Shawnee, a N. E. county of Kansas, intersected by the Kansas river; area, 546 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,121. It is traversed by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé, and the Kansas Pacific railroads. The surface is undulating or level, and the soil fertile. Coal and limestone abound. The chief productions in 1870 were 46,726 bushels of wheat, 602,475 of Indian corn, 60,853 of oats, 84,656 of potatoes, 238,005 lbs. of butter, and 19,122 tons of hay. There were 3,461 horses, 3,562 milch cows, 6,556 other cattle, 1,832 sheep, and 4,904 swine; 1 bookbindery, 2 flour mills, 2 saw mills, 3 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 4 of furniture, 1 of machinery, and 7 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware. Capital, Topeka, which is also the capital of the state.
Shawnees, an erratic tribe of the Algonquin family. A tradition of recent origin makes them primarily one with the Kickapoo nation; but they moved eastward, and a part are said to have remained in 1648 along the Fox river, while the main body, met south of Lake Erie by the Iroquois, were driven to the banks of the Cumberland. Some passed thence into Carolina, and others into Florida. Toward the close of the 17th century one band went north, and was among the tribes occupying Pennsylvania when it was granted to Penn, who made treaties with them in 1682 and 1701. In 1693 and in 1722 they made treaties at Albany with the Iroquois of New York and Virginia. The portion in Florida maintained friendly relations with the Spaniards for a time, but finally joined the English in Carolina, and were known as Savannahs or Ye-massees. After their war they retired to the Creeks, and finally joined the northern Shaw-nees. The Iroquois claimed sovereignty over the Shawnees, and drove them to the west. In 1731, rejecting the English missionaries, they negotiated with the French, and gave early aid to them in the final struggle; but in 1758 they were won over by Post, and by the appearance of Gen. Forbes. After the fall of Canada they joined Pontiac, and were active in hostilities till subdued by Bouquet. In 1774, enraged at Cresap's attack, they roused most of the western tribes, and in October defeated the Virginians at Pleasant Point, but made peace the next year.
In 1779 Col. Bowman marched against the Shawnee towns, but was twice defeated. They joined in the peace of 1786, but, under English influence, took part in the Miami war, in the campaigns against Harmar and St. Clair, till they were finally reduced by Gen. Wayne, and they submitted under the treaty of Greenville (1795). The main party were at this time on the Scioto; but some had crossed into Missouri, where the Spaniards gave them land. Another band moved south. In the war of 1812 some of the bands were won by the English. Urged by Tecumseh and his brother the prophet, they endeavored to unite all the Indians of the west against the Americans, but those in Ohio remained faithful. The Missouri band ceded their lands to the government in 1825, and the Ohio band in 1831. In 1854 the band of Shawnees proper, in that part of the Indian territory now included in Kansas, numbered 900 on a reservation of 1,600,000 acres; but by treaty the tribal relation was ended and the lands were divided in severalty. Besides these, there were in 1872 90 in the Quapaw agency, and 663 in the Sac and Fox agency.
The Methodists, Baptists, and Friends have all labored among this tribe.