The S. E. portion is mountainous, being bordered by the Guadarrama chain, and the remainder in general level. It is watered by the Eresma and several other tributaries of the Douro. Some fine marbles are quarried, besides large quantities of limestone, chalk, and granite. The climate is generally cold, and the soil is very fertile. The vine and other fruits are extensively cultivated. The mountainous region contains important pine forests and rich pastures. The manufactures, once flourishing, are now limited to cloth, glass, paper, and wines and brandies, on a small scale.
A Fortified City, capital of the province, on the Eresma, 43 m. N. W. of Madrid; pop. about 12,000. It stands on a rocky ridge, occupies two hills and a valley, and is surrounded by dilapidated walls with round towers and seven gates. The streets are tortuous and narrow, lined with lofty and generally antique houses. There are a Gothic cathedral, a handsome mint erected in the 15th century, and five old bridges; but Segovia is chiefly famous for its ancient alcázar or Moorish castle, used as the treasury building down to 1730, and since as a school of artillery; and for its magnificent aqueduct, attributed to Trajan, with 160 arches in double tiers, three of which are 100 ft. high. The woollen manufactures, once employing 30,000 hands, are now comparatively insignificant. Wool is the staple article of export. - Segovia was founded before the invasion of the Romans, by whom, as well as by the Goths and Arabs, it was embellished. It was occupied by the French from 1808 to 1814.
The Alcázar of Segovia.