Shenandoah, a river of Virginia, the principal tributary of the Potomac. The main river, or South fork, rises in Augusta and Rockingham cos. in three streams which unite near Port Republic, Rockingham co., flows N. E. through the valley of Virginia, W. of and nearly parallel with the Blue Ridge, receives the North fork at Front Royal, Warren co., and falls into the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, W. Va. Its length from Port Republic is about 170 m., and it is navigated by small boats, called gondolas, for more than 100 m. above Front Royal. It passes through the richest portion of Virginia, and affords immense water power. The valley of the Shenandoah was very conspicuous in the military operations of the civil war.

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Shenandoah, a N. county of Virginia, intersected by the North fork of the Shenandoah river; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,936, of whom 676 were colored. The surface is hilly and the soil generally fertile. Iron ore, lead, copper, coal, and limestone are found. It is traversed by the Winchester, Potomac, and Harrisonburg division of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 239,045 bushels of wheat, 19,860 of rye, 154,313 of Indian corn, 81,023 of oats, 8,329 tons of hay, 18,757 lbs. of wool, and 165,338 of butter. There were 3,466 horses, 9,946 cattle, 6,645 sheep, and 9,364 swine; 1 manufactory of bar and 1 of pig iron, 7 of stone and earthenware, 10 flour mills, and 3 saw mills. Capital, Woodstock.