Shiloh (Heb., rest, peace), a town of ancient Palestine, in the division of Ephraim, on a high mountain N. of Bethel. It was the seat of the ark of the covenant from the last days of Joshua to the time of Eli. An annual "feast of the Lord" was observed at Shiloh, and one of these celebrations was made an opportunity for the remnants of the defeated Benjamites to supply themselves with wives, by lying in ambush in the vineyards and seizing some hundreds of the dancing women. After the carrying off of the ark by the Philistines, at the close of Eli's life, Shiloh sank into total insignificance. Its site is now identified with Seilun, a small place with some Roman remains, 20 m. N. of Jerusalem. - The words in Gen. xlix. 10, which are rendered in the authorized English version "until Shiloh come," and are by Christian theologians referred to Christ as prince of peace, are explained by Jewish writers as meaning "until he (Judah) come to Shiloh," and by Vater, Gesenius, and other critics translated "until rest come".

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Shiloh, a locality, so called from a church situated there, near Pittsburgh Landing, on the Tennessee river, in Hardin co., Tenn., where a battle was fought, April 6, 7, 1862, between the Union forces under Gen. Grant and the confederates under Gens. A. S. Johnston and Beauregard. The battle is sometimes called that of Pittsburgh Landing. After the evacuation of Nashville, the confederate forces in the west were concentrated near Corinth, Miss., while Grant was preparing to move so as to cut off their communications in western Tennessee. On April 1, with about 32,000 men, he reached Pittsburgh Landing, where he was to be joined by Gen. Buell. Johnston, who had about 45,000 men, moved from Corinth and attacked Grant on the morning of the 6th. The attack fell first upon the divisions of W. T. Sherman and Prentiss, both of which were driven back, three regiments of the latter being captured and the whole army forced back almost to the landing. In the afternoon Buell's advance appeared on the opposite bank, and a single division crossed while the battle was going on. Gen. Johnston was mortally wounded, and the command devolved upon Beauregard, who assailed the Union centre and left, on which most of the artillery had been concentrated, and which were also covered by two gunboats.

The attack was repelled, and at night a bombardment was opened, which compelled the confederates to retire a little.

The remainder of Buell's command crossed during the night, raising the Union force to about 45,000. Grant opened the action early on the morning of the 7th, by an artillery fire, before which the confederates fell back. This was followed by a general assault, which was obstinately resisted. The action continued till 4 P. M., when the confederates retreated. The Union loss, as officially reported, was 1,700 killed, 7,495 wounded, and 3,022 prisoners; in all, 12,217. The confederate loss, as reported by Beauregard, was 1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded, and 959 missing; in all, 10,699. (See Corinth).