Philippe Henri, marquis de, a French soldier, born Jan. 20, 1724, died in Paris, Oct. 8, 1801. He distinguished himself in various battles in 1746-7, was wounded, and lost an arm; took an active part in the seven years' war, and was finally made prisoner at Closter-camp. In 1763 he was appointed inspector general of infantry, in 1780 minister of war, and in 1783 a marshal. He resigned his office in 1787. During the reign of terror he was imprisoned and lost all his property. Napoleon gave him in 1800 a pension of 4,000 francs.
Count Louis Philippe, a French historian, son of the preceding, born in Paris, Dec. 10, 1753, died there, Aug. 27, 1830. He served under Rochambeau in America in 1782, was appointed ambassador to St. Petersburg in 1784, and was a favorite of Catharine II. He afterward became a brigadier general and ambassador to Berlin, and in 1812 a member of the senate. Under the first restoration he was a peer, but he rejoined the emperor during the hundred days, and in vain sought to share his exile. His complete works (33 vols., 1824-'30) are chiefly historical, but include plays which he wrote for the Russian empress, under the title Théâtre de l'Hermitage (2 vols., 1798), and his Mémoires, ou souvenirs et anecdotes (3 vols., 1824; English translation, Boston, 1825).
Count Philippe Paul De, a French historian, son of the preceding, born in Paris, Nov. 4, 1780, died there, Feb. 25, 1873. He entered the army in 1800, became a favorite of Napoleon, who employed him on confidential missions, and for some time was a prisoner of war in Russia. In 1812 he accompanied the emperor in the Russian campaign as his aide-de-camp; and in 1813 he was instrumental in saving the French army at Hanau. Under the first restoration he accepted a commission from Louis XVIII., but joined Napoleon during the hundred days, and was only nominally restored to his rank in 1818. In 1831 Louis Philippe appointed him lieutenant general and peer. His works include Histoire de Napoléon et de la grande armée pendant l'année 1812 (2 vols., 1824), which involved him in many controversies and in a duel with Gen. Gour-gaud; Histoire de Russie et de Pierre le Grand (1829); and Histoire de Charles VIII. (2 vols., 1834; 2d ed., 1842; English translation, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1842), a continuation of his father's Histoire de France.