Marcus AnnaeUs, a Roman rhetorician, born in Corduba (Cordova), Spain, about 61 B. C, died in Italy probably about A. D. 35. He was a member of the equestrian order, and appears to have spent part of his early life in Rome, but afterward returned to Spain, and there married. It is said that he compiled at the request of his children the brilliant and famous sayings which he himself had heard from the rhetoricians of his time. This work was entitled Oratorum et Rhetorum Sententiaoe, etc., and consisted of two divisions, one called Controversioe, the other Suasorioe, only fragments of which are extant. See Koerber, Ueber den Rhetor Seneca und die Römische Rhetorik seiner Zeit (Cassel, 1864).
Lucius AnnaeS, a Roman stoic philosopher, son of the preceding, born in Corduba a few years before the Christian era, died in Rome, A. D. 65. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rome, travelled in Greece and Egypt, and became an advocate, and subsequently quaestor. Messalina, the wife of the emperor Claudius, having accused him of adultery with Julia, the emperor's niece, he was banished to Corsica for eight years, during which he wrote one of his best treatises, the Consolatio ad Helviam, addressed to his mother, and the Consolatio ad Polybium, to a powerful freedman of Claudius. The authenticity of the latter has been doubted. In A. D. 49, through the influence of Agrippina, who after the death of Messalina had married her uncle Claudius, Seneca was recalled, and was made praetor. Subsequently, with Afranius Bur-rhus, he became tutor to the young Domi-tius, the future emperor Nero. After Claudius had been poisoned by his wife, Nero ascended the throne, and Burrhus and Seneca placed themselves in opposition to the pretensions of Agrippina. Not long afterward Nero put his mother to death for her opposition to Pop-paea, fled to Naples, and sent to the senate a letter written by Seneca, in which he charged Agrippina with a conspiracy against himself, and with having committed suicide in consequence of its failure.
In 63 Burrhus died, and Seneca, conscious that the emperor coveted his wealth, offered to surrender his property and retire. This the emperor refused, and from this period, says Tacitus, Seneca "kept no more levees, declined the usual civilities which had been paid to him, and under pretence of indisposition avoided appearing in public." It is said that Nero tried to poison him, and soon afterward he was accused of complicity in the conspiracy of Piso, and ordered to commit suicide. Without showing any sign of alarm, Seneca had the veins of his arms opened; but as he was thin from age and meagre diet, the] blood flowed slowly, and the veins in his legs were also opened. As he suffered excessively, a dose of hemlock was given, but without producing any effect. He was then placed in a warm bath and afterward taken into a vapor stove and suffocated. His wife, Paulina, caused her own veins to be opened, but by order of Nero they were tied up by her attendants, and she lived a few years longer. Besides the two treatises already mentioned, Seneca wrote Be Ira; Be Consolatione ad Marciam; Be Providentia; Be Animi Tranquillitate; Be Con-stantia Sapientis; Be Clementia ad Neronem Coesarem; Be Brevitate Vitoe ad Paulinum; Be Vita Beata ad Gallionem, to which is sometimes added Be Otio aut Secessu Sapientis; Be Beneficiis; 124 Epistoloe ad Lucilium, containing moral maxims and observations; Apocolo-cyntosis, a satire on the emperor Claudius; and Quoestionum Naturalium Libri VII. Several other works by Seneca are now lost.
Ten tragedies are attributed to him, but their authenticity has been denied: Hercules Furens, Thyestes, Thebais or Phoenissoe, Hippolytus or Phaedra, Oedipus, Troades or Hecuba, Medea, Agamemnon, Hercules Oeteus, and Octavia. The character and the works of Seneca have been the subject of much controversy. Though a stoic philosopher, he was charged by a contemporary with having amassed an immense fortune by extortion. He was no believer in the superstitions of his country, and has been called an atheist; but his religion appears to have been pure deism. On the other hand, it has been asserted that he was a Christian, and was acquainted with St. Paul; and 14 spurious letters purporting to be written by him to that apostle were printed in the old editions of his works. The editio princeps of Seneca is that of Naples (fol., 1475). Of the numerous later editions, that of Schröder (4to, Delft, 1728), the Bipont edition (Strasburg, 1809), and that of F. H. Bothe (2 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1819) are valuable.
There have been several translations into English.
Senecas, one of the five Iroquois nations in New York, W. of Sodus bay, Seneca lake, and Elmira. They called themselves Tsonnunda-waono, but received from the Dutch the name of Sinnekaas, which in time became Senecas. They were the hereditary doorkeepers of the cabin, and had eight sachemships, belonging to the Turtle, Snipe, Hawk, Bear, and Wolf families. When first known to the French they were bounded W. by the Attiwandaronk or Neuters on the Niagara, and the Erike S. of Lake Erie. By conquest the Scannonaenrat, a nation of the Hurons, most of the Neuters, the Eries, and the Andastes or Susquehannas were successively incorporated with them. Chau-monot began a mission among them in 1657, followed by Fremin in 1668. They permitted La Salle to put up a block house at Niagara; they were afterward hostile, but were won over by Joncaire, and in 1712 permitted the French to build a fort at Niagara. When Pontiac formed his general league of tribes against the English, the Senecas alone of the Six Nations joined him, destroying Venango, attacking Fort Niagara, and cutting off an army train near Devil's Hole in 1763. In the revolution they sided with the English. Gen. Sullivan invaded their country, and, after defeating the allied tribes at Newtown, destroyed several towns, and ravaged the whole canton in 1779. They made peace at Fort Stanwix in 1784. Much of their lands were soon after ceded or yielded to speculators, including the preemption right of what they still retained.
In 1812, though earnestly solicited by their countrymen of the Six Nations in Canada, they formally declared against the English and rendered service to the American armies on the frontier. A part of the tribe settled at Sandusky and Stony Creek, Ohio, joined the hostile tribes in the west, but made peace at Spring Valley in September, 1815. This band ceded all but a reservation with the Shawnees in 1818, and in 1831 sold that and removed to the Indian territory on the Neosho. The Senecas in New York still occupy the Alleghany, Cattaraugus, and Tona-wanda reservations (66,000 acres), but white settlers have encroached so that there are thriving towns there. The Senecas in New York in 1870 numbered 3,060; those in the Indian territory 206. Protestant missions were begun among the Senecas in New York in 1805, and the society of Friends has done much to aid and protect them. Their most illustrious men have been the great orator Red Jacket (see Red Jacket) and Cornplanter. Portions of Scripture have been printed in the Seneca language, and a grammar and dictionary were prepared by the late Rev. Ashur Wright.