Shumla,a walled and strongly fortified city of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, 48 m. W. of Varna and 185 m. N. W. of Constantinople; pop. about 20,000, exclusive of the garrison. It lies on the N. slope of the Balkan, about midway between its crest and the lower Danube, in a gorge, enclosed on three sides by mountains. The inhabitants of the higher portion of the town are principally Turks; of the lower, Jews, Armenians, and Greeks. There is trade in grain, wine, silk goods, copper ware, morocco, soap, and candles. - This town, originally called Shumen or Shumna, was burned in 811 by the emperor Nicephorus, and in 1807 it was besieged by Alexis Comnenus. It was taken by the Turks in 1387, and embellished and fortified in 1689 and the 90 years that followed, mainly by the grand vizier Hassan, whose tomb is the most remarkable monument of the city. In all the wars between Turkey and Russia, it has formed the point of concentration of the Turkish army. The Russians attempted unsuccessfully to take it in 1774, in 1810, and in 1828.