Sherman, a city and the county seat of Grayson co., Texas, situated in a plain, 12 m. S. of Red river, 240 m. N. N. E. of Austin, and by rail 378 m. N. by W. of Galveston and 632 m. S. W. of St. Louis; pop. in 1870, 1,439, of whom 490 were colored; in 1875, estimated by local authorities at 7,000. It is at the junction of the Houston and Texas Central railroad with the Transcontinental branch of the Texas and Pacific railroad, is regularly laid out, and has many substantial brick buildings, some of them with iron and stone fronts. A court house of brick and stone, to cost about $80,000, is in course of construction (1875). Sherman supplies several counties with merchandise, and ships large quantities of cotton, hides, etc. It contains an iron foundery, five flouring mills, a cracker factory, a tobacco factory, a soap factory, two banks, ten schools, three newspapers (one daily), and eight churches.
William Tecumseh, an American soldier, born at Lancaster, Ohio, Feb. 8, 1820. He graduated at West Point in 1840, served in the Florida war in 1840-'42, and was at various military posts in the south till 1847, when he went to California, and was acting assistant adjutant general there till 1850. He was on commissary duty at St. Louis in 1850-'52, and at New Orleans till Sept. 6, 1853, when he resigned. From 1853 to 1857 he was a banker in San Francisco and New York, and in 1858-9 he practised law in Leavenworth, Kansas. He was superintendent of the Louisiana military school at Alexandria from 1859 to January, 1861, when he went to St. Louis. On May 14, 1861, he was reappointed in the army with the rank of colonel, and on the 17th was made brigadier general of volunteers; and he commanded a brigade in the first battle of Bull Run (July 21). In October he was appointed to the command of the department of the Cumberland, but afterward took charge of a camp of instruction at St. Louis till February, 1862, when he was placed in command of the district of Paducah, Ky. He commanded' a division in the Tennessee and Mississippi campaign, was in the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 7, where he was wounded, was in the advance upon and siege of Corinth, April 15 to May 30, and was made major general of volunteers May 1. He commanded the hastily organized expedition which attempted to capture Vicks-burg, Dec. 27-29. In 1863, in command of the 15th army corps, he led the expedition which carried Arkansas Post by assault, Jan. 11, and till July 3 was actively engaged in the siege of Vicksburg. He was made brigadier general in the regular army, his commission dating from July 4, and during the summer and autumn was engaged in various operations in Mississippi and Tennessee. He commanded the left wing of the army at Chattanooga, Nov. 23-25, and at the beginning of December compelled Gen. Longstreet to raise the siege of Knox-ville. In February, 1864, with 20,000 men, he marched to Meridian, Miss., and broke up the railroads centring there.
He held the command of the department and army of the Tennessee till March 12, when he took that of the military division of the Mississippi, composed of the departments of Ohio, Cumberland, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Having organized at Nashville an army of 100,000 men, he invaded Georgia, engaging the confederate forces under Gen. J. E. Johnston, whom he forced to evacuate Dalton (May 12), a Resaca (15), Cassville (19), Dallas (25-28), and afterward almost daily till the protracted operations about Kenesaw mountain, near Marietta (June 20-July 2), which involved a severe repulse (June 27). He occupied Marietta on July 3, and after several other engagements repeatedly defeated Gen. Hood, Johnston's successor in command, before Atlanta, the severest battle being fought on July 22, and began the siege of that city. On Aug. 12 he was made a major general in the regular army. The battle of Jonesboro was fought Aug. 31. In the night of Sept. 1 Atlanta was evacuated by Hood, and Gen. Sherman occupied the city till the middle of November, when he began his famous march to the sea. He reached Savannah Dec. 13, stormed and captured Fort McAllister, and on the 21st received the surrender of the city.
With the Savannah river as his base he marched into the Carolinas, and occupied Columbia, S. C., on Feb. 17. He captured Cheraw on March 3, and Fayetteville, N. C., on the 12th. On the 16th he fought the battle of Averysboro, and on the 19th, 20th, and 21st that of Bentonville, and on the 23d entered Goldsboro. On April 13 he occupied Raleigh, and on the 26th the confederate army under Gen. J. E. Johnston surrendered at Durham Station, N. C., upon terms which were rejected by the government. Sherman's advance to Richmond and Washington, from April 28 to May 24, ended his southern marches of more than 2,600 m. On June 27 he was appointed to the command of the military division of the Mississippi, comprising the departments of the Ohio, Missouri, and Arkansas, with headquarters at St. Louis. On July 25, 1866, he succeeded Gen. Grant as lieutenant general, and on Aug. 11 took command of the division of the Missouri. In November and December he was employed on a special mission in Mexico. He was made general on the vacation of that grade by President Grant, March 4, 1869. In November, 1871, he obtained leave of absence for a year, during which he travelled in Europe and the East, and was everywhere received with great distinction.
On his return he took up his residence in Washington as commander-in-chief of the army, but in October, 1874, removed his headquarters to St. Louis. He has published "Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, by Himself" (2 vols. 8vo, New York, 1875).
John, an American statesman, brother of the preceding, born at Lancaster, Ohio, May 10, 1823. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, and in 1854 was elected a member of the 34th congress, and was reŽlected to the 35th and 36th congresses. He was the republican candidate for speaker in the 36 th congress, and after a protracted contest failed of election by one or two votes, and was made chairman of the committee of ways and means. In 1860 he was again elected to congress, but in 1861 was chosen a United States senator from Ohio, to which office he was reŽlected in 1867 and in 1873. He has been from his first entry into the senate chairman of the committee on finance.