 86 to the Episcopal church, and 66 to the Catholic church. The average number of children in attendance was 225,178, number of certificated teachers 2,657, and number of pupil and assistant teachers 3,623. The income of these schools from government grants was £100,370, from endownments £28,853, from voluntary contributions £66,921, from school pence £115,-706, and from other sources £802; total income, £312,652. The total number of schools under inspection was 2,507, with 241,798 pupils present at annual inspection.

The whole number of children in Scotland from 5 to 13 years of age in 1871 was 629,235, of whom 494,860 wore receiving education. The number of reformatory schools was 12, with 791 boys and 257 girls; the number of industrial schools 27, with 2,493 boys and 992 girls. The higher seats of education in Scotland are the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews, for accounts of which see the articles on those cities. The periodical press of Scotland has long been distinguished for its vigor and ability. The "Edinburgh Review," "Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine," the "North British Review," and "Chambers's Journal" stand in the front rank of that species of literature; and the first two especially attained in the first half of this century a reputation that has no superior of its kind. As a place of publication Edinburgh is the only rival of London in the British empire, and has long been celebrated for its issues of books. - Scotland was known to the Romans by the name of Caledonia, and was inhabited by 21 savage tribes of shepherds and hunters of Celtic race, who were polygamists and idolaters, their religion being druidical, and their habits so disorderly that the Roman writers call them robbers.

They were exceedingly brave and hardy, and their arms were short spears, daggers, and shields. Their habitations were miserable huts, and they disdained the use of clothes. To their Roman invaders they offered a fierce and obstinate opposition. In the reign of Titus (A. D. 79-81) Julius Agricola led a Roman army beyond the friths of Forth and Clyde, penetrated to the frith of Tay, and in 84 defeated the Caledonians under Galgacus, while his fleet explored the coasts, and first made certain that Britain was an island. He was unable to complete the conquest of the country, and finally withdrew his forces behind a wall and chain of forts with which he had connected the friths of Forth and Clyde. Several other attempts were made by the Romans to subdue the north of the island, the most memorable of which was that of the emperor Septimius Severus, who in 209 led an expedition as far as Moray frith, where he made a peace with the Caledonians. But on his withdrawal to the south they rose in insurrection, and a second expedition was preparing to march for their subjugation when the emperor died at York (Eboracum) in 211. During his residence in Britain Severus reconstructed a wall originally built by Hadrian between the Tyne and the Solway; and shortly before the final abandonment of Britain by the Romans in the early part of the 5th century, they repaired this rampart and that between the friths of Clyde and Forth. From this period for several centuries the predominant race of Scotland is known in history as Picts. (See Picts.) Between the two walls in the province of Va-lentia (Northumberland, Dumfriesshire, etc.) dwelt five tribes who had become practically Romanized and civilized, and after the withdrawal of the Romans formed a union and established a kingdom which was called Reg-num Cumbrense, and is also known as the kingdom of Strathclyde. Of this kingdom at the beginning of the 6th century the famous Arthur Pendragon was the sovereign.

In this half fabulous period of Scottish history 38 Pic-tish kings are enumerated, from Drest, who succeeded to the throne in 451, to Brud, who died in 843. The most important event of this period was the arrival in Scotland of the Saxons in 449, and their eventual conquest and settlement of the lowlands, where one of their leaders, Edwin, founded the present capital, Edinburgh (Edwinsburgh). About 503 Scotland was also invaded by the Scots, a Celtic tribe from Ireland, who settled on the W. coast and established a kingdom beginning with the reign of Fergus, one of their chiefs, and continuing under a series of kings, of whom little is known till the accession of Kenneth Macalpin in 836, under whom the Scoto-Irish or Scotch became the dominant race in the country, which now began to be called Scotland. During the reign of Kenneth the Picts disappeared as a people, being according to some authors massacred by the orders of Kenneth, but according to a more probable theory amalgamated with and absorbed by the Scots. The most important event of the Pictish period was the conversion of the natives to Christianity in the 6th century by St. Columba and other missionaries from Ireland. In 86'6, under the reign of Constantine I., the second of the successors of Kenneth, the Danes, led by the vikings, began to invade Scotland. Their incursions for plunder and conquest continued with little intermission, in spite of frequent repulses, till 1014, when, after a series of defeats by King Malcolm II., they gave up the contest.

Meantime the Scottish kingdom was gradually enlarged by the peaceful annexation of Cumberland about 950, by the conquest of Strathclyde about 970, and of Lothian from England in 1018. This last acquisition was owing to the valor and energy of Malcolm II., who after a vigorous reign was succeeded in 1033 by his grandson, the "gracious Duncan" of Shakespeare, who six years later was killed by Macbeth at Bothgowanan, near Elgin. Macbeth himself was defeated and slain in 1056 or 1057, after a vigorous reign, and was succeeded by Malcolm III. in 1057. During his reign England was conquered by the Normans, and Malcolm, who had married the Saxon princess Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling, the heir of the Saxon line, invaded and ravaged the north of England. In retaliation William the Conqueror invaded Scotland in 1072 with so powerful a force that Malcolm submitted without a struggle, and performed homage to William as his feudal superior for, as the English subsequently alleged, his whole kingdom, though the Scotch maintained that the homage was rendered only for the 12 manors which Malcolm held in England. The question was long a source of dissension between the two kingdoms, and led to a war between Malcolm and William Rufus, in which, in 1093, the Scottish king was slain in a battle near Alnwick castle.

Of his successors the most conspicuous were Alexander L, David I., Malcolm IV., William the Lion, Alexander II., and Alexander III., in whose reign, terminating in 1286, Scotland made rapid progress in power and civilization. The reign of William the Lion, which lasted 48 years, from 1165 to 1214, was memorable for his capture by Henry II. of England, and his disgraceful treaty with that monarch in 1174, by which he regained his liberty and surrendered the independence of Scotland, agreeing to become the vassal of Henry and to receive English garrisons in Edinburgh, Stirling, and other important places. This state of dependence continued till the death of Henry in 1189, when his successor, Richard Coeur de Lion, anxious to obtain money for his crusade to the Holy Land, agreed for the sum of 10,000 marks to renounce all claim on the part of the English crown to supremacy over Scotland. William the Lion was succeeded by his son Alexander II., one of the wisest and most vigorous of the Scottish monarchs, whose son Alexander III., dying in 1286, left the crown to an infant granddaughter, Margaret, daughter of Eric, king of Norway. On her voyage from Norway to take possession of the throne, Margaret died in one of the Orkneys. Various competitors for the crown appeared, the principal of whom were John Balliol and Robert Bruce. Edward I. of England offered or was invited to mediate between them, for which purpose a conference was held at Norham in 1291 between the English monarch and the principal nobility and clergy of Scotland. Edward awarded the crown to Balliol, on condition that he should do homage to him as his feudal superior.

He swore allegiance, but when called upon soon after to aid Edward against France, he renounced his allegiance and declared war, upon which Scotland was overrun by a powerful English army, Balliol taken prisoner and sent to the tower of London, and the principal strongholds of the kingdom captured. At this juncture, when nearly all the great nobles had submitted to the conqueror, Sir William Wallace of Ellerslie appeared in arms at the head of a small band of followers, and continued the contest with heroic energy for several years, until he was at length betrayed into the hands of Edward, who caused him to be cruelly executed at London (1305). The struggle was continued by Robert Bruce, grandson of the competitor of Balliol, at first with marked ill fortune, but finally culminating in the great battle of Ban-nockburn, June 24, 1314, where the English under Edward II. were utterly routed and dispersed by a much inferior force of Scots. The war continued 14 years longer, during which England was 12 times invaded and scourged with fire and sword, until, by a treaty ratified in 1328, Edward III. renounced his claim of sovereignty.

Bruce died in 1329. During the century which succeeded the sceptre was swayed by three kings, one of whom, Robert II. (1371-'90), was the son of the steward of Scotland, whence the origin of the name of the royal house of Stuart, of which he was the first sovereign. His successor, Robert III. (1390-1406), devolved the cares of government upon his eldest son, the duke of Rothesay, who quarrelled with his uncle, the duke of Albany, and was starved to death by order of that powerful magnate. The king's second son, James, on his voyage to France in 1405, was captured by the English and carried a prisoner to England, where he was detained for 19 years, during the greater part of which the government of Scotland was administered by Albany as regent. In 1424 the captive prince was released, and returning to Scotland began a brief reign of great energy, devoted mainly to reducing to order the powerful and turbulent nobility. He made many great reforms, instituted the court of session and other tribunals, and introduced law and order in the place of license and turbulence.

He was assassinated in 1437, and was succeeded by his son James II., a boy of six years, during whose minority the kingdom was torn by factions, one of which was headed by the earl of Douglas, whose immense possessions made him the most powerful baron of Scotland. The king on attaining his majority assumed the reins of government with vigor and decision, and effectually humbled the house of Douglas, whose chief he stabbed with his own hand in the castle of Stirling in 1452. The king subsequently took part in the civil wars of England on the side of Henry VI., and was accidentally killed while besieging Roxburgh in 1460. His son James III. was then in his eighth year, and during his minority the country, in spite of the turbulence of the nobles, was comparatively prosperous, while after his accession civil war raged almost constantly between the king and his brother the duke of Albany, who assumed the title of Alexander, king of Scotland, and was supported by the Douglases, by the lord of the Isles, and many other great nobles.

Albany was finally defeated in 1483; but a new rebellion broke out a few years later, the chiefs of which arrayed the king's son, a youth of 16, against his father, and the latter was defeated and slain at Sauchie-burn in 1488. The rebellious son, who succeeded under the title of James IV., maintained a magnificent court, promoted the civilization of the country, and curbed the power of the nobles and of the great highland chiefs, the most considerable of whom, the lord of the Isles, having rebelled, was promptly subdued and stripped of his extensive dominions, which were forfeited to the crown. In 1513 he was imprudently led by French influence, which had long been very great in Scotland, to declare war against Henry VIII. of England, and to invade that kingdom with a powerful army. He was met by the earl of Surrey at Flodden, Sept. 9, and defeated and slain, together with so many chiefs, nobles, and common soldiers, that all Scotland was plunged in mourning; and to this day the defeat is regarded by the Scotch as the greatest disaster in their national annals.

A long series of misfortunes followed during the minority of James V., the son of James IV., whose mother, Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII. of England, was made regent, and speedily became involved in quarrels with the nobles. She had rashly married the earl of Angus, the head of the house of Douglas, and that faction retained possession of the young king's person till in his 17th year he freed himself from their yoke and assumed the reins of government, and, after a struggle in which the Douglases were supported by England, succeeded in driving them into exile. During his reign Protestantism made great progress in Scotland, though severely persecuted by Cardinal Beaton, the Catholic primate. In 1542 James became involved in war with England, and died in the same year of a broken heart caused by the mutinous conduct of the nobles, which had led to a disgraceful defeat of his army at Solway Moss. The crown descended to his only child, a daughter a few days old, the celebrated and unfortunate Mary queen of Scots. (For the history of Scotland during her reign, see Mary Stuart.) Mary was driven into exile in England in 1568, and her absence left her natural brother, the regent Murray, master of the kingdom. Her son James VI. had been crowned king in 1567, while yet an infant.

During his minority, after Murray's assassination in 1570, the earls of Lennox, Mar, and Morton were successively regents, till in 1581 Morton was tried and executed for treason, and the king took the government into his own hands. During all this period the kingdom was distracted by civil war, which had gradually assumed a religious character from the contest between Catholicism and Protestantism for supremacy, in which the Protestants were finally successful, and Presbyteri-anism became the established religion of Scotland. James, by his descent from Margaret Tudor, the mother of James V., was the heir to the English crown on the death of Queen Elizabeth, and accordingly in 1603 he succeeded to the throne of England. This event, which united the two nations under one head, closed the history of Scotland as a separate kingdom, though it was not till 1707 that the countries were legislatively united. During the great civil wars of England in the 17th century Scotland was the scene of many important events, to which reference has been made in the article England. Since the union the most remarkable occurrences in her annals are the two rebellions of 1715 and 1745, the object of which was the restoration of the exiled Stuarts to the throne. - See "History of Scotland during the Reigns of Mary and James VI.," by William Robertson (2 vols. 4to, 1759); P. F. Tytler's "History of Scotland" (9 vols., 1828-'43); and "History of Scotland from Agricola's Invasion to the Revolution of 1688," by John Hill Burton (7 vols., Edinburgh and London, 1867-'70).